Index

Adams, Lynn Elizabeth and Cassandra, 35 additions, designing for, 108 adobe architecture, vs. earthbag building, 5-6, 8 Adobe Builder Inter-Americas, The (Tibbets), 111 Adobe Journal, The (Moquin), 1 Adobe Story, The (McHenry), 57 advantages (of earthbag building) built-in stabilizer, 9 cost effectiveness, 9-10 employing people, 10-11 environmental, 4 flood control, 8-9 simplicity, 4 sustainablility, 11 temperature control, 9 tensile strength, 8

vs. other earth-building methods, 4-8 alis (clay paint), 194-95

alternative architecture. See adobe; cob; earthbag building; pressed block; rammed earth Alternative Construction (Adams), 35, 205 Anasazi, 4, 55,191 arch forms, 27-30, 90,155-56 arches. See also Gothic arches; Roman arches buttressing, 124

catenary-shaped, 128-30 drawing the, 126-31 dynamics of, 124 and fan bags, 40 outward forces, 127 the springline, 127 vaults, 130-31 Arches National Park, 123 architectural compasses how to use, 137-41 instructions for making, 48-51 sliding arm, 50-51 Aspdin, Joseph, 56 asphalt emulsion, 58

bag stand, 34, 48, 78 bag whacking, 39

bags. See also burlap bags; diddling; fan bags; gusset-ed bags; keystone bags; polypropylene bags; sandbox bags; tubes as built-in stabilizer, 9 caring for, 24 compression-fit tip, 154 packing, 38-39, 47, 48, 79-80 and tubes, integrating, 44

types and sizes, 21-25 barbed wire. See also barbed-wire weights 4-point, 93 dispenser, 26 placement, 72 as Velcro mortar, 25, 83 in wall building, 72 barbed-wire weights, 25-26, 39-40 Basic Building Code, 217 bath fixtures, 194 Becky Bee, 7 bentonite (clay), 14 bermed / buried structures and climate-control, 10, 212-13 design considerations for, 65, 66, 71 site evaluation, 66 binding force, 18 bladder bag, 19

borax (mold inhibitor), 177,188, 191,195, 200 Bovedas, 135

box forms, 27-28, 29, 41, 87, 94 Bread Ovens of Quebec, The (Boily and Blanchette), 179

brick weights, 39-40 building codes alternative building, 162 changing, 218-20

history and current practices, 216-18 John and Jane Doe story, 215-16 New Mexico adobe, 20, 69, 70, 99,104 rammed earth, 73 Romney, George, 217 Utah, 75 burlap bags, 22-23

buttresses, 70-71, 78, 86,124,129, 153 C

cabinet attachments, 100 cable, 99

Cal-Earth. See California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture

California Institute of Earth Art and Architecture, 9

can tossing, 36-37

canales (gutter spouts), 116

capillary breaks, 59, 60-62, 198

Casa Grande, 11

casein binders finishes, 192-94, 202 grout, 201 casein-fortified finishes, 192-94 Castillo Ruins, 11 catenary curve, 128-30 cement about, 56-57 and moisture, 60, 61 stucco, 16, 26 cement mixers, 175, 200

cement plasters. See also earthen plasters, exterior; exterior plasters; lime plasters about, 184-86 adding lime to, 186 for bonding tile, 165 in dome construction, 165-66 ferro, 166 cement stabilization, 16, 17, 23, 25 earth stem walls, 57-58 mixing procedure, 59 chain link fittings, 49-50 Chappelle, Robert, 165-66 chinking stones, 191 Chiras, Dan, 195 chutes, 42-43 clay about, 13-14 expansive, uses, 14 in plaster, 172-73 plasticity, 14 climate control design about, 205-6

bermed / buried structures, 10, 212

color, 206

domes, 142

foundations, 54-55

insulation factors, 63

keeping cool, 206, 207 dry, 207 warm, 213 living roofs, 207

temperature regulation, 206-7, 208, 212-13 thermal performance, 9-10 cob architecture with earthbags, 178-79 vs. earthbag architecture, 7-8 in wet climates, 7, 11, 55 Cob Cottage Company, The, 7 cobbers thumb, 7 cobbles, 15

compasses. See architectural compasses compression strength and moisture content, 18-19 and rigid foam, 63 and soils, 15,18, 57, 59 concrete-earthbag stem wall, 56-57 concrete foundation system, 54 continuous bags. See tubes coral, crushed, 16

corbelled domes. See earthbag domes corbelling bag and tubes, 154 earthbag domes, 136 roofing options, 163 safety tips, 159 simulation testing, 146 traditional dome-building technique, 134 corners, 72 cost effectiveness, 10 countertops, 194 cradles, 32

