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Emergency Preparedness and Response Training Suggestions

Table 7 lists guidelines for emergency preparedness and response training activities. Consider these guidelines when you plan and when you evaluate training exercises. They will help staff members personally identify with the emergency preparedness and response program. Anticipate adversity in emergency preparedness. As you go about your regular job, what obstacles do you encounter as you try to complete tasks related to the emergency preparedness process Do you have the time The resources needed Has anyone figured out a clever way to build these tasks into their day Show the connection between emergency preparedness and participants' jobs. As you know, emergency planning is being built into each of your job descriptions. It is a priority identified by the director. I know the idea of emergencies makes some of you uncomfortable, but it is a reality that we need to deal with. We want to protect lives and the collection. Provide incentives rewards, recognition, or remuneration to...

Loss from Natural Disasters Fire Floods and Earthquakes

Space planners and facilities professionals must ensure that disaster preparedness programs are put in place to combat the potential toll of natural forces such as floods, fires and earthquakes. Security expert Larry Chase says, Flood waters often carry debris that can ram and rupture flammable liquid tanks or piping. These liquids, generally lighter than water, can float into areas where they might come into contact with an ignition source. Electric short circuits and broken gas lines are common occurrences after a flood and are a potential source of ignition.

The Role of the Emergency Preparedness Committee

The committee's first step is to prepare a report identifying what natural or human-caused emergencies may threaten the institution. The characteristics of the region and the institution's property should be considered in order to determine the likelihood of emergencies and their potential severity. Relevant state and local authorities can provide long-term records regarding natural hazards pertinent to the area, such as major floods, seasons of severe storms and high tides, and so forth. Secondary and tertiary effects that might accompany a hazard also must be taken into account for instance, earthquakes can cause structural damage, but may also cause fire, as well as sewage, water, and gas leaks. Each of these effects can, in turn, initiate further hazards. (See Questions to Consider, on the next page.)

Develop response team job descriptions

The response team job description (appendix J) for the building systems supervisor position is from the Seattle Art Museum's Emergency Planning Handbook.11 Note that in addition to simple and clear responsibilities, the description also lists three positions in the line of succession in the event that the person in the primary designation position is unavailable. The description also states to whom this team member reports, and provides a checklist of actions expected of the position. In short, nearly anyone could fill the position if necessary.

Case 4 Seattle Art Museum

Sources consulted Barbara Roberts, hazard mitigation consultant Jerry Podany, head of antiquities conservation at the J. Paul Getty Museum and the J. Paul Getty Museum Emergency Planning Handbook7 Potential natural hazards faced Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, windstorms, blizzards Annual budget for emergency planning and implementation US 5,300, including first-aid and CPR classes Building the team The museum's emergency planners provided staff with hard hats and on-site earthquake kits and arranged for discounts on first-aid kits. One emergency drill focused on the safety of employees' families. The museum sent two of its emergency planning leaders to San Francisco to visit museums following the devastating 1989 earthquake. The leaders returned home with the fear of God in them and the realization that they had to design their plan to be effective, reports Gail Joice, senior deputy director and registrar for the museum. 4. Robert Bergman, Developing a Disaster Plan The Director's...

Case 1 Barbados Museum and Historical Society

National Trust for Historic Preservation, the Caribbean Conservation Association, and the Island Resources Foundation workshop, 1991 and the emergency preparedness initiatives of the Museums Association of the Caribbean, launched in 19545 Potential natural hazards faced Hurricanes, floods, fires Annual budget for emergency planning and implementation US 2,500- 5,000 In the event of a national disaster, do not assume there will be immediate access to mainland resources. The police or fire department cannot always be relied on during the response phase of a national disaster. The media are interested in emergency preparedness efforts. Share information with them to encourage prompt, accurate coverage in the event of an emergency. Permanent internal protective shutters should be installed before a disaster strikes, such as in storage locations and on library cases. This eliminates time needed to install temporary shutters during emergencies. Building the team...

