Lettering

Lettering is used to communicate ideas and to describe elements that cannot be effectively explained with just drawings. In some cases, words are actually a clearer and more economical way to

ELECTRICAL LEGEND

120 volt electrical duplex wall outlet • +12" (unless otherwise notedj - provide gfic at bathrooms, outdoors, garage, kitchen t other wet locations

120 volt electrical duplex outlet (split wired.» -1/2 switched « wall location

120 volt electrical duplex outlet - ground fault interruptor circuit cwp.weatherproof;

light switch (subscript 'd1 is dimmer, '3' is 3-wat, '41 is 4-way; ceiling mounted light fixture wall mounted light fixture exhaust fan/light combination (vent to outdoors; smoke detector/alarm - wired direct w/ battert back-up recessed light fixture in ceiling

partial electrical plan

Figure 3-10 In this illustration, an electrical plan is shown with various electrical symbols, and the legend above describes what each symbol represents.

CONCRETE 4 MASONRY

EARTH 4 STONE

WOOD

CONCRETE CONCRETE BLOCK

ujood framing (continuous) ujood framing (blocking, shim;

FIN ISM LLJOOD PL YUJOOD LAMINATED

METALS

STEEL ALUMINUM

MARBLE

EARTH

SAND OR LIMESTONE

MARBLE

INSULATION

batt cor loose fill in attics)

RIGID SWEATING

MISCELLANEOUS

CARPET

CAULKING

ceramic or quarry tile

GLASS

GYPSUM BOARD

Figure 3-11 Materials that are cut through in section are depicted graphically. An attempt is made to represent the material, but in general it is drawn simplistically, since drawing all the intricate details would be too time-consuming.

communicate. To ensure written words are quickly understood, a universal lettering style is commonly employed by designers and architects (Figure 3-12). This style, based on the Roman alphabet, generally consists of all capital letters for ease of reading. Although most designers employ a universal-looking style, individual styles do develop and are often recognized and associated with the person who uses them. However, stylistic differences must not be so extreme that letters and words become difficult or time-consuming to read. The intent of architectural lettering is to communicate quickly and clearly. Many firms attempt to unify lettering among their personnel by adopting an office standard.

Today, computer software quickly produces lettering in many styles that appear to be hand-lettered or typed (Figure 3-13). Some of these are so realistic it is difficult to tell whether they really are done by hand or by computer. However, this does not mean that there is not a need for a student or designer to learn and produce good hand-lettering. The ability to hand-letter is still much alive and needed. We still need to have effective handwriting when communicating with clients, builders, and many others in the field. A designer's lettering style can also be a kind of professional trademark that distinguishes him or her as a creative individual. Basic Guidelines for Lettering

Good lettering is made by consistency. This includes height of letters, style, and spacing between letters. To maintain consistency in height, hand-lettering is always done using two or more horizontal guidelines. To maintain consistency between lines of lettering, the distance between these lines should be measured with a scale or other device. Then, when the draftsperson gains more proficiency, this distance can be fairly accurately "eyeballed" in. The two lines serve as the upper and lower limits of the letters. A third line can serve as a consistent guide for parts of letters or even lower-case let-

Figure 3-12 In order to make words and letters in drawings quickly and easily understood,

A&^PEP^H^CUMM P-5TUV W XYZ [Z^'P^n&^O a universal style of lettering is

: AEr^D [.:]'*(^-H+tJTK j_, M N^TOKOI 'I ) VWX Y/l used that is usually done in all capital letters.

STYLE

ARCHSTTL.SHX ARIAL BELL MT BERUN SANS FB

BOOK ANTIQUA

CENTURY

CITY PLUEPRIKIf

Copperplate Gothic

COUNTRY PLUEFZINT

ERAS MEDIUM ITC

GILL SANS MT

LUCIDA CONSOLE

ROMANS

STYLUS BT

TAHOMA

TIMES NEW ROMAN VERDANA

SAMPLE

ABCDEFGWIJKLMNOPQRSTUVUJXrZ I2 3 4 5 &1890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXVZ 1234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 APCPËFâHIJKLMNOPORSrUVWXYZ I254567S90 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 234567890 A0GDEFet1IJKLt1NOPQ1?S>TUVW)(yZIZ345é-78?O ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ I 234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ I 234567Ö90 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1 234567890 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890

2B4567890

234567890

Figure 3-13 Lettering on the computer can be done in many styles, even one that simulates hand-lettering.

ters (Figure 3-14). The draftsperson must endeavor to keep the letters within the top and bottom lines, and not let parts of the letters extend beyond these. In most cases, the guidelines are produced with such a light line that they are left in and not erased. In pen-and-ink drawing, these lines might be laid out in nonreproducible blue pencil lines.

Most designers prefer vertical strokes in lettering, although slanted characters are often faster to produce. Letters should be produced with bold strokes, not drawn with a series of sketched and ragged lines. There should be a distinct start and stop to each line stroke within a letter. Shapes and proportions of lettering should be consistent throughout a drawing (Figure 3-15). Close attention

Figure 3-14 Horizontal guidelines can be used for height consistency when lettering. Two or three guidelines can be used, and these lines can remain on the drawing if produced lightly.

.00R PLAN

SsC'iOM VIEW

Figure 3-15 Lettering should be consistent throughout a drawing; the shapes and proportions should be similar.

PROPPED SOFFIT-

EXIST'G UJINDOUU

STAINLESS STEEL GRAB BARS- 1 1/2" DIA.-

FLUSH LEVER ON SIDE OF TANK OPP. WALL'

SCHEDULED BASE-^

should be given to the width of a letter, as well as the proportional spaces between letters. This spacing is very important, as it gives words good visual formation and clarifies their relationship to other words. In general, spacing between letters in a word should be made approximately equal in the beginning of the designer's career. However, this rule can be modified as the designer gains confidence, as proportional spacing can vary a bit, depending on the shapes of the letters.

One shortcut used for lettering by some designers is the aid of a small triangle carried along the parallel bar (or other horizontal device) and quickly brought into play for vertical strokes within a letter. This technique produces a very consistent vertical lettering style, but some designers see it as a crutch. If this technique is used, it should be discontinued once the draftsperson gains the ability and confidence to produce accurate vertical lines.

To effectively learn proper lettering, one should produce words and numbers, not just individual letters. Practice by copying phrases from articles and books, or writing a story. This will give you better skills in forming properly proportioned letters and spaces between them.

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