Flexibility

Organisations are constantly subject to change, caused for example by expansion or contraction. Functions become outdated and are discarded. New functions are added. As time goes by, existing activities Figure 6.4 Example of an efficiently laid out floor plan. The ground floor of the St. Elisabeth Nursing Home, Amersfoort. The clear zoning of common facilities (left) and a nursing department (right) means short walking distances between activities that belong...

Bibliography

Ang, K.I. (1995), Werken met prestatiecontracten bij vastgoedontwikkeling Performance contracts in real estate development . Department of Housing, Regional Development and the Environment Government Buildings Agency and Coordination of Building Policy, The Hague. Barrett, P., C. Stanley (1999), Better construction briefing. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Blyth, A., J. Worthington (2001), Managing the brief for better design. Son Press, London. Bruijn, W.N. de, D. Korfker (1969), Voorbereiding en...

A Physical accessibility

It is usual to distinguish three components of physical accessibility Reachability the ease with which users and visitors can get to the front of the building. Accessibility in the narrow sense the ease with which people and goods can get into the building (Figures 6.2 and 6.3). Usability the ease with which people are able to move through the building and make use of the rooms and services intended for them. It is important to take the variability of human characteristics into account when...

Reachability and parking facilities

Reachability is the ease with which people can get to the building as a whole and to its separate entrances. Internal reachability (of individual rooms and services) is a component of accessibility. The distinction between regular users and occasional visitors (e.g. clients) will often be relevant. A further distinction can be made between reachability by public transport (plane, ship, train, tram, metro or taxi) and by private transport (car, cycle or on foot, perhaps with some aid to mobility...

Authors of the brief

The responsibility for producing a usable brief rests with the client. That does not mean that the client has to prepare the programme himself. Generally, he will call Figure 3.2 Interaction between the programme of requirements and development of the plan. Terms signify functions, not individuals. Source SBR 258, 3rd revised edition, Building Research Foundation, 1996. Figure 3.2 Interaction between the programme of requirements and development of the plan. Terms signify functions, not...

BBasic programme of requirements

The basic brief is a more detailed development of the global programme. It must be sufficiently detailed to provide a basis for a structural design and a provisional design. Precise technical details are not necessary at this stage. The main requirement is for a clear description of the organisation to be housed, e.g. The level of detail required for a particular topic is determined by the extent to which that topic has spatial or architectural implications. Apart from the functional programme,...

Beauty through functionality

The Austrian Adolf Loos (1870-1933) was another architect who found usability an important criterion for architecture, calling for pure architecture and simple forms suited to practical usability. In his Ornament und Verbrechen, written in 1908, he vehemently rejected the use of ornamentation for purely decorative purposes. He viewed decorations as 'tattooed architecture', and thought it impossible for anything impractical to be beautiful. This sounds very much like the words of the philosopher...

Serviceability Tools and Methods STM

In 1993 Gerald Davis and Francoise Szigetti developed a set of 'Serviceability Tools and Methods' at Canada's International Centre for Facilities. The method was devised to improve communication about workspaces and supporting facilities and builds on the ORBIT (Organisations, Buildings and Information Technology) studies carried out by Francklin Becker and co-workers (Becker et al., 1985 Becker and Sims, 1990). An attempt was made to set up a systematic method for evaluating buildings based on...

Deconstructivism

Some postmodernists were unable to feel comfortable with eclecticism and went off in search of a theoretical framework for their designs. Architects like Peter Eisenman and Frank Gehry found their way to the philosophical works of Levi-Strauss, Foucault and Derrida. Architects who appeal to these particular philosophers are often referred to as deconstructivists (Johnson and Wigley, 1988 Wigley, 1993). According to Bolle (1989), deconstructivism rests on two supports one in the history of art,...

Design conjectures and primary generators

In spite of the similarities between the basic design cycle and the widely used problem-solving cycle, there are dissimilarities, too. In the early 1970s, Bryan Lawson examined the problem-solving process in two different groups students of architecture and students of science (Lawson, 1980, cited in Downing, 1994). An experimental design-like problem was used to test whether differences existed. The problem-solving process that worked for students in science was found to be ineffective for...

E Design and build D B

Here a single organisation is responsible for design and execution. The client has a single point of contact (one organisation, a joint venture or a group of different companies) with which he enters into a single agreement covering the entire project and to which he hands over complete responsibility. Unlike the situation with general contracting, the client has less opportunity to intervene. Figure 3.6 Schematic representation of the general contracting process. Source Van de Laarschot, 1998....