Give the preparedness teams a clear mandate of their role

As EPM, make sure members of the preparedness teams have copies of the institution's emergency preparedness policy, the committee's statement of purpose, and the hazard assessment report. In addition to submitting two written reports, the teams are expected to contribute verbally to the emergency plan as well. In carrying out their research assignments, team members will find appropriate help and recommendations in chapters 6-9. The following is an outline of their assignments.

Distribute the hazard assessment report

Once the EPC has drafted the hazard assessment report, the committee distributes it to members of the departmental teams. The report gives the teams a clearer understanding of the nature of the potential threats, which in turn encourages them to take the emergency preparedness and response program more seriously. Using the report as a guide, the teams assess the institution's vulnerability in terms of their respective departments collections, administrative processes, infrastructure, or security systems.

Suggested Exercise

During a meeting of your team members, conduct a mental exercise. Ask them to close their eyes then give them an emergency scenario. For example, a fire breaks out in a workroom, or a local disaster strikes. Ask a volunteer to describe, step by step, how he or she would respond to the emergency. Ask detailed questions What do you do first Who has a flashlight Whom do you call What telephone do you use Where are the keys Where are the necessary supplies, maps, and lists Encourage others to make recommendations.

Require frank afteraction reports

You will need to furnish the emergency preparedness committee with the names of all your staff members, along with their work and home telephone numbers and addresses. This information will enable you to notify them if they happen to be at home during an emergency. Also, make a list of any special skills staff members have for example, is any employee a nurse, a search-and-rescue team member, or an ambulance driver

Identify and implement appropriate training

What skills and knowledge do security personnel need Training and support are available from many sources, including international and national security organizations, such as the International Committee on Museum Security of the International Council of Museums. Local police, fire, and military are the most immediately available resources. Extensive literature is available for each particular security need, including security officer training, emergency planning, alarms, and access control. Major museums and museum associations, such as the American Association of Museums (AAM) security committee, may be willing to share their training procedures for security managers and officers.

Write the emergency plan handbook

The Getty Center's Emergency Planning Handbook3 includes the following 3. Getty Center, Emergency Planning Handbook (J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1997, photocopy). This chapter outlined how to launch an emergency preparedness and response program and lead the emergency preparedness committee through the process of developing an emergency plan. It emphasized the importance of building a cohesive team and working with outside perts such as fire officials. This chapter explained the role of the emergency preparedness manager and the emergency preparedness committee in the planning process

Facultad de Arte Universidad de Chile

Sources consulted Emergency Measures and Damage Assessment After an Earthquake by Pierre Pichard.6 Also, S. A. S. Enrique Strahenberg, then-director of the Schloss Eferding in Eferding, Austria, who happened to be in Chile during the March 1985 earthquake, shared his institution's emergency preparedness materials. Annual budget for emergency planning and implementation US 1,000 for first year of implementation Employees should carry identification cards to avoid being mistaken for demonstrators during political protests or for spectators during emergencies. Emergency preparedness and response materials developed by other museums should be consulted for ideas. for the museum to launch its emergency preparedness and response program. With the passage of time, the daily challenge of running the museum has taken precedence, causing some team members to lose their enthusiasm and drive in maintaining the program. Consequently, emergency planning leaders have had to find ways to restimulate...

Appendix E Emergency Response Supply Lists

E.I List of contents for the mobile portable first-aid box from the Getty Center's Emergency Planning Handbook (J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1997, photocopy), Fact Sheets section. E.I List of contents for the mobile portable first-aid box from the Getty Center's Emergency Planning Handbook (J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1997, photocopy), Fact Sheets section. E.2 List of contents for the emergency response cart from the Getty Center's Emergency Planning Handbook (J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1997, photocopy), Fact Sheets section. E.3 Fact sheet for a disaster supply box from the Seattle Art Museum's Emergency Planning Handbook, rev. ed. (Seattle Seattle Art Museum, 1994). Used with permission.

