lieth air hoi" |Kt ^ the basemen"

wind and natural ventilation

The proximity to the Creek water mass with the 'city' water mass behind the development can give leversal ot wind directions during the daily cycle During the afternoon when the land mass is warmer the cooler sea breezes move in from the water towards the land. In the early morning when the land and building masses have been cooled with night radiation to the sky the dense cool air moves towards the water mass. The orientation of the building blocks at right angles to the water front encourage free movement of air between the building blocks assisting the natuial cooling of the buildings The porosity of the building facades assists In channeling air through the site while vertical gaps act as thermal flues moving air vertically and in doing so cools the building fabric

In traditional buildings this movement of air has been utilised in the use of 'Towers of Wind' to ventilate occupied accommodation This principle is used in the development to ventilate the carpark floors Large light and ventilation wells from the podium roof into the basements function as wind towers, drawing fresh air into the basement and extracting used air out landscaping

Ecologically and bioclimatically, we should use landscaping and planting to lower ambient microclimate temperatures as well as to re-introduce oiganic mass back into the essentially urban and mostly inorganic location

Ground and vertical landscaping is used extensively aiound the development The proposed scheme boasts 90% landscaping (including water coverage) of the entire site area This is achieved by extending the landscaping from the waterfront promenade level up to the retail podium roof in one continuous plane, below the elevated the building blocks Landscaped skycourts are introduced in the upper floors of the buildings

The earth excavated from the new marina bays are used to create landscaped mounds between the elevated buildings and the basement car-parking roof, leducing costly export of earth from the site The earth acts as theimal insulation for rooftops sun-shading

Shading of both primary and external spaces is an essential and important part of the design The need is there to protect the treated internal environment from direct solar radiation and in doing so reduce the energy demand of the building's environmental systems and at the same time improve the overall comfort of the spaces.

The sun-shade structures will emanate as external louvered screen attachments to the facade of the buildings. The space between the external screen are cooled by wind movement through its porous floors

wind towei external wall section




<i air external wall section kway

The internal c«uUUon wfthtt the shopp<ng maf 1 organwed •> a loop configuration along the tongm*inj «>* o< the mafl A three-level departmental voce super-taffcet and «ood court * located at one end of the loop while spec aMy shops fcne the circulation loop

The mat of the ma« is an open landscaped MZI w<th retaJ pav*ons reserved for restaurant and cafes wth outdoor seating overlooking the manna office strategy • The oMcs are ocated above the retail podium The offices have their entrance and car drop-off lobbies on the lower ground Boor of the pcdmm The Wft cores are located on either ends of tt» off«e bu*fcng giving uninterrupted office space »or <ts tenants The rectangular floor plan with m-wrvjl columns rfows maximum flenb*ty for the interior part boning of the floors The elongated plan provoes for maxwnum natura ghwg mto the interior spaces

High-level knks between office butdings erabie one to access the next block without having to return to the ground floor lobby This also faoitates amagamatior o* office spaces between Mocks for office eipansor

level 15

The Makkah project is amongst the largest proposals that Yeang has made, and where the emphasis shifts to urban design and the relationship of the whole assembly of buildings to the existing city and topography The linear site is framed within a major network of roads and urban highways on the periphery, with a main access road (and service road for deliveries beneath) forming a linear traffic circulation spine, with the buildings distributed alongside, on the crest of a hill above. The whole assembly is within walking and viewing distance of the al-Haram, the focus of world pilgrimage to Mecca.

Yeang's central response is to create a "... unique, calming green park environment for the pilgrims... careful planning and resource management can turn the Jabal Omar site into a green area, shading the external spaces and creating a pleasant environment in which to carry out pilgrimage ... a shaded place from which to view al-Haram." 1

The whole design then spnngs from this conceptual basis - a series of V-form towers on and over a spinal concourse with car-parking and retail development sunk below a massive landscaped roof. The irrigation water supply is sourced from the recycle 'grey water1 of the whole development, and planting and vegetation are selecteo on an indigenous basis, that require mm -amounts of water, and that can withstand the harsh climate. The ma)or levels of horizontal planting are pined with grc^ of palms on the lower rock slopes, urn to create a "sea of green'between the Jabal Omar site and the al-Haram.

