Drawing Conventions and Representations

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Construction drawings communicate how something is built by showing specific assemblies and by employing architectural drawing conventions. These conventions are fairly standard throughout the industry and are used to reduce the drawing time and space needed to convey information. For example, in Figure 5-16, a graphic symbol with an arrow drawn on a cabinetry section denotes the exact place the section was cut and the direction of the view taken in the resulting section drawing.

Abbreviations, graphic symbols, keys, and legends are used as shorthand to reduce drawing time while conveying important information. Another convention governs how dimensions are recorded in a drawing. Dimensioning standards ensure that exact sizes and placement of assemblies are communicated by using a system that is recognized by both the designer and the builder.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations for words and short phrases are often used in construction drawings. Commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Appendix, but it should be noted they are not universal. Abbreviations can vary among the different trades, as, for example, QT can mean "quarry tile" or "quart." The architect, engineer, interior designer, drafter, and contractor must all be able to recognize what each abbreviation stands for. The drafter should include a legend of abbreviations (often shown on the title sheet of a set of drawings) to ensure their meaning is understood. See Figure 5-17

® CUT EXISTING. DRYUJALL, CUT WALL FRAMING, AND FRAME OUT FOR NELU OPENING. FINISH TO MATCH ADJACENT SURFACES

© NEW WALL - 5/8" OTP. BP- OVER METAL STUDS a l£>" O.C.

© NELU WALL HUNG LAVATORY - 12"X15\

STAINLESS STEEL. PROVIDE LEVER ACTION FAUCET UJ/FOOT CONTROLS

@ VERIFY EXACT LOCATION AND SIZE OF MODIFIED DUCTING WITH MECHANICAL ENGINEER

© NELU STAINLESS STEEL CABINETRY WITH CORIAN TOP

@ EXISTING CABINETRY RELOCATED FROM LOWER SURGERY SUITE

© NELU SHELF LU/PLAS. LAM FINISH, 4 METAL ROD- VERIFY HEIGHT LUITH OllWER

iKcvee

"LOW WALLS

RECCVEB

Drawing Conventions

Figure 5-14 Notes can be numbered, organized into a block, and cross-referenced to the plan just by placing the number in the drawings.

Figure 5-15 Notes should be placed in positions that do not block dimensions or other parts of the drawings.

ENTERTAINMENT

ENTERTAINMENT

Entertainment Construction Drawings
-2I8(2IS1ÜP8K>1T.PLAIB, 2K4 STIIP5 •XMC&SO el 6" OD IN5UUATEP WAX - FC. flVF. W. EACH9PE

PARTIAL PLAN OF LOUUER FL

Construction Drawing Conventions

PLA5, LAM.

PIA/50NAL Vm PANEL-PIA50NAL ENP PANEL

WALL PASE I3ËY0NP

WALL PASE I3ËY0NP

ELEVATION

ACCOUNTS OFFICE

PLA5, LAM.

PIA/50NAL Vm PANEL-PIA50NAL ENP PANEL

ABBREVIATIONS

A.F.F.

ABOVE FINISHED FLOOR

CONC.

CONCRETE

C.M.U.

CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT

DIA.

DIAMETER

EXT'Ci

EXISTING

FIN.

FINISHED

FL'R

FLOOR

GLS.

GiLASS

G.F.I.C.

GiROUND FAULT INTERRUPT CIRCUIT

<3TP. BD.

GYPSUM BOARD

O.C.

ON CENTER

PLAS. LAM.

PLASTIC LAMINATE

R.

RISER

RAD.

RADIUS

T

TREAD

TTP.

TYPICAL

Figure 5-16 Example of a graphic symbol showing where a cabinet is cut through for a section drawing.

Figure 5-17 To reduce the amount of space needed for notes, many abbreviations are commonly accepted in the design fields.

Figure 5-16 Example of a graphic symbol showing where a cabinet is cut through for a section drawing.

Figure 5-17 To reduce the amount of space needed for notes, many abbreviations are commonly accepted in the design fields.

for an example of abbreviated terms used in a set of construction drawings. See page 231 for an expanded list.

Graphic Symbols

Graphic symbols are used in construction drawings as a pictorial shorthand to reduce drawing time and coordinate separate drawings. For example, symbols can be used on a floor-plan drawing to indicate placement and type of specific equipment such as electrical outlets and wall light switches (Figure 5-18). Although symbols may vary from office to office, there are generally accepted types used by all architectural and interior design firms. Each symbol must communicate clearly specific directives to be followed.

Symbols are divided into several types: material symbols, line symbols, graphic symbols, and component symbols.