Related mental drills a Alissandra Cummins

Are you ready to make tough choices A good way to prepare is through mental drills. Mental drills are simple to do and cost nothing but are an important part of the training process. While setting the scene of an emergency, these drills can reveal gaps in the best-laid contingency plans. They also can prompt you to find answers to problems that might never have occurred to you, to the emergency preparedness committee, or to your team colleagues. Planned drills do not come in a one-size-fits-all format, and there is no single correct way to hold one. Keep your first drill short and simple. The drills can increase in length and complexity as staff members become more sophisticated in emergency preparedness and response activities. Tailor the drills to the types of emergencies common to the institution's geographic area. The following are guidelines for planned drills 4 Have the appropriate response team member(s) document the drill with photos and video, which you can use later as...

Document all protection efforts

Document protection procedures as you implement them. The two purposes of documenting are to create a powerful tool for communicating progress in emergency preparedness, and to provide evidence of the implemented protective measures for insurance or legal purposes. Use photographs, videotapes, and written records to document building interiors and exteriors and grounds. Photos should have captions, such as Building before after tree-trimming and Workers replacing roof nails. Videotaped records also work well. Remember to date all records. Post copies of the photographs on walls or bulletin boards in staff areas to show employees the progress being made toward preparedness. Or, distribute an emergency preparedness bulletin to the entire staff. These practices build not only confidence in the emergency preparedness and response program but also morale on your team. Be sure to credit those on or off your team whose suggestions resulted in measures undertaken.

Build debriefing and counseling sessions into the plan

Taking care of yourself and your workers will help you better care for the collections after disaster strikes. Depending on the size of the institution, this is an important and time-consuming responsibility that cannot be assumed by the communications coordinator, the ERC, or the EPM. A human resources coordinator should be assigned to this role.

How to evacuate computer files do these need to be evacuated if backup files are maintained

Hunter, Preparing a Museum Disaster Plan, in Southeastern Museums Conference, 1991 Disaster Preparedness Seminar Proceedings, ed. Martha E. Battle and Pamela Meister (Baton Rouge, La. Southeastern Museums Conference, 1991), 64. 3. Carl L. Nelson, Protecting the Past from Natural Disasters (Washington, D.C. Preservation Press, National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1991), 78. 9. Seattle Art Museum, Emergency Planning Handbook, rev. ed. (Seattle Seattle Art Museum, 1994). 11. Getty Center, Emergency Planning Handbook (J. Paul Getty Trust, Los Angeles, 1997, photocopy), Fact Sheets section. outlined the role of the administration and records preparedness team in the emergency preparedness process described information required in the two reports to be delivered to the emergency planning committee In review, the emergency preparedness process is a long-term commitment on the part of the institution's staff, teams, and committees. You cannot, and should not, expect changes to...

Is the local utility company aware of the institutions urgent need to have power restored immediately after an emergency

Contrary to public opinion, the media can be a helpful resource rather than the source of problems. In fact, you can use the media to your benefit throughout a disaster and its aftermath. Take advantage of the opportunity during the planning process to publicize your efforts. Doing so lets the public know the institution cares about the safety of its visitors, increases public awareness about emergency preparedness, and helps raise money to pay for protective measures. Here are a few ideas Suggest a story to the local newspapers or television stations about the unique aspects of emergency preparedness in regard to the institution's collection. Publicize a fund-raising event to benefit emergency preparedness efforts.

Preparing Report 1 Vulnerability and Asset Analysis

How vulnerable is the building (or buildings) and its systems to fire, flood, hurricane, earthquake, and other hazards Your team's job is to work with the emergency preparedness manager (EPM) and the EPC to assess this vulnerability from a buildings and maintenance point of view.

