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CM f» i f«5 fc»««« over the Inner R'ng Road, forming a secondary.

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proposed landscaping iones and major plant groupings »one A front slope landscaping

The slopes ranging m eievabon from 295 m to 325 m forms a major open space facade t*cmg the hc4y mosque Here a single specie paims >s proposed to dor- nate the slope wrth planting drstance about apart The piarmg holes coutd be edged m rocks with ground covers planted on top of the pia"»- holes palm: PNaer > daeryV--» ground cover and low shrubs Lartara car-i-i BougamyJaei. Ourinu repens io«ve 81 rooftop planter and connect -g watrwsys

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•'•Sm • Ttu" MAX Towpr Project significance in =j|lL Veang's work, not just ^Stfi because it stands in H the realm of his 'green L we skyscraper' series, but rrr£ th.it it ,ilso marks he, ' a. m'

entry into a range of

European commissions, th.it have subsequently advanced into the UK itsell rhls advance not only brings he. arthib" turr into a nt-w and receptive marketplace but it also present» thr context of .1 Completely different climatic condition, from thai of his major rangr of projects 1" the Far East.

The tower and its site stand very dose to Norman Foster's landmark Corrtmr-nbank In Frankfurt, which Is highly appropriate .)•• both designs are part of 1 new tradition r>l environmentally conscious architecture

Within the context of Yeanf. work, ttv MAX Tower plan Is markedly different lor in this case the service cores are inboard and form two sides of a square atrium which rises through the whole form r. P'"' of its environmental strategy, and brings natural light to both offices and circulation depending on the internal arrangement The peripheral office space, encircling core of services and atrium, is .1 regula' band of 15 metres In width, which facilitates a whole array of optional ml"04' space arrangements and a high dcf'rr "' natural day lighting Variable office groupings can also be inter linked by • system of ramps, which cross the *lrtu void, at Intervals The of«« pl'"-,0'm therefore an efficient, rational arrangement Incorporating g"''" ^ and variety of occupant oriental""1 ' outward views over the city owner Drulsche Grundbr>',itz Management Gmbl<

location Gros/<■ Gallusstrasze. Frankfurt, am Mam latitude 52 3 *N

The building in general is technologically sophisticated, and includes nifty of systems and details, such as a double-skin facade and the use ¡f photovoltaics, contributing to its energy-efficient content.

However, the aspect of the design which is at once most evident, ! has the greatest impact on the architecture, is the greening of t ,th the site and overall building form and its interiors. This is Particularly evident in the section and on the facades, where an ,-•■ tensive system of fully landscaped skycourts are linked vertically by a spiralling range of planted inserts. While this is common place in Veang's work as a whole, it becomes a remarkable event in the context of the high-rise in an European city. As such, it openly exhibits the qualities of the 'green skyscraper', and the very different nature of the environment offered to its occupants.

Yeang's approach to this transformation begins at ground level, which is designed as a green park with the continuous vertical planting on the tower running from street level to the summit. In establishing a stable ecosystem, it is Yeang's stated intention

"... to balance the inorganic aspects of the city environment ... with more organic mass" ' Coupled with this, earth mounds and recessed courtyards are included at the base of the building to assist integration with the ground form, and natural light and planting penetrate into the basement car-park through skylights punctured into the park. Within the extensive facilities of the spreading, linear street-level podium Yeang has formed a public plaza, with a glass enclosure that provides a 'greenhouse environment' - controlled by openable windows and walls. This space - a form of winter garden - provides an all year facility, and appropriate to the variable seasonal climate.

As well as the general overall provision of planted skycourts, balconies and viewing decks, in this case Yeang has also provided a "orm of localised skycourt, serving clusters of office space, with movable internal planting. These skycourts have adjustable shutters, which provide control for the associated office space, depending on the seasonal conditions, and the comfort conditions required by the occupants. This device, which is illustrated in a series of plans demonstrating the variables is particular to this project and again, extends the principle of the winter garden idea, an urban tradition Ir> German cities such as Frankfurt and Berlin.