Mecca, Saudi Arabi

Yrant's concept is therefore one of ¿1 'Harden oasis', on a major ,lr enhancing the land-form, with the accommodation towers rising i,,oVr ,ind gathering all the principal vistas of al-Haram and the Ka'bah.

Underpinning the overall idea, Yeang proposes that, given the )r0Slt„... required on the site, high-rise buildings arc Inevitable Hv adopting this solution the ma|or area ol the land form can be transformed Into green landscape.

The major range of nine towers, Includes seven apartment towers ,,1 storeys, and two hotel towers of '30 storeys, together with a „ Mil concourse of four storeys and a further four hotels of 15 storeys The detailed design of the first phase is centred on a landmark 50-storey hotel, and a 35-storey residential tower with all associated plazas, circulation and facilities.

Yeang's concept description reveals both his functional and symbolic Intentions

"... the towers are raised above a concourse which collects the circulation and channels the population down two chutes to the praying plaza. The towers are configured to fulfill in particular the provision of a clear view to al-Haram from each apartment or hotel room, and from the concourse edge. The shapes of the towers are reminiscent of an opened Koran as a constant reminder of the pilgrimage." 1 I lie design concept Is expanded in a series oi studies which include Yeang's Ecological Approach, Built Form and Sight Lines, the collector Promenade and Chutes, Travel Time analysis, Prayer Zones and Prayer Areas The overall concept is further studied in section, relating the height of the towers to a <1fj0 m general height limit of the surrounding rim of mountains, wilh Iwo signature towers rising above fliis level Yeang envisages the Idea nf ,1 Future Rim of mountains and towers as a model which could be extended from the labal Om.u site Into the surrounding hills, so that In this sense the project design is related to .1 regional vision, beyond the central city rhe towers and their detailed design emphasise Yeang's ecological design principles, considerations of room alignment and vista, pedestrian travel and the location of prayer areas, In partlculai I he Towers are generally oriented east west wllli solid perimeter walls and circulation on the western and southern faces, depending upon configuration and type A major feature of this high -rise Is a roof level wind-scoop whic h diaws air into an fvaporatlvc cooling tower, In the centre of the hotel plan, for example Yeang's descriptive notes and sections define this principal element:

" cooling tower through the centre of the high rise Is Integral to the design of the development ... •His lower brings warm air into the top of the tower Where a fine mist spray cools and humidifies the air. Tils cooled, moist air drops down the towers, cooling •he corridors and providing a fresh air supply to all rooms and apartments. The cool air exits the tower at the level of the roof garden, cooling the garden flnd prayer areas." •

owner M.ikkah Construction ,inr| Development Company location Mecca, Saudi Arabia latitude 21 27"N

no« of storeys 1 apartment towers at 35 storeys

2 hotel towers at 00 storeys retail concourse at 4 storeys 4 hotel blocks at 15 storeys date start 2000 (rlr-sign) areas gross area 878,880 sq m total nett area 565,650 sq m prayer terraces and landscaporj gardens 94,000 sq m carpark 309,000 sq m site area 232,000 sq m plot ratio 1.3 8

datlgn features • generic urban design strategy

The Hnrmn Is surrounded by five mountains that form an existing rim' lo Ihr Al Haram area Our uiban design strategy Is lo build Ihr inevitable high-rises fixed by a height-limit thai will create ,i new 'protective rim' around al This will avoid a rampant disorganised skyline around the holy aie.i A new benchmark building height is Ihus derived from the average height of the five mountains al 450 m a', the new height Itmll for futuie development of the sites surrounding al-Haram Only one or Iwo exceptional tower-, at preseledrd locations may exceed this height limit to give some diversity lo Ihe skyline resembling the minarets of the traditional mosque maslerplan • The proposed development at Omar uses the mountain crest lo dellne the site into Iwo part', |one facing al-Haram and the othet sloping away from al-Haram The parts of Ihe development facing al Haram contains the concourse and pedestrian links to al-Haram Hotel and apartment towers are situated over the mountain crest, limited by our new rim' height for maximum views The western side of the development is for car-parking and vehicular access accessibility lo Al-Haram • A central promenade (ic the concourse) at level 2 acts as a 'collector' to collect pilgnms from all Ihe towers, who are directed to the Iwo chute', al-Haram A combination of elevators, escalators, travelators and pedestrian routes is used tor reducing the travel time Travel time analyses have been studied to verify the lime needed to leach the Haiam fiom the rooms ol each towei views ol Al-Haram • Tower built forms with single-loaded rooms or apartments aie shaped for maximum facade area with views towards al-Haram, using a number of tower typologies (le the A. V, H. M and composite shapes) gieen park • A green park environment is cie.itrd toi pilgrims, by landscaping ol the carparking block roofs and the concourse root These are connected via landscaped budges The water supply foi giccning of the development comes from the recycled giey' watei of the developmenl The concept seeks to create a balanced ecosystem' on the site ol both organic and Inorganic aspects ol the ecologh.H environment At its simplistic level ol sustainable design, landscaping ovei the fools literally provides a green sch< By covering the car-parks with earth and gieeneiv. the carparks can be excluded from the plot ratio calculation, thereby Increasing the Developei s pcimitted commercial area rvapoiatlve cooling shafts • A\ passive lew eneigv conditioning design, 'evaporative cooling »halts a.e loca within Ihe toweis lo p.ovldc cool ai. to the circulation spaces and to supplement the air-conditioning ol the -oo and to the gieen gardens below alternative piaytr ion«» • Alternative praye, .-ernes a.e pttVfcM tin1 Hotel towers have -amps within the