Are supplies and equipment available to remove water and debris and to isolate affected areas

As a learning tool, ask presenters to bring news clippings, videotapes, and photographs of emergencies and the damage they cause. It is also helpful to talk to colleagues at other institutions around the world. The purpose, however, should be to research what those institutions did correctly and incorrectly during emergencies, not to copy their plans. Protection is a long process and one that never ends. From time to time, remind the administration and your team members that protection is a priority. You also will need to remind administrators of their commitment to emergency preparedness as you lobby for funding for structural or landscape improvements. The administrators must understand that proper maintenance of the building strengthens its capacity to withstand disasters. The priorities for protection that you set will influence the budget for resolving these problems. It is easier to request funding or to fund-raise within the community for specific projects than for the...

Outline of Response Procedures and Techniques

As in all other aspects of emergency preparedness, advance planning is the key to minimizing confusion, unnecessary delays, and frustration. It also can result in significant money savings by ensuring prompt resumption of revenue-generating museum or institution activities, as well as the most efficient use of financial and staff resources in order to recover all normal operations. The following tasks, undertaken before an emergency event, will help you craft the administration and records portion of the response plan in a simple, detailed, and flexible way If the institution is small, can you form an emergency-preparedness cooperative with other small cultural institutions As a group, can you acquire funding to research disaster plans and or form a central library for disaster preparedness information Can you talk to local emergency authorities as a unified group Can you assist one another in other ways Who will coordinate with emergency organizations such as the Federal Emergency...

Consider and address additional suggestions and measures

Preparedness measures enable the institution to respond quickly and effectively in an emergency situation and potentially mitigate its damaging effects. Preparedness can actually prevent some emergencies. For example, a well-trained security officer using a nearby fire extinguisher can prevent a wastebas-ket fire from destroying the building. All staff, not just those who have been assigned specific responsibilities in an emergency, should be trained in emergency procedures. Preparedness measures can be taken before a disaster strikes, such as posting and distributing up-to-date staff contact lists. Others are put in place when an emergency situation is imminent for example, the staff at the Barbados Museum and Historical Society installed shutters on all windows immediately after a hurricane warning was issued.

Your Role in the Process

Effective emergency planning can make a difference when it comes to your institution's collections. This is why you and your team's contribution to the overall emergency preparedness and response program is so important. Emergency planning can be no better than the information on which it is based, and no other department of the institution has more knowledge of the collections than you and your staff. The job of the collections preparedness team is to evaluate the collection thoroughly to determine where the institution is vulnerable and what to do during an emergency. The team produces two reports for the emergency planning committee that summarize its findings Task 2 Interact with other departmental teams and with the emergency planning committee (EPC). At the same time, it is important to keep the collections in perspective. Though they are the heart of the institution, they are not the sole focus of emergency planning. People take precedence. No object is worth a human life....

Set guidelines for dealing with the media

The following basic steps will help you, your communications coordinator, and your staff deal wisely with the media. The publications Steal This Handbook A Template for Creating a Museum's Emergency Preparedness Plan7 and Maritime Museum Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Recovery Manual8 have been used as references.

Evaluate the building and its systems

Review the facilities with various professionals, such as structural and seismic engineers, architectural conservators, electricians, plumbers, and emergency preparedness experts, who can help you determine the building's integrity and weaknesses. These professionals also can make recommendations for upgrading and improving the building. You definitely need to know and understand the capabilities of the building containing the collection, advises Alissandra Cummins. She recommends an outside professional survey every five years. When performing assessments, be sure to ask What types of problems would have the most serious consequences on the building On people On building services On the building's contents Below are several inspection checklist activities found in Protecting the Past from Natural Disasters.2 Some depend on the building type.