chicken wire, 29, 87-88, 107 Craftsmen of Necessity (Williams), 121 crusher fines (sand), 16 curing, 59, 94, 102

diddling, 20, 22, 34-36, 78, 81-82 dirt. See soils domes. See also corbelling; earthbag domes;Honey House building sequence; roofing options bond beams, 134-35 dynamics, 134 pole compasses for, 48-51 traditional building techniques, 134-35 doorjambs, 30 doors and cradles, 87-88 design features, 73-74 forms, 27-29, 87 installation, 107, 152-53 drains, 66, 99

earth. See soils

Earth Construction Handbook (by Gernot Minke), 18, 65,194

Earth Construction (Houben and Guillard), 58 Earth Saving Revolution II, An (Higa), 105 earthbag building. See also Flexible-Form Rammed Earth technique;materials, basic;testing basic procedure, 4 prior-preparation, 33-34 seasonal activity, 19 site evaluation, 66

vs. other earth-building methods, 4-8 earthbag domes. See also corbelling; domes; Honey House building sequence; roofing options about, 136-37 advantages of, 141-42 the architectural compass, 137-41 designing, 136-37 disadvantages, 143 grade-level floor, 161-62 non-stabilized, 9 prior preparation checklist, 145 earthbag wall-building arch forms, 90 cradles, 87-88 door / window frames, 87 fan bags, 90-91 foundations, 77-78,150-52

keystones, 91-93 removing the forms, 94-95 row one, 78-84 row two, 84-85 the second bag, 80-81 strip anchors, 88-89 wall and buttress intersection, 86 Earthbuilders' Encyclopedia, The (Tibbets), 57 earthen buildings. See monolithic earthen architecture earthen plasters, exterior. See also cement plasters; exterior plasters; lime plasters about, 171-72 application, 176-78 for dry climates, 164 equipment, 173, 174 ingredients, 172-73 preparing, 175-76 test batches, 173 earthen plasters, interior. See fat plaster earthquakes, and structural integrity, 9, 66-67, 71 Easton, David, 13 eaves, 157-58,167 EDPM (pond liner), 64 Egyptian arches. See Gothic arches electrical conduit, 98-99 electrical installations, 97-99 England (cob architecture), 7 enharradoras, 172

environmental concerns, 3, 9-10, 63, 105, 182, 216 Escott, Carole, 16, 34

exterior plasters. See also cement plasters; earthen plasters; interior plasters; lime plasters cement-stabilized earth, 165-66 cob, with earthbags, 178-79 soil mixes for, 16 tile and flagstone with, 165

fan bags, 32, 40-41, 90-91 fat plaster additives, 188-89 application low-fat over, 191 over chicken wire, 190-91 over earthbags, 190 fiber, 188

finish coats, 190, 192-95

types of sand in, 191-92 recipe, 189-90 test patches, 190 FEB Building Research Institute moisture content testing, 18 FFRE. See Flexible-Form Rammed Earth technique fiber, in plasters, 172 low-fat plaster, 190-91 marbeling effect, 190 silica or protein content, 182

sizes, 188 straw, 173

use with spray guns, 177-78 fill. See soils finishes, 192-94,195-96 flagstone, 165

Flexible-Form Rammed Earth technique (FFRE).

See also earthbag building empowering people, 10-11 introduction to, 1-2 flexible forms. See bags; tubes flood control, 8-9 floors about, 197 final layer, 200

finishes, natural resin, 195, 202 grout, 201 mid-layer, 198-200 sealing, 202-3

stone or saltillo tile, 200-201 sub floor, 198 flour paste, cooked, 188-89, 194-95 foam, rigid. See under insulation Forked Lightning Pueblo, 11 forms. See also arch forms; box forms flexible (bags and tubes), 21-25 removing, 94 rigid, 27-30

stuck, 95 foundation systems conventional concrete, 54 earthbag rubble-trench, 55-56 insulated earthbag, 63-64 pumice/earthbag insulated, 64-65 shallow frost-protected, 55 simple trench, 77-78 traditional and alternative, 62-63 foundations about, 53-54 ancient, 55

earthquake resilient, 66-67 functions of, 54 FQSS (fun, quick, simple, solid), 2 French drains, 66 fresco, 196