a, eels to prayei too xated at eve-y lloors A piayer on the ioo, - the an alternative p»ay" ron* ^

buildings and pa planted around "


The cooling tower also contains a pedestrian ramp, which both connects rooms to praying halls and continues into the lower retail areas delivering cooled air from above. In addition, planting and water ponds are placed on the tower roof to cool the intake air and reduce the amount of air-borne dust. The roof gardens also form major prayer areas, with views to al-Haram on the eastern tips and edges of the plan.

Coupled with the major evaporative cooing tower feature are Yeang's principles of the green skyscraper, which he relates to the whole project.

The tower design incorporates a range of spaces for the offering of prayers, varying between the private room to prayer halls and terraces through to the al-Haram plaza praying area. Pedestrian travel in the service of prayer, is fundamental to the project and Yeang has studied this in great detail. Central to this key function is the inclusion of a promenade at concourse level

"... the prime function of this Promenade is to serve as a collector for the Jabal Omar population as they are called to prayer five times a day. All of the population will be brought to this level, through the lift cores of the towers above or the escalators that link the four levels of the concourse... the population is divided into four streams, to be discharged at the plaza below by chutes consisting of escalators and travelators." 4

Having established these major pedestrian movement systems, which bridge the Ibrahim Al-Khalil Road, to deliver pilgrims in safety to the precinct of al-Haram, Yeang has also provided an analysis of pedestrian travel time This study proves the success of the development and "... the speed at which the population can access the praying areas for their daily devotion." ' As with all Yeang's projects vertical landscaping is incorporated at intervals, particularly in relation to prayer rooms in this instance.

The overall plan-forms of both hotel and apartment towers are organic in nature, and have something of the quality of Hans Scharoun, at first sight. Looked at in detail, the design of each room and linear cluster is dominated by the provision of outward vistas to al-Haram, which are provided by faceted glazed walls to the leading edge of each unit.

Seen as a whole, the Jabal Omar project exemplifies the comprehensiveness of Yeang's design method which covers the whole range of considerations from the making of a new city area to the careful design of the individual room. In turn his ecological approach, the regeneration of landscape and the organisation of movement are gathered together to form an urban sanctuary, which exists to serve pilgrimage and the purpose of the pilgrims' ottering of prayers.

surrounding mountains as the 'Rim' for Al-Haram

the design concept surrounding mountains as the 'Rim' for Al-Haram the design concept

The Jabal Omar site forms one of five hills that surround the holy s.te of al-Haram As such ,. ,s she outer rim from which views of the praying area can be «en The scheme seeks to make use of the e!eva!,on of th.s outer rim. developing a viewing and praying concourse along the crest of the hills wind scoop .

tower C

-evaporative cooling tower

-heavy structure acts as solar

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

How would you like to save a ton of money and increase the value of your home by as much as thirty percent! If your homes landscape is designed properly it will be a source of enjoyment for your entire family, it will enhance your community and add to the resale value of your property. Landscape design involves much more than placing trees, shrubs and other plants on the property. It is an art which deals with conscious arrangement or organization of outdoor space for human satisfaction and enjoyment.

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