Material symbols are used in drawings to represent the construction materials used in a component. Designers should use the symbols most widely accepted in the industry, such as those shown in Figure 5-19, indicating materials cut in section. Symbols are also used to indicate materials in elevation drawings, as illustrated in Figure 5-20. A detailed list of materials and their section symbols is shown in the Appendix.

Line symbols use the graphic look, line weight, and thickness of elements represented in the drawings to communicate information

Convention Construction Drawings

CERAMIC TILE

CUT STONE

BRICK

STUCCO

LINE USE

LINE SYMBOL

LINE LUIDTH

CENTERLINE OBJECT LINE HIDDEN FEATURE BREAK LINE DIMENSION LINE LEADER LINE SECTION OR CUT LINE LAYOUT i GUIDELINES LETTERING BORDER LINES WALLS IN PLAN VIEW

TEXTURES IN PLAN 4 ELEVATION VIEW

THIN

MEDIUM

MEDIUM

THIN

THIN

THIN

THICK

VERT THIN, LIGHT

THICK

THICK

THICK OR POUCHED THIN

GLASS BLOCK

WOOD PANELING

Figure 5-20 Standard techniques can also be used to represent materials seen in elevation views.

Figure 5-21 Line widths and types are used as graphic symbols with specific meanings.

to the viewer. For example, a dashed line can indicate a hidden feature or object. See Figure 5-21 for typical line symbols and their meanings.

Graphic symbols can be used to index related parts of drawings, either on the same sheet or multiple sheets. Letters, numbers, and notes can be placed within the symbol to organize it with other symbols and refer to other sheet numbers. Symbols can also be used to denote a specific height on a floor elevation or structural column designation. These basic symbols are shown in Figure 5-22. See a more complete list of symbols in the Appendix.

Legends

Construction drawing legends combine graphic symbols with notes. They are used on a variety of drawings, such as floor plans, furniture plans, electrical plans, and lighting plans. For example, a wall legend (Figure 5-23) can be used on a floor plan to designate a specific wall construction assembly. An electrical legend is used

SYMBOLS

SECTION SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

-SECTION NUMBER

SECTION SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

-ELEVATION NUMBER

ELEVATION SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

-ELEVATION NUMBER

ELEVATION SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

-DETAIL NUMBER

DETAIL SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

-DETAIL NUMBER

DETAIL SYMBOL

-SHEET DRAWN ON

INDICATES A LEVEL

FINISH FLOOR LEVEL CEILING HEIGHT

DOOR NUMBER OR TYPE

COLUMN REFERENCE

NUMBERS IN ONE DIRECTION LETTERS IN THE OTHER

WINDOW NUMBER OR TYPE

Figure 5-22 This example shows a few of the most commonly recognized architectural symbols.

electrical notes

1. all electrical outlets to be grounded

2. g.c. to provide 3/4" flyujood panel for telephone equip. where indicated

3. lur designs and their architect are not responsible for ant electrical engineering. poujer and communications layout is to show outlet and switch locations only

Figure 5-24 The electrical legend details out the information represented by symbols on the electrical plan.

ELECTRICAL LEGEND

110 volt duplex wall receptacle 110 volt duplex recept. on dedicated circuit duplex recept. w/ ground fault interrupter telephone wall receptacle p) tele/communication outlet a.ff. above finish floor

UJÀLL LEGEND

Figure 5-23 A wall legend is helpful for designating specific wall types in a floor plan drawing.

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Responses

  • serena
    What are construction drawing conventions?
    7 years ago
  • aune
    What are construction drawings conventions?
    7 years ago
  • tom
    What is architectural drawing conventions?
    3 years ago
  • martin
    What is the importance of abbreviations nd graphical symbols in building drwing give example?
    3 years ago
  • alberta piazza
    What are the conventions used for building components in the drawing?
    3 years ago
  • HELEN
    WHAT IS A CONVENTION IN DRAWING?
    3 years ago
  • leonie
    How to do representation of materials of construction on architectural drawings?
    2 years ago
  • aatifa haylom
    How to designate what page & detail to look for in construction drawings?
    10 months ago
  • crystal
    What are the 12 dimension convention to construction drawings?
    9 months ago
  • maxima galbassi
    How to use standard drawing conventions in construction?
    5 months ago
  • adalgisa cattaneo
    Why is convention and natation use in building drawing?
    5 months ago
  • frank
    What are the uses of convention and notation in building drawing?
    5 months ago
  • ville-veik
    Why convention and denotation used building drawimg?
    5 months ago
  • andrea fiedler
    How to draw conventions?
    2 months ago
  • karin
    What is the drawing convention for depicting drywall?
    2 months ago
  • DAWIT
    What are architectural drawing convention?
    2 months ago
  • Annabella
    What is drafting convention?
    1 month ago

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