Yeang's proposition for the green skyscraper in the European context both contains the landscaping within its internal space and of<ers th's literal greening to the city on its exterior. The tower *rchitecture ¡s transformed to a vehicle of organic inhabitation - an ecological symbol

Frankfurt, Germany owner Drulsche Grundbr>',itz Management Gmbl<

location Gros/<■ Gallusstrasze. Frankfurt, am Mam latitude 52 3 *N

nos of storeys 50 storeys date start July 1999 (Design)

completion date areas 90,000 sq rn design feature*

• Incorporating vertical planting into the |.„ ,-je Iron-. •■ • to balance the inorganic aspect« of Hi«- city environment (with more organic mass)

• Transformation of the Site into a green p,.rr ■ , to •• • city'-, green bell

• Continuous planting up the tower as an ecological system from street level spiralling up the facade to '-".ate ., conttnuou-, and stable ecosystem

• Earth mounds and recessed courtyards at the point where the tower meets the ground to blend the building //ifl- the ground

• Puncturing of the park with skylight openings to bong natural light and vegetation to the basement r.ar

• All-year round public pUu within a greenhouse environment, controlled by openable window. md wai's.

• Tower has planted skycourts. balconies, viewing decks, and movable internal greening inside the off"' -pace-.

• Tower has movable shutter', (within the skycciul; 'o-control of the internal office environment to cater for seasonal changes

Project Notes. 1999

Vom Boden in das Gebaeude spiral-foermig verlaufende Gruenzone als oekologisches System

ohne Sonne fruehling / herbst

/¿/¿/¿/¿/¿/Ax mit Sonne fruehling / herbst / winter

Materialien Schiebeelemente hochreflektierend beschichtet und / oder in Vernindung mit fensterseltlgem. beweglichem Sonnenschutz

Auftrieb und / oder Ventilator Nachtauskuehling im Sommer Schwerkraftkuehlung in hochinstalllerten Bereichen Hohitraeger

WC Unterdruckabsaugung. wasserlose Urinale Thermische Bauteikondltionlerung Baustoffspeichernde Wirkung KF = 1.1 w/m2


SpezialluftdurchiaS Detail A1 Sommerliche

Luftnachstroemung f r solare •Energieabfuhr Detail A2

Winternachstroemung mit definiertem Volumenstrom durch "Heatwave"

ohne Sonne winter fiiMNun

I Itorfahrl

2. tlngang Buffo

6. Autrutge Bewohn« 7 laden

9 farlc

10 OetfentlidKr Mati

II r. He fliegende. Piatt 12 GUthau* bopflanit

11 Bnlrhnxl« Gebaeud« 14 SepHanrler E'dwjll IS. Entfernt« Getueude

Deutsche Bank




Ein Gleidigtwldit rvmchen Sladtstmktur und Gruenbereichen • fiiW Hen Mmriw. miwrniH und tm Ort für Wramtaltungen

Gruenberetche Im Glaihaui Erdgrtchoft 1ùr gani|aehnge Nutzung ollen« begiuente Innentwcelche alt Verbindung xwllchen dem SockelgcuhoA und Mai

Lesungen zur


Kunst-und Skulpturgarten

Open-Air Konzerte

Frankfurter zur ART Frankfurt


Fußgaenger geschlossenes Ciashaus teilweise offenes Ciashaus teilweise offenes Ciashaus offenes Glashaus


Alternative: Gebaeude nicht abgerissen

Continuous Pedestrian Ramp as main boulevard

Japanese Vertical Pavilion

Spiralling Twin LRT Track with stations at 3 segment intervals _

International Pavilion Zone:

International * Pavilion Zone • 50 segment

Nagoya, Japan o o

At the very centre of Yeang's proposals for the Nagoya 2005 World Exposition, lies a clear commitment to the preservation _ of the ecosystem of the locality.