E Externally imposed requirements and conditions

This section deals with requirements imposed by spatial planning and other laws and regulations. Examples include a zoning scheme, requirements imposed to protect the appearance of a town, building regulations, fire protection regulations, the Licensing Act, the Hotel and Catering Act, the Food and Drug Act, the Environmental Protection Act, the Occupational Health and Safety Act (Arbo) and by-laws. Box 3.5 Extract from a brief on the subject of acoustics To ensure that speech is satisfactorily...

School Building Assessment Methods

Sanoff et al. (2001) developed a number of methods to assess the quality of school buildings, including a six-factor school building checklist (as a means for a well-structured walking tour), a school building observation form, a school building rating scale and a photo enquiry. The six factors include context, massing, interface, wayfinding, social space and comfort. By using a series of checklist questions and a numerical rating scale, one can assign a score to each factor being assessed. For...

Spatial orientation

In general, people feel happier when the layout of a building is understandable. An understandable layout makes it easier for people to know where they are and how to get where they want to be. In a complex building it is harder to work out one's position and the right way to go. A well-designed building, on the other hand, can make a significant contribution to one's spatial orientation. In his classic work The image of the city, the urban designer Kevin Lynch (1960) developed clear criteria...

Figure Credits

Every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material but the publishers would be glad to hear from any copyright owners of material produced in this book whose copyright has unwittingly been infringed. Photography Authors, photographic service. 2.1. Courtesy of Chicago Historical Soceity 15 2.6. Courtesy of Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts 21 2.7. Courtesy of Richard Bryant 22 2.8. Courtesy of Suzuki, Hisao 23 2.21. Courtesy of Jeff Goldberg Esto 43 2.22. Courtesy of...

Functions of a building

In psychology the term 'function' is defined as 'ability' or 'power'. The dictionary amplifies this definition by adding 'special kind of activity' or 'mode of action'. Various authors have devoted their considerations to the functions of a building. In the 1960s De Bruijn, one of the founders of functional analysis as a discipline at Delft's Faculty of Architecture, distinguished four different functions (Zeeman, 1980) Protective function protection of people and property against harmful...

GTools design guidelines and policy recommendations

Nothing is as practical as a good theory. Knowledge and understanding are essential preconditions for well-considered decisions. Consequently, the results of research into evaluation need to be 'translated' into a form which will be quickly and easily accessible to clients, designers, people responsible for policy and for checking plans and indeed everyone involved in the building process. Results are often presented in forms such as checklists, seals of approval and manuals. Examples which...

Health and physical wellbeing

Boo, H. de (1990), Ziekmakende gebouwen. Sick making buildings . Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology. Burge, P.S., A. Hedge, S. Wilson, J. Harris-Bass, A.S. Robertson (1987), Sick building syndrome. A study of 4373 office workers. Annals Occupational Hygiene 31, 493-504. Clements-Croome, D. (2000), Creating the productive workplace. E& EF Spon, New York. College Bouw Ziekenhuisvoorzieningen (2002), Heilzaam bouwen, Healing environment. Bijlage bij Signaleringsrapport...

HVirtual reality

In addition to the huge variety of response methods to measure perception and use of buildings, there are also a number of methods to present the stimulus, i.e. the building in question, to the respondents directly, on site, or indirectly, by means of drawings, pictures, photos, full-scale mock-ups, small-scale models, computer models and so on. Particularly in ex ante research, the use of virtual reality techniques may be helpful. Of course there is always the question as to what extent...

Interaction between briefing and design

Programming, designing and building are the three main activities involved in the building process. Figure 3.1 is a schematic representation of the place of programming in a traditional building process. To keep the diagram simple it is assumed that the client is also the owner and acts on behalf of the future users of the building. Again, for the sake of simplicity, the diagram also ignores Figure 3.1 Part played by the programme of requirements in the traditional building process. Source...

L Housing approval

Although checklists and seals of approval are important aids to quality assurance and increased professionalism generally, they also face a good deal of opposition. Designers feel that their freedom is being restricted, partly because the multiplicity of rules and guidelines means that they are still not very usable, if only because of occasional inconsistencies, often minor. For this reason, in the Netherlands, a start has been made on harmonising and integrating the large number of rules and...

Light

Environmental variables relating to lighting include the quality of the light (daylight, artificial light, sunlight), the quantity of light (to allow things to be seen properly and to avoid dazzle and excessive contrast between light and dark), the direction of the light and the colour of the light. Besides these stimulus-related characteristics, the properties of the surroundings also affect the way light is perceived the way light is reflected (depending on colour and the material used) and...