Gothic arches, 93, 126

Great Wall of China, 6

green (uncured clay), 70

greenhouses, 208, 213

grout, casein-stabilized, 201

Grupp, Marty, 56

Guelberth, Cedar Rose, 195

Guillard, Hubert, 58

gusseted bags, 22, 35-36, 79

gypsum, 195

Habitat for Humanity, 8

hard packing (bags), 47, 48

Higa, Teruo, 105

hogans, 49

Honey House building sequence about, 145 buttressing, 153 clay models, 148

closing in the dome, 160 corbelling bags / tubes, 146, 154-55 door and window forms, 152-53 drawings for, 146-47 eaves, 157-58 excavation, 149

foundation and stem wall, 150-52 installation arch forms, 155-56 compass, 150 optional eaves, 157-58 pre-preparation checklist, 145 second story dome work, 158 floor joints, 157 Houben, Hugo, 58 housing, affordable, 1

Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 55 hydrocarbon-treated bags, 23

ICBO. See International Conference of Building Officials

Inland Engineering Corporation, 9 insulation floors, 198-99 Rastra blocks, 65 rigid foam, 63-64 and thermal performance, 9-10 walls, 208-12 interior plasters. See also exterior plasters; fat plaster finishes flour paste, 195 lime, 195-96 sealers, 195

International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO), 9, 67

J-metal, 62 jar test, 15-16 jiggle tamping, 18-19

kaolinite (clay), 14

Kemble, Steve, 16, 34

Kennedy, Alison, 75

keystone bags, 4, 42, 91-93

Khalili, Nader (innovator of earthbag method),

lay-flat (bag-width), 22, 224 laying a coil, 44 lift (cob structures), 7 lime cycle, 181 finishes, 195-96 stucco, 16

wash / water, 183-84 lime hydrate, Type S, 181-82 lime plasters. See also cement plasters; earthen plasters, exterior; exterior plasters about, 171-72, 180 application, 182-83 curing, 183 fresco, 196 mixing, 182 protecting, 183 for roofs, 164-65 safety precautions, 183 waterproofing, 165 lime putty, 181-82 lime stabilization, 16, 58-59 linseed oil, 195, 202 lintels, installing, 103-4 living thatch, 166-67 locking diddles. See diddling locking row, 73-74, 93 loft, 141,157 long bags. See tubes lumber, limiting its use, 4, 74

Martin, Sarah, 76

masonry, Nubian-style, 134-35, 136

massive earthen buildings. See monolithic earthen architecture materials, basic bags and tubes (flexible forms), 21-25 barbed wire, 25-26 cradles, 32 rigid forms, 27-30 scabs, 31 soils, 13-21 tie wires, 26-27 Velcro plates, 30-31 McHenry, Paul G., 57 mechanical bond, 174-75, 188 Meyer, Frank, 202 milk paint finish, 186, 188, 191-92 Minke, Gernot, 194, 18, 65 misprints (bags), 21-22 models, scale, 145, 148 moisture barriers, 60-62, 64 moisture content (soils), 17-21 mold inhibitor. See borax monolithic earthen architecture ancient technique, 3 definition, 4

and structural integrity, 9 worldwide use, 9-10 montmorillonite (clay), 14

National Building Code, 217 Native American architecture, 109 Natural Plaster Book, The (Guelberth and Chiras), 195

Nawthis site, 11

New Mexico building codes, 20, 69, 70, 73, 99,104 non-skid coating, 22 non-stabilized domes, 9

Oregon (cob architecture), 7

paper adobe, 209 parapets, 115-16, 117 Pennell, Penny, percolation (in soils), 20

plasters. See cement plasters; earthen plasters, exteri or; exterior plasters; fat plaster; interior plasters; lime plasters plumbing, 99

pole compass. See architectural compasses poly strapping, 112 polypropylene bags, 21-22, 23, 24 Portland cement, 56 post and beam, 74-76 Pot Creek Pueblo, 11 power entry, 99 pozzolans, 58-59, 125,165 pre-diddled bags. See diddling pressed block, vs. earthbag building, 8 pueblo earthen construction, 11 pumice, 64-65, 209

Quick Crete, 56 R

R-value, 9, 209, 210 rainwater, 110, 163 rajuelas (little stones), 191

rammed earth construction. See also earthbag building binding force, 18 moisture content in, 17-19 use of granitic block in, 16-17 vs. earthbag building, 5-6, 8 Rammed Earth House, The (Easton), 13 Ranger Station, Sand Island, 187-88 Rastra blocks, 65 Regner, John, 141, 220 reject sand, 9, 16 road base mix, 16, 199 Roman arches, 91-92, 124-26 roof systems. See also roofing options; roofs alternative, 113

bond beams, 110-12

checklist for success, 113

heavy compression style, 112, 118, 119

lightweight compression, 118-19

reciprocal, 119

for round houses, 117-18

for silos, 118

square, for round buildings, 120 Velcro plates, 113-14 vigas, 115-17 for yurts, 118-19 roofing options, for domes. See also exterior plasters; lime plasters: for roofs; roof systems; roofs about, 163