Instead of adopting a conventional horizontal layout for the Expo, which would spread over most of the 150 hectares of site area, Yeang has proposed a vertical alternative, with a building footprint of just 2 hectares occupied by a 50-storey Hypertower of 12 metres per storey, rising to 600 metres in height. This solution effectively creates artificial land' in the sky. as each platform of the mega-structure can be occupied by the various Pavilions, that form the World Exposition.

The overall proposal is thus framed in two fundamental ideas: that of a vertical mega-structural system interlaced with a senes of concepts, and a set of optional vertical circulation systems. This proposition is generated entirely, by a direct response to the theme set out by the Expo 2005 Committee for the Exposition to "... express the need to reconsider the natural world through the adoption of an innovative attitude to urban planning, infrastructure, building design and information, proposing new standards for quality of life in an ecologically friendly environment." 1 Yeangs competition proposals, which *«e submitted under the Sponsors main "iidlineof. "... Beyond Development: discovering Nature's Wisdom".

underscored by a clear statement of disputable advantage : "... in going vertical, the proposal will Preserve more than two-thirds of the existing ecosytem of the ,0cal'ty ... (and) will therefore avo'd extensive land clearance and disruption to the site's existing mature ecology." 1

, Tt* ^Sn proposals are based on a ^»n of tanduse within the 50

6"*nts. with a s „, Qf 'horizontal' ** yert«cal re-,...,

Nagoya, Japan

owner 2005 Committee location Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan latitude 35 1°N

nos of storeys 50 floor segments date start 1998 (design) completion date -areas Total gross area 223 ha Total nett area 156 ha Site area 150 ha design features

The Nagoya Expo 2005 Tower is the alternative proposal as the vertical option to the conventional horizontal layouts used in the previous Expos elsewhere in the world This proposal currently being considered by the Expo 2005 Comrr -tee The Expo 2005 Committee had earlier declared that the exhib«'ion theme has to "express the need to reconsider the natural world through the adoption of an innovative attitude to urbari planning, infrastructure, building design and informatior proposing new standards for quality of life in an ecologically friendly environment" The site is near Seto City m Nagoya m Japan and is a 150 hectare site with a pnstine matured ecosystem (following a period of secondary ecologica: succession) It is contended here that to build the new Expo facilities on this site with an expected 25 m> on /srtors trampling over this ecosystem will appear contrary to the declared intentions of the Expo Committee It will likely generate an uproar from environmentalists worldwide The vertical solution proposed here addresses the issue of the ecological sensitivity of the site by creating artificial tare; ir. the sky. In going vertical, the proposal wiU preserve more tnar two-thirds of the existing ecosystem of the locality The fundamental benefit of the vertical solution is that it wil. h?vt a smaller building-footpnnt at the ground-plane e a 2 Ha compared to that of the honzontal version S 150 Ha This vertical Expo will therefore avoid extensive land clearance and disruption to the site's existing mature ecology The tower design will in effect be a working prototype of the "1000 m Hypertower project" mooted and researched by the Japan's Ministry of Construction The tower wnl be 600 metres high and will have 50 segments of platforms O '2 ~ height that will enable the various paviions to be Start -3 to three storeys) withm each segment The tower s distribution of landuse within the 50 segments will be on the basis c a system of 'honzontal' as well as vertical zoning of uses Horizontal zoning enables pavilions and faorbes to be locates within one or more of the 50 segments of 12 rr -*ight Vertical zoning provides for certain pavitons and facilities to be accessible at all floors (eg the International Pa-. ..or the Japan Pavilion, the Administration/ Security/Services Faoirties etc) The key circ^Jbon system s fc. means of a sp«i <ng monorail with its twin tracks placed on the penphery o* tie tower with stations at sa segment intervals tie 2 m«»utes travelling time between stations. The connects to the UfT system at the ground-plane in add Son to these, then » be supplementary systems of elevators escalator and ndmed traveUtors However as with mo« Expos, there w* be a ma promenade for use by pedestrians from which al mv*ots » be accessible This promenade m the tower w# be <n the form of a large gentle ramp that traverses horn the gmund-¡sine a« the way up to the top of the tower Soch a new urtoan development constitute» an oppor*.™t> to »est the concept of the vertical organisation and -i«.<r»bon o- «al resources, enwonmentat demands and the specific neeas of an xitemabanal exhArticn The bu*d*g s operation and environmental systems addie» the dufcnges of the new century gw"* "«P«' » m 4 tpchnc,ic*"