List of Tables

Example of a space table for an office building 94 5.1. Sample questions for the evaluation of buildings 143 5.2. Comparison of supply and demand 156 5.3. Example allocation of weighting factors 160 6.1. Conceptual framework for flexibility of buildings in the use phase 180 6.2. Examples of design techniques for incorporating flexibility 182 6.3. Environmental effects on health and well-being 196 6.4. Instruments for measuring building quality 216

Match between supply and demand

In fact, an evaluation compares supply and demand. The demand consists of the wishes, preferences, expectations and goals of those directly involved part is laid down in the programme of requirements, legislation and regulations part is stored in people's heads and hearts and part is hidden in the subconscious. The supply is the building as realised. The comparison checks the extent to which the site and building corresponds to the qualities required. Suppose we want to establish the...

Mid 1970s to 1980s

During this period it seemed likely that the 'design methods movement' would come to an untimely end. There was much criticism of a one-sided emphasis on rational thought. A pioneer like Christopher Alexander, whose pattern language (1977) is still much used to this day, fiercely resisted the labelling of every idea as a methodology (Alexander, 1971). Various authors pointed out that the design process does indeed correspond to some extent with the cycle analysis-synthesis-evaluation, but that...

Personal space and territorial behaviour

Altman (1975) described territorial behaviour as the regulation of the boundaries between one's own space and space belonging to others. Personalisation (making something one's own) indicates that a space belongs to a particular individual or group. In biology, the term 'territoriality' generally means territorial behaviour by animals. Animals appropriate a particular space and then defend it against intruders, often aggressively. Although generalising from animal behaviour to human activities...

Public safety

A building is safe for the public when people can use it without being or feeling threatened. People in buildings can suffer (or be afraid of suffering) violence, indecent assault, robbery, vandalism, theft or burglary. Detailed public safety criteria are given in the Checklist - Sociaal veilig ontwerpen Checklist -Designing for public safety (Van der Voordt and Van Wegen, 1990), published by Delft University of Technology. The basic principle underlying this checklist is that the chance of (or...

The 1990s to the present day

In recent years there has been a noticeable increase in the attention paid to information processing systems and design decision support systems (Bax, 1995). According to Foque (1982), design involves working with messages containing extremely complex information, so it is important to know how accurately, meaningfully and effectively information is conveyed and processed. Foque believed that the traditional conflict between methodologies that he termed 'artistic' and 'scientific' could be...

The early functionalists

One of the first functionalists was Auguste Durand (1760-1834), professor at the Ecole Polytechnique in Paris at the beginning of the 19th century. In his view, science and technology are more important than artistic ambition. In his Lecons d'Architecture (1809) Durand stressed the importance of convenience ('convenance') and efficiency ('economie'). A building must support its intended use and contribute to health and welfare, making optimum use of capital, labour and material. For Durand,...

The modern movement

In the first half of the 20th century functionalism developed into one of the most important movements in architecture. On the analogy of Frederick Taylor's work-process analyses, architects of the modern movement analysed social activities to enable them to arrange floor plans as efficiently as possible. In the Netherlands of the 1920s a number of architects grouped together in the Amsterdam architect's association 'De 8' The eight and in the Rotterdam group 'De Opbouw' (up)building (Mattie...

The search for form

How does a designer arrive at his choice of form What are the factors that influence the spatial image, size, scale and rhythm of the building mass, the spatial arrangement, the choice of colour and materials And most of all, in the context of the subject of this book, to what extent does form follow from the requirements imposed by the intended use Many different answers have been given to this question over the course of time, some based on theoretical considerations - often also based on a...

Tools and references

Of course the client and the programme consultant working on the brief will take advantage of their experience with their own organisations and in the preparation of programmes of requirements. Programme consultants often make use of a programme prepared for a comparable task at some earlier date, going through it, perhaps together with the client, and making adjustments to suit the present task. To find out about the organisation, use is made of such techniques as interviews, workshops for...

Typology as a design method

Typology is the study of types, i.e. their classification and description, and the study of a type, i.e. its investigation and interpretation. A type is an abstract schematic representation of a series of persons or objects (in this case buildings) with similar characteristics, a concise method of representing reality by including only its essential characteristics. It is a conceptual construct that distinguishes similar from dissimilar. Types may refer to particular, concrete buildings or...

Weighting

In most cases, the person doing the evaluation perceives not all factors as equally important some factors weigh more heavily than others. It can therefore be useful to assign weights to different factors, making it possible to reach a weighted conclusion based on a number of qualities each of which is given the importance it deserves. This method is referred to in the literature as the multicriteria method, and is used for such tasks as choosing between a number of potential building locations...

