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In Yeang's own terms, ecological design is fundamentally about interconnectedness:

'... the emphasis here is on the interdependencies and interconnectedness in the biosphere and its ecosystems ... the crucial property of ecological design is the connectedness between all activities, whether man-made or natural; this connectedness means that no part of the biosphere is unaffected by human activity and that all actions affect each other ... Simply stated, all built systems must have a reciprocal relationship with their local environments and with the rest of the biosphere'' , or equally, '... the greater the adherence to the principles of applied ecology ... the greater will be the effectiveness of the ecological solution'.'

Related to this seminal statement are Yeang's theoretical 'interactions matrix' (see frontispiece) and his 'law of ecological design' - both deserve particular attention As a preface to this central area of Yeang's theory, several other factors require mention.

The first is the question of the 'time-lag' that is inevitable between the design of a ma|Or building and its subsequent realisation, while in the meantime ideas and theoretical developments, and also technological solutions may all have advanced At the same time Yeang also acknowledges that ecological design, m the complete sense, is still in its infancy:

'... current ecological design strategies should be appropriately regarded as a transition towards the ecological ideal.' "

Next, it is equally relevant to outline the scope of Yeang's eco-agenda: 'Ecological design ... includes not just architectural and engineering design but also other seemingly disparate disciplines such as landscape ecological land-use planning, embodied energy studies, recycling practices, pollution control ...'11

together with all the associated detail systems. The great importance of Yeang's comprehensive method and approach lies in the concept of 'gathering and togetherness'. as he describes it:

"... the bringing together and integration of these aspects of environmental protection and control (previously regarded as separate disciplines) brought into a single approach to ecological design.' "

What follows from this is the summary organisation of Yeang's 'partitioned matrix' which unifies his concept of four sets of interactions into 'a single symbolic form' and includes the fundamental interactions of the built and natural environments More specifically, these are processes that occur within the system (internal interdependencies), and activities in the environment (external interdependencies) These are taken together with exchanges between system/environment and environment/system. In Yeang's summary terms:

internal and external relations and transactional interdependencies are all accounted for'. "

Ibid p 12 Ibtd p9 Ibid p 14

(he skyscraper as a stack ol goodies and as a series o< events-in-the-sky

(he skyscraper as a stack ol goodies and as a series o< events-in-the-sky

Architecture 2000 and Beyond

May 2000 by Charles Jencks i i Yeang's architecture 6 beginning to synthesize elements from opposed traditions into an unlikely hybnd. the 'organitech- With htm the new skyscraper is emerging and what can be seen as live points of a new architecture. First, and derived from the past are what he calls valves', the movable parts that respond to fast changing climatic conditions It rs a measure of our time that progress in the tall building may consist in windows that can actually openl Second are filters', again including new versions of such traditional elements as extenor louvres Third is the design decision to locate the elevator and service cores on the sides where it is hot. thus reducing the heat gain. Fourth are the sky courts and growing plants used to cool the building, its most obviously visible feature of looking green. These courts and vegetation, if generally applied to most buildings, could also cool our overheated cities. The 'heat domes- that have recently been discovered by satellites to be raising the temperature by as much as 5 degrees, over such cities as Atlanta, could be completely cleared if such measures became widespread And the fifth point is the contrast between sunshades and dear glass (where the view is good and the sun does not penetrate).

All of these measures lead Yeang to a new. articulate and dynamic skyscraper They also lead to a new theory of ecological architecture that like Corbusier's Five Points of Modern Architecture in the 1920'$. is being summarised and replicated around the world As Ken Yeang argues, since the tall, unecologicai skyscraper will not go away, in the 21st century it will have to become 'bioclimatic', or more like the rest of life, related to the earth's economy J J

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