systems The «fc-niwn 0« the t »j demonstrate a new pofcy Wwan e^mumtM and ttv free-* u"

for vegctabon it m* kkety be m ex^nfe for f e*pans»n ipaces (eg the | Government ****

2005 To

flora and fauna of Aichi Prefecture

The Satoyama Woodlands together with the Kaisho Forest on the outskirts of Nagoya are the habitat for a diverse collection of valuable plants, birds and insects. Over 800 species of plants live in these forests.

A recent research surveyed 61 species of butterflies, 41 species of dragonfhes, 300 species of moths, 121 species of birds, 15 species of amphibians and reptiles, many of which are rare and endangered For example, the magnolia stellata (star magnolia) found here, grows in less than 100 areas around Japan. The goshawk (Accipiter gentihs) also lives and breeds in this area. This species is particularly rare in Japan as its natural habitat continues to disappear. Another species at risk is the gifucho butterfly (Luehdorfia japonica) which is endemic to Japan.

This proposal for Expo 2005 aims to proactively address the preservation of these indigenous species. A horizontal pxpo layout over this site will without doubt eliminate many of these valuable species.

Japan, covenng 378.000 square kilometers over the four mam islands (Hokkaido. Honshu. Shikoku and Kyushu), lies mostly in the temperate zone and has a humid monsoon climate Extending over 25° of latitude, there is considerable vanation of temperature with Hokkaido in the north registering a winter mean of -3°C and Okinawa in the south experiencing a summer mean of 28°C.

With a population of 125 million. Japan also has one of the world's highest densities at 335 persons per square kilometer (USA at 28 persons per square kilometer) with a rapidly diminishing resource of arable and habitable land

One of the simplest way to accommodate high densities and yet preserve nature and to avoid building over valuable arable land (eg. rice fields) is to go upwards. This is a critical issue which needs to be addressed not only in Japan but worldwide The Expo 2005 becomes an ideal platform for this debate and re-assessment of existing attitudes and ideas regarding intensive buildings. The proposal here offers the 'vertical' solution to these issues.

infrastructure of Seto City, Aichi Prefecture

Aichi Prefecture is home to the city of Nagoya, one of the three largest metropolitan areas in Japan. Its central location gives it convenient access nationwide. Nagoya is the important mid-point along the shinkansen line running from Tokyo and Osaka The Meishin Expressway connects Nagoya to Osaka while the Chuo and Tomei Expressways links it to Tokyo. The ports of Nagoya and Toyohashi serve the region with a proposed new international airport in Chubu further enhancing and ensuring the future growth of this area.

Traveling Time to Major Cities Bullet Train Car

Tokyo 96 minutes 4.0 hours Kyoto 36 minutes 2.0 hours Osaka 52 minutes 2.5 hours The vertical expo enables a vertical continuation of the horizontal train railway system with a new spiraling SRT that will traverse around the facade of the vertical expo tower.

Satoyama woodlands

Seto which is 20 km south-east of Nagoya has a 1.300-year history as a ceramics center. During this time, the land was mined for the native clay and trees logged to fire up the kilns. This exploitation of the local natural resources resulted in a ravaging cycle of deforestation and reforestation which peaked in the 1940s and lasted until recently.