light wood frame, 168 living thatch, 166-67 shingled, with extended eaves, 167 straw bale insulated, 168-69 roofs. See also roof systems; roofing options cost considerations, 112 coverings, 121 living, 121-22, 207 for round buildings, 117-18, 120 using local resources, 122 rows, closing in, 47

rubble-trench foundation systems, 55-56 running bond, 85

safety precautions, 149, 159-60, 181 Sand Castle, 16, 34 Sandbag Architecture, 3

"Sandbag/Superadobe/Superblock: A Code Official Perspective" (Harp and Regner), 1, 141, 219-20 sandbox bags, 29 sands about, 15

granite, decomposed, 16-17 in plaster, 172, 173, 191 smooth surface, 17 scabs. See Velcro plates scooching (soft-packing), 48

sealers, 193, 195

shelving attachments, 100-102

silt, 14-15

sliders, 37, 84

soil preparation, and moisture content, 17-21 soil ratios. See also soils determining, 15-16 optimal, 6-7,13,15,16 exceptions to, 16-17 soils. See also soil ratios choosing the best, 16 components, 13-15 imported, 16 moisture content, 17-21 and organic matter, 15 stabilized earth, 57-59 well-graded, 15 solar temperature control, 208 Southern Standard Building Code, 217 split-box form, 87 springline, 127, 137, 154 stabilized-earth mixes, 57-59 stains, 193

stair attachments, 102 stem walls concrete, 56-57 insulated earthbag, 63-64 stabilized earth, 57-59 tire, 62-63

traditional and alternative, 62-63 straw bales, 210-12 strip anchors, 30-31, 88-89, 100-101 structural design features (walls) barbed wire, 72 height limitations, 70 height to width ratio, 70-71 interlock corners, 72 lateral support, 70 locking row, 73-74 openings, 73 post and beam, 74-76

round walls, 71 tube corners, 72 structural integrity, 9 stucco, 16, 26, 84,185-86

subterranean structures. See bermed / buried structures sunrooms, 208, 213 swales (drains), 66

tampers (full and quarter pounders), 38 tamping, 18-19, 82 teamwork, 45-47, 52, 89 techniques bag whacking, 39 can tossing, 36-37 closing in a row, 47 hard-assing, 38-39, 45 hard-packing, 48 laying a coil, 44, 154-55 scooching, 48

using a pole compass, 48-51 temperature control, 9-10 tensile strength, 8, 24, 112, 141, 188 tension ring, 110, 118, 135, 157 tensioner device, 112 testing corbelling process, 146 for moisture content, 20 soils, 15-19

for structural integrity, 9, 17 thatch. See living thatch thermal flywheel effect, 9 thermal performance, 9-10 Tibbets, Joe, 57 tie wires, 26-27, 84 tile, 165, 200-201 tire stem wall, 62-63 tools architectural compasses, 48-51 bag stand, 34 brick weights, 39-40 cans, 36

sliders, 37

sliding compass arm, 51-52 tampers, 38 tube chutes, 42-43 water level, 51, 86 toxic substances, 105 tube chutes, 42-43 tubes. See also bags and bags, integrating, 44 corbelling, 146 corners, 72 laying, 44

types and sizes, 23-24

U-value, 9

Uniform Building Code (UBC), 9, 20, 162, 217, 219 V

vapor barriers, 60-62 vaults, 130-31

Velcro mortar. See barbed wire Velcro plates, 30-31,100,113-14 Velcro shelf brackets, 101 ventilation, 206-7

Wales (cob architecture), 7, 11, 55 walls. See also earthbag wall-building; stem walls; structural design features (walls) climate-control designs, 206, 207, 210-12 curved, 81 insulated, 208-12

intersecting stud frame, 99-100

materials for, 14, 16

round design features, 71 pole compasses for, 48-51 underground, 65-66 for window / door openings, 73-74 water level, 51

waterproof membrane. See vapor barriers waterproofing, 166

Watson, Tom, 65

Watson Wick, 65

way-too-big bags, 22

weep screed, 62

weeper bag, 19

weights, suspended brick, 26, 39-40 Williams, Christopher, 121 windows buttressing, 153 design features, 73-74 forms building arch, 27-30 installing, 104-7,153-53 wood and vinyl, 104-7 windowsills, 194, 195 wood. See lumber workability (of rammed earth), 18 working bag, 22 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 54-55 Wulf, Marlene, 17

yurts, 49, 118-19

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