Address internal communications

Emergencies and disasters often seem to happen at the worst possible time and under the worst possible conditions. In other words, bad wiring could start a fire at 2 a.m. in a locked corner office during a rare blizzard, when only a substitute security officer is on duty. Although this is not a highly likely scenario, it emphasizes the possibility that staff will be at home when disaster strikes, which brings up various concerns your planning should address. If disaster strikes during work hours, predesignated people can step in and fill the emergency team roles to which they were appointed. These individuals, however, may be preoccupied with the safety of their families and homes. An effective solution is to have one person most likely the human resources director be in charge of contacting families. The Seattle Art Museum's solution is to allow small groups of people to go to the communications center to call loved ones. If the situation allows for it, that is the more humane...

Preparedness Manager

The Role of the Emergency Preparedness Manager and the Emergency Preparedness Committee This part, which consists of chapters 3-5, is designed to serve as a resource for the emergency preparedness manager (EPM). The EPM is designated by the director to head the emergency preparedness committee (EPC) and oversee development and implementation of the emergency preparedness and response program. Chapter 3 presents an overview of the emergency preparedness and response program. This chapter also explains the role of the EPM and the EPC in the emergency preparedness and response program outlines what the EPM must do to get the committee to work as effectively as possible emphasizes the importance of teamwork and gives strategies for building an effective team and guides the EPC through the tasks needed to compile an emergency plan and produce the emergency plan handbook. Chapter 4 discusses the role of communications internal and external both during the planning process and in actual...

Evaluate inventories

Administration departments at most institutions maintain a complete inventory of the institution, including furnishings, equipment, museum store stocks, and library books. The administration and records team is responsible for all emergency preparedness and response considerations concerning these records. Collections inventories. Larger institutions have record-keeping systems for collections that are separate from the rest of the operational data. Such is the case at the Seattle Art Museum, where the collections record-keeping system contains all catalogue information, documents for objects on loan, deeds of gifts, and collections insurance. The collections team is responsible for all emergency preparedness and response considerations concerning those records.

For the Director

An Introduction to Emergency Preparedness and Response Planning The two chapters that follow are designed to serve as a resource for you, the director, in developing and guiding the emergency preparedness and response program for your institution. Chapter 1 introduces the general requirements of an emergency plan, lists the benefits of an emergency preparedness and response program, and explores four case histories of museums that have developed plans and refined them following either a real emergency or a practice drill. This chapter also discusses the reality of emergencies and the threat they pose not only to your institution, but also to you, your staff, and those who visit your institution. Advice is provided from administrators who have experienced emergencies firsthand and have initiated preparedness and response programs as a result, or who have recognized a need for and developed such a program, perhaps based on the experience of others. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the...

Seismic response and design

Bridges are the most vulnerable transportation network component to damage from natural disasters as compared to roads and railway lines. It is therefore of priority to adequately design new bridge structures and reassess the response of existing bridges in areas subjected to earthquake hazard. This chapter briefly addresses a number of topics related to seismic response and design of bridges, namely damage observations in previous earthquakes, conceptual design and modern seismic codes. Commonly observed bridge failure modes following damaging earthquakes are presented. This shows that despite the advancement in seismic design practice, there are repetitive damage patterns due to the increased number of bridges of complex configurations and the heightened consequences of bridge damage in developed societies. Features of layout and configuration that are favourable to controlled and predictable seismic response of bridges are also discussed. Various options available from foundations...

After Italys Defeat At Adwa

In the wake of this national disaster, politicians were reluctant to pursue Italian expansion any further. In late 1896, the government signed a treaty with the Emperor abandoning any designs on Ethiopia. Eritrea was assigned its first civilian governor, Ferdinando Martini, in 1897, when the colony was commonly judged to be a failure due to its poor agricultural results and high cost. Over the decade he served as governor, Martini changed this perception by establishing stable relations with Ethiopia and re-directing Italian goals away from agricultural development by and for Italians toward agricultural exploitation for export.12 The improvement of the Italians' status in Eritrea paralleled a general upswing in Italian affairs after the turn of the century. Under a series of administrations (mostly dominated by Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti), the economy benefited from new industrial growth, Italian politicians displayed new confidence in Italy as a nation, and Italian...