With a heightened awareness of forest conservation, switching to other sources of fuel and an ambitious reforestation program, the area is now rehabilitated into a viable mixed-growth matured forest habitat. The site is a maintained ecosystem referred to as the satoyama woodlands. The illustration here shows the results of successful ecological succession in which re-vegetation and reforestation has taken place over a formerly devastated site.

the viable alternative to the'horizontal' expo

The modern expositions of the last two decades generally comprised of low-rise purpose-built or proto-typical pavilions laid out over a large site and is usually connected by a vast transport network of rail, road and sometimes marine craft systems. The impact of a horizontal built-form on the site is evident. It will result in widespread destruction of this matured ecosystem

In pursuing an alternative layout and specifically to minimize the impact of the built form on the existing woodlands and the indigenous wildlife, the traditional expo masterplan is re-interpreted and re-organized in a 'vertical configuration. The comparison of the built footprint on the locality is illustrated below. Clearly the 'vertical' solution is much preferred over the 'horizontal' one as it will have a smaller footprint on the ecologically mature site.

Satoyama woodlands

The comparison of the coverage of the built form between the honzontal and vertical planning concept is as follows: A horizontal Expo 2005 Development

• area reserved for natural environment = 455 ha 86.0% B vertical Expo 2005 Prototype Tower

• proposed footprint

• area reserved for natural environment = 537 ha 99.5%

• increase in area for natural environment = 147 ha 18.0%

Building footprint of 75ha

Building loolprint of 3ha

Vertical - ' Concentration

uitiiAjuiud IKXB To onabto_

ucofcxacal canlinu*y o»!"««" both »Mm of tho lugh»«

reduced footprint on ecW

Linkway In olovnled loresi jwvillon

2005 Tower

^Fofosl soquonce

Essentially this allows horizontally zoned pavilions to be located in one or more of the vertical 12 m spaces, or for vertically zoned pavilions to occupy a multiple of levels - such as the International Pavilion or the Japan Pavilion.

The major plan arrangement - an interlocking U- and L-formation - is configured to incorporate a multiple set of systems. Most important amongst these is a spiralling monorail with twin tracks set on the tower's periphery, and with stations at frequent intervals, the whole connected to the LRT at the ground plane. This basic system is supported by elevators, escalators and inclined travelators. A further pedestrian promenade is included, between pavilions, by a large gentle ramp that continues from the ground plane to the summit of the tower.

In certain respects there is a similarity to Yeang's earlier proposals for the Tokyo Nara Tower, for instance in the Nagoya Tower's vertical landscaping strategy, and in the nature of its triangular mega-structure and horizontal cross-bracing. However, in this case, the especially different elements are the structural floors which form foundation plates for construction in each vertical zone. Equally, Yeang has given specific instances of how the zoning might be applied: in the horizontal case, office administration, light industry, residential units and urban infrastructure are proposed; in the vertical case exposition pavilions, hotels and commercial units are applied volumes.

To this mix is added a host of facilities including an arts and crafts village, convention hall and theatres. The main U-form of the curved plan is orientated to acquire views and natural light, with vistas that include Mount Fuji itself, and the Nagoya bay Ise Shrine.

As with all Yeang's projects there is a major emphasis on this as an ecological architecture "... the building's operational and environmental systems will address the challenges of the new century giving respect to nature in a technological response, using clean and efficient energy technologies and recycling systems."1 The project, he proposes, can also be seen as a model for future urban expansion, such as the relocation of the Japan Government facilities outside Tokyo.

This protect, m its deliberate and sensitive response to the local ecosystem is at one stage beyond all Yeang's previous proposals It is not just a proposal for a Hypertower, but a signal initiative which addresses the nature of a whole region. Its deserves to be built.

[Mobile pavilion]

The Expo 2005 Tower is the alternative proposal as the 'vertical' option to the conventional horizontal layouts used in previous international expositions This supports the goals for Expo 2005 in addressing concerns of the environment and the world's burgeoning population.