C Performance concept

Here too, as in the traditional building process, the client is responsible for the programme. In this approach, developed by the Government Buildings Agency, the programme consists of as complete as possible a summary of functional and aesthetic performance specifications, supported by a spatial plan or structural design (Ang, 1995 Building Research Foundation, Rotterdam, particularly SBR reports 219, 296, 296a, 420 and 447). The spatial plan indicates the shape and Figure 3.4 Schematic...

Classicism and neostyles

The emphasis on beauty, experiential value and the creation of meaning recurs constantly throughout the history of architecture e.g. in Greek and Roman architecture, Romance architecture, Gothic architecture, Renaissance architecture, classicism, and different neo-styles until the present days (Smith, 1956 Pevsner, 1960 Van Heuvel and Verbrugge, 1996 Barrie, 1996). Although utility value and technology always play some part in design, the main emphasis is on composition. Building is above all...

Factors to be assessed

Annotated Floor Plan

Before starting any product evaluation, it is important to decide what precisely is to be evaluated. Since the 1970s there has been noticeable increase in POE (see, for instance, Friedman et al., 1978 Keys and Wener, 1980 Zimring and Reitzenstein, 1980 Zimring, 1987 Preiser et al., 1988 Wener, 1989 Preiser, 1989, 1994 Teikari, 1995 Preiser and Vischer, 2004). Literally, POE means evaluation of a building after it has been taken into use. POEs deal mainly with functional aspects, the most...

Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit AEDET

In the United Kingdom, the NHS Estates Centre of Healthcare Architecture and Design developed a toolkit for evaluating the design of healthcare buildings from initial proposals through to post-project evaluation. The toolkit aims to help make better decisions. It provides support for developing design specifications and evaluating and assessing the design of healthcare building proposals. It may help to develop a national benchmarking system of design quality for healthcare buildings. The set...

Criticism and resurrection

Not everyone subscribes to the value of typology in architectural design. In a design school like the Bauhaus, the dominant view is that design problems can be solved by rational means, with no need to fall back on tradition, precedents or preconceptions. Typology was also resisted as a design method by the modern movement, which believed that it too often led to the rigid application of design principles. After the movement away from modernism and disappointing experiences with user...

Quality control

It would seem plausible to assume that combining a systematic analytical approach to the design process with working from function to form will ensure the greatest likelihood of producing buildings with a high utility value, from which it follows that functional requirements will have a major influence on controlling the way the plan develops. Alternative solutions are explicitly checked against these requirements. But a single-minded concentration on functionality can easily lead to a building...

Visual functionalism and adjustment to suit human dimensions

Many architects are critical of a one-sided functionalist approach. At the end of the 1960s the Dutch architect Jaap Bakema introduced the term visual functionalism, to make clear that function is not the only determinant of form. Architecture must also appeal to the imagination (Figure 2.10). J.J. Oud (1890-1963) expressed the same thought some decades earlier. Despite his connection Figure 2.10 The Great Hall, Delft University of Technology. Design by Van den Broek and Bakema (1962-1965). The...

Sociocultural and economic context

Predalles Floor Design Procedure

Besides the spatial and historical context, the relationship between function and form is strongly influenced by both socio-cultural and economic factors. Rogers (1991) calls 'form follows profit' the very aesthetic principle of our times. Thus, design skills are measured today by the architect's ability to build Figure 2.20 Aldo Rossi's plan for the Kop van Zuid, Rotterdam. Rossi bases his designs on morphological analyses and typological research. He is strongly attracted to formal...

Structuralism

Structuralism Dutch Architecture

Structuralism, a movement in architecture that pays much attention to changing user functions, came about in reaction to the functionalism of post-war Dutch architecture Van Heuvel, 1992 . The movement was characterised by the use of modules as components in a larger coherent whole capable of accommodating changing functions. Other characteristics included the application of space-structuring constructions 'honest' use of materials, a visible skeleton , special attention to transitions between...

Creative methods

Bottled Buildings Process

Examples of creative methods include 'associative methods' and 'creative confrontation methods' Roozenburg and Eekels, 1991 . Associative methods involve the encouragement of spontaneous reactions to or associations with particular statements or ideas. The thought process used is one in which connections are made between individual ideas, sometimes obvious snow white , sometimes surprisingly innovative. The assumption is that the number of creative ideas increases with the total number of...

Context

Giorgio Grassi Library Groningen

Besides functional and constructional efficiency, context also plays an important part in the choice of form, and on a number of different levels. Many architects are prepared to make some adjustment to the size, scale, rhythm, mass, use of colour and materials in the elevation, etc., to fit in with surrounding buildings and ensure the degree of harmony and continuity often required by the local design review committee. Sometimes a deliberate choice is made in favour of contrast, either to...