The Security Equation

Society's need for security must be balanced against our traditional values as well as our psychological and spiritual needs, including those of openness and accessibility and all their ramifications in a free society But even with revised design and engineering measures the threat of terrorism against property will not completely resolved. No building can be made 100 percent terrorist-proof. We must accept new realities in which there will always be a small risk involved with everything we do and wherever we live. Most building codes have developed over many decades, if not centuries, and this development reflects societal consensus. And while terrorism is a real threat, it is improbable that the September 11, 2001 attacks will, in the long term, force major changes. Changes will occur but only through innovation and only those that we as a society are willing to pay for. Employers should approach disaster preparedness in a pragmatic manner and develop a plan to minimize disaster...

A design philosophy for the outdoors

(a) A city view where human activities and structures dominate. The plan is based on a geometric grid, the buildings are rectangular, and the whole is tightly controlled, as are traffic movement and the regulation of peoples' lives to some degree by timetables. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (b) A remote, uninhabited wilderness area, untouched by direct human activity. The mountains, glaciers and hard climate dominate. It is possible to wander freely and feel far from the urban world to obtain solitude and to use the skills of self-reliance when facing natural hazards. Alaska Yukon border, USA Canada.

The Modeling Techniques And Correlative Influence Factors

Ancient pagodas were built long time ago, often suffered various natural disasters and damages, and most of them had been repaired. Therefore most pagodas have following common characteristics complex structure and construction type, non-uniform materials, as well as the coexistence of various damage conditions (Yuan Jianli, Shengcai Li, 2001). Since the structural parameters affect directly the dynamic behavior of ancient pagodas, the dimension, construction detail, damage condition and variation degree should be surveyed carefully and defined reasonably for a good analytical model to be developed.

The Biblical Prophecy Of Zechariah And The Date Of Its Creation

Deity, but, rather, the very same God that says I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end to John in the first chapter of the Apocalypse (Revelation 1 8). None other than Jesus Christ, in other words. The Apocalypse proclaims the Second Coming and Doomsday. The prophets of the Old Testament of the XTV-XVI centuries a.d. are expecting his advent.

The Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

Primitive that is, natural areas unmodified by human activity and large enough so that visitors can find solitude and feel close to nature. The remoteness means that one has to be self reliant, using back-country survival skills, and thus experience challenge and some risk. The activities are all those using muscle power and basic equipment.

General Considerations

Land subsidence is defined as any displacement of a generally level ground surface resulting from surface or subsurface causes. This section addresses subsidence resulting from the alteration of surface or internal loading, the removal of subsurface materials, and other subsurface failures. Tectonic activity, landslides, and expansive soils are not addressed in this section (Refer to Sections 252-Natural Hazards Earthquakes,253-Natural Hazards Landslides and Snow Avalanches, and 255-Natural Hazards Expansive Soils, for additional information).

Performance Design Again

In 1967 Progressive Architecture magazine published a special issue on performance design, explaining it as a set of practices that had emerged from general systems theory, operations research and cybernetics thirty years earlier, at the end of the World War II.1 The editors described its practitioners as systems analysts, systems engineers, operations researchers and argued that it was a more scientific method of analyzing functional requirements, which involved psychological and aesthetic needs as well as physical measures of performance. The interest in performance clearly draws on the long history of determinism and functionalism in architecture, understood in large part through the mechanical and organic analogies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is perhaps fitting at the outset to recall that Le Corbusier's famous description of a house as machine for living was his adaptation of the phrase that he and Ozenfant had earlier used to describe painting, a...

The Biblical Prophecy Of Isaiah And The Date Of Its Creation

Behold my servant, whom I uphold mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth I have put my spirit upon him he shall bring forth judgement to the Gentiles (Isaiah 42 1). The reference is most probably to John - a follower of Jesus and the author of the Revelation that predicted Doomsday.