In addition, the 'vertical' solution here, is in line wrth the Expo's aims to develop a new mutually respecting relationship of nature with mankind and technologies related to the protection of the environment well as the preservation of the Satoyama Woodlands.

The proposal for the 'vertical' expo is ecologically further enhanced as it sits on the proposed platform links over the proposed expressways (which will bisect the woodlands) as forested bridges between the adtacent woodlands These connectors (interspaced with generous lightwells) may re-establish ground level migration routes and encourages specie migration between each micro-habitat. This engenders a more stable ecosystem and enhances the ecological diversity of the immediate site and the surrounding Satoyama Woodlands

'vegetated' bridges are introduced here to enable ecological continuity between both sides of the highway

expo promenade

The main feature of the Expo 2005 tower will be the gentle vertically acrasiNe promenade which provides access to ill the pavilions, public areas and facilities

The pedestnan promenade takes the form ot a continuous looping lamp traversing horn the ground plane to the top of the tower, weaving together the different parts of the tower where secondary streets and public squares may extend oft this public realm The promenade loop have points of intersection that offer a potential territory ol dynamic urban interaction, activities and expo-related ceremonies

secondary circulation

I he sr, ondarv > imitation system provides the HnVx between each ol the three hyptwmes uvng vr, ondary distnct (Hi evacuation paths escalators, tamps and stairvases secondary circulation

I he sr, ondarv > imitation system provides the HnVx between each ol the three hyptwmes uvng vr, ondary distnct (Hi evacuation paths escalators, tamps and stairvases distnet lifts evai nation paths

IB gondolas IB tamps «ml tfiVtlUlors

IKT Station IRT Systems High Speed lifts

IB gondolas IB tamps «ml tfiVtlUlors vegetation strategy

As the 2005 Expo is held ovei the summer months, the weathet would be ideal to enable the profuse use of local plant types and strategic landscaping within the tower.

In addition to decorative and ceremonial uses, vegetation becomes an integral part of the external facade system for sunsliading and micro-climatic control (particularly the hot east and west sides)

Pockets of lush greenery placed at regular intervals along the entire height ol the tower, will serve as green lungs refreshing the environment, improving the air quality and provide

1 vegetation on the facade for sunshading and micro-climatic control

2 decorative landscaping along the main exposition promenade

3 vegetation pockets located In public areas as natural air fresheners primary circulation system

A continuous (inclined) mass transport light rail Iran sit (LRT) system links all the major /ones in the tower with regularly-spaced stations at the facades of the tower

Together with banks of high speed lilts, these will provide the primary rapid circulation system for the anticipated crowd of visitors to the tower tertiary circulation

I he teillary cllculation system provides connections with each ot the hypei;onr\ u»^ local lills, "skin crawlers', ramps and iiaucaset local lilis skin i ra win \

qimrternmy circulation

Hie quaternary circulation system provides local Inln Hum links using gondolas lui ill ramps and tiavelatms

SRT systems ramp promenade fire stairs helipads evacuation stairs district lifts service cranes gondolas travelators

monorail (Skyscraper Rapid Tramlt SRT) with tl5 <w.n .„cks placed on the periphery ot the tower with stations a. three segment intervals (,e two mimi.es ravel,ng time between stat.ons) Th,s connects to the LRT system at ground plane

I" addition, the vertical prototype Expo 2005 Tower Will have a three dimensional transportation system that ,s structured vertically and horizontally for high '-peed mass transportation as well as for personal transportation Circulation withm the tower ,s structured In a multi tiered hierarchical system primary circulation function: links all major programmât« /or.-, • h/pertowrr with the entrance links the hypertower with its environs lealures: continuous SRT system with fully lulo.n itrd monorail twin tracks integrated SRT stations O every three segments (36 m) high-speed lifts that connects the entrance to ma|or pavilions secondary circulation function: circulation between hyperzorie",