Expressionism

Expressionism Design

The principal characteristic of expressionist architecture is the use of an attractive design to contribute to the creation of an ideal community in which everyone can feel at home. Architecture is primarily viewed as a social and moral problem, to which the designer must give an individual form Barbieri et al., 1999 . Figure 2.25 Housing in Spaarndammerbuurt, Amsterdam. Design by Michel de Klerk 1914 . The architecture of the Amsterdam School was characterised by expressive design, with much...

Steps leading to a programme of requirements

The most important steps to be taken in preparation for a programme of requirements are as follows A careful analysis of the organisation of the activities to be housed, mainly prepared with the help of information and experience obtained from the client and the users. Figure 3.9 Spatial relationship diagrams for a children's day care centre with three groups. a A semi matrix with ' ' needing to be close or connected '-' not needing to be close or connected. b Plan of individual locations...

Privacy

Privacy can be seen as the personal control and selective management of access to oneself or one's own group Altman, 1975 . Definitions of privacy Figure 6.8 Example of a sociofugal space. In this Paris metro station the space between the seats literally distances people from one another. Users create extra space by occupying alternate seats, a form of behaviour which illustrates an underlying need for privacy and territoriality. Conversely, the probability of contact decreases. Figure 6.8...

Development of functionalist ideas

The effort to achieve functional and constructional efficiency is as old as mankind. Even the most primitive hut has a functional and constructional basis. Nonetheless, concentration on programme and construction means breaking with the past, when the emphasis lay much more on principles of form going back to classical antiquity. The effort to achieve functional and constructional efficiency has its philosophical roots in rationalism. In 1637 Rene Descartes wrote his Discours de la m thode, in...

Functionalism without dogma

Leen Van Duin Architect

Although functionalism has by now been succeeded by many other ideas about architecture, the aim of achieving functional and constructional efficiency remains to this day an important motive in the production of 'good' architecture. In Hoe modern is de Nederlandse architectuur How modern is Dutch architecture Leupen et al., 1990 , Mels Crouwel writes that the achievement of optimum usability must be the most important aim of any building. The materials and constructions used must be selected...

The Dutch standard NEN 2568

According to NEN 2658, Programmes of requirements for buildings and associated project procedure, Dutch Standards Institution,1993a , a programme of requirements or brief should consist of three sections 1. Limiting conditions prerequisites , in particular applicable laws and regulations, technical issues and financial issues. 2. Characteristics of the target group or groups to be housed. This section of the programme should describe the aims of the organisation, the users and their activities,...

Functionneutral buildings

During his lectures, Carel Weeber, former professor of architectural design at Delft University of Technology, is always pointing out that functional analysis does not define design. The form of a building has several potential uses and must be capable of accommodating constantly changing activities. There is always room for compromise between fitting precisely, unchangeable, typical of one specific activity, and flexible, allowing a range of different activities. Figure 2.16 Ministry of...

Organic architecture

The term organic architecture embraces a colourful variety of architectural approaches and expressions that developed in different places at the beginning of the 20th century. Organic architecture is a reinterpretation of nature's principles, which are implemented in the relationship between form and function, and between force and construction. This often led to free and expressive forms, not as an imitation of nature, but to support people as living and creative beings. For example Frank...

Blobism

Blobism Architecture

The blob buildings that appear more and more nowadays represent a new movement in architecture that is not yet really defined. Its basic ideas go back to the complexity theories of Jacobs, Venturi, Ungers and many others, and the postmodern movement in science. But above all it was steered by computer design and production Jencks, 2002 . Being one of the protagonists of this Figure 2.34 The Groningen Museum. Design by Alessandro Mendini, Philippe Stark, Coop Himmelblau and Michelle de Luchi...

Checklists and assessment scales

Kernohan, G. Mclndoe 1996 , Building evaluation techniques. McGraw-Hill, New York. Baird, G., N. Isaacs 1994 , A checklist for the performance evaluation of buildings and building services. In Engineering for better building performance. CIBSE Australia and N.Z. Third Regional Conference, Melbourne, Australia. Becker, F.D., G. Davis, F. Duffy, W. Sims 1985 , ORBIT-2 organizations, buildings and information technology. The Harbinger, Norwalk, Connecticut....

Typology and design

Typology structures our environments by classifying an almost infinite variety of functions and forms into a limited number of categories, classes or types. Types and acts of typing organise thinking, understanding, communicating and acting in all domains of life. Typology and typological analyses on a material, imaginary or conceptual level are important means in description, explanation and prescription Franck and Schneekloth, 1994 . Types summarise and hold together a whole range of already...