(15 segments separated by refuge zones)

features: district lifts that connects reluge zones evacuation routes within each hyperzone that terminales in the refuge zones tertiary circulation lunction: circulation within each hyperzone features: local lifts that serve every segment skin crawlers that links Q every 3-5 segments

SRT systems ramp promenade fire stairs helipads evacuation stairs district lifts service cranes quaternary circulation function: inter-segment circulation features: continuous góndola system tl.jl runs between three segments continuous ramp and travellator system thai runs through every segment local lifts skin crawlers local stairs gondolas travelators circulation concopt residential zones vertical service and administration zone vertical Japanese pavilion horizontal International pavilions entrance to ixro

residential zones vertical service and administration zone vertical Japanese pavilion

The tower will be BOO meters high and will have 25 segments of platforms O 12m height that will enable the various pavilions to be built (up to three storeys) within each segment The tower's distribution of land use within the 25 segments will be on a "horizontal" and "vertical" zoning basis

"Horizontal" zoning applies to individual pavilions (eg country, corporations. NGO's) and facilities which are located within one or more of the 25 segments of 12m height. "Vertical" zoning provides for certain pavilions and facilities to be accessible from all floors (eg The Expo Theme Pavilion, the Japan Pavilion, Special Forest Pavilions, services and security)

horizontal International pavilions entrance to ixro

"n contrast to the conventional stratifications of 'loot uses, the Expo 2005 tower has both horizontal zoning of uses as well as vertical zoning Somr uses are linked vertically and are on all floors.

1 expo 2005 pavilions C

• international zone (exposition pavilions)

• local government zone Japanese pavilion

• theme pavilion

• arts and crafts village (theme zone)

2 hotels and commercial M

• convention hall

• event theater

• guest house (residential units)

3 office and administration horizontal and vertical ¿onln^

"n contrast to the conventional stratifications of 'loot uses, the Expo 2005 tower has both horizontal zoning of uses as well as vertical zoning Somr uses are linked vertically and are on all floors.

1 expo 2005 pavilions C

200 000 9%

• international zone (exposition pavilions)

• local government zone Japanese pavilion

• theme pavilion

• arts and crafts village (theme zone)

2 hotels and commercial M

• convention hall

• event theater

• guest house (residential units)

3 office and administration international organisation zone administration (offices), security, medical gate facilities

4 light industry

5 residential buildings I-

• resident population 25 000

• working population 15 000

1215 000 54 5%

6 urban infrastructure I —^

• public circulation areas and plazas

• pedestrian road

• bus terminals

• main approach from railway

• main approach from bus

• arterial road

• moving walk total built area

2230 500 100%

200 000 9%

1215 000 54 5%

2230 500 100%

Observation Deck

Pedestrian Ramp

LRT Stains

International Pavilions

/ Arts and CratfsVillage zoning concept

The fundamental feature benefit of the vertical solution that it will have a significantly smaller building footprint'5 the ground plane (ie 3 ha compared to that of the horizontal version at 75 ha) The vertical Expo will th«Mor, avoid extensive land clearance and disruption to the existing mature ecology In exploring one of the Expo -, ' goals of 'environmentally creative town planning', the try. 2005 Tower is laid out essentially as a 'city in the sky thereby bringing together all the elements from a conventional horizontal urban structure (eg transportation network, commercial and residential components, servir*, and amenities, utility systems, recreation zones, public facilities and spaces, etc.) and reconfiguring them m a vertical layout. This will substantially free the forested ground plane from ecological damage and disrupt«* and 4 much preferred handling of the existing Satoyama Woodlands

Outline of Hypertower by Shizuo HARADA

at 900 m height.


Observation Deck

Pedestrian Ramp

LRT Stains

International Pavilions

/ Arts and CratfsVillage

(Refuge Zone]

-International Pavilions /

Vertical Japanese Pavi^öns /

Vertical Administration Centers

0 0

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