History And Seismicity Of Anatolia

An important number of historical buildings that date back to different periods keep lighting the past of the land. This is the reason that people from all around the world visit Anatolia to see the traces of their civilizations to understand the lives of their ancestors. On the other hand, it is unfortunate that most of the historical buildings in Anatolia are in poor situations today. Anatolia is a potential source for earthquake engineers to carry research on earthquake behaviour of the existing structures. It has a strong seismic activity. Several severe earthquakes throughout history have caused significant damages in some regions. Movements of the Eurasian Plate, African Plate, Arabian Plate and Anatolian Plate are what that causes earthquakes. The Arabian, African and Eurasian Plates move to north and south towards each other. As a result of this, the Anatolian Plate is squeezed out westwards. This westward movement results from differences in rates of motion between the...

Luxury And Catastrophe

An expert on Los Angeles gangland warfare, and author of City of Quartz, is perched on a desert rock in blue jeans and sneakers to deliver the unequivocal doomsday scenario years of relentless and extravagant expansion by greedy corporate developers, moneymen oblivious to the beauties of the desert and blind to the value of its most basic resource, dictate Las Vegas will simply dry up. An art critic from Harper's Bazaar sips cappuccino on the terrace of Spago, enjoying artificial sunrise and sunset every half hour in the convivial atmosphere of Forum Shopping at Caesars. He savours a Biblical If there is a critical resistance to the consideration of luxury within architectural discourse it is because it is conservatively aligned with catastrophe it is also because it threatens the social role and livelihoods of architects. The combination of environmental market appeal and innovation in Las Vegas is analogous to the effect of Michael Milken's junk bonds on those staid yet respectable...

Migration and destabilization of the labor force

Population growth drives the increased pace of global urbanization and is accelerated by unplanned and unpredicted migration. In developing regions throughout the globe, there is an historic migration out of rural areas by workers and families attracted to cities by the promise of a better livelihood. In other regions subject to natural disasters and civil strife, migration is forced as people are displaced from their traditional homelands. Such migration offsets the best population stabilization efforts of cities, imposing added pressure on their infrastructures, and contributing to problems of health and sanitation, unemployment, crime and the cycle of poverty. In such cases, urbanization is part of the problem.

Conclusions And Outlook

The risk of flooding or other natural hazards has increased significantly in recent decades due to climatic change and building activities in risk-prone areas. The European Community is aware of this situation and has raised programmes to support research initiatives, which aim at prevention of natural disasters and minimizing the impact on Cultural Heritage. For the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission a Tentative Roadmap has been set up for the area Environment including Cultural Heritage. The research need covers the following topics

Minor Constituent Of Bedrock But May Be Locally Abundant In Sukficial Materials

Shrinkage and swell Shrinkage and swell (volume changes) refers to the buildup and release of capillary tensile stresses within soil due to water. Volume changes are most profound among expansive soils. Figure 810-4 shows the general distribution of expansive soils in the United States. (Refer to Section 255 Natural Hazards Expansive Soils, for more information on expansive soils and their implications in site planning, design, and engineering.)

New York Ny Usa 1999

Wanese-Uom architect Toshiko Mori lias challenged the barriers that divide art Irani architecture or perhaps architecture from the real world Her WOVEN INHABITATION presented at the Artists Space in New York In 1999 seeks lo offer .i simple elegant solution to the vast problem of providing temporary housing ref.nees or victims ol natural disasters. Iter concept is lo make use ol 'the woven remnants ot revolutionary industrial fabrics already utilized by the aerospace, med - ano fasnion industries but never before developed as architectural building products Mon proposes an elegant inexpensive solution to a vast probte in

System Selection

Autovideur Bateau

Location may effects structure selection by the type of soil, topography, ground water level, natural hazards, such as fire, frost, or flood. Local soil conditions effect the foundation and possibly the entire structure. Soft soil may require pile foundations a mat q foundation may be chosen to balance the floating effect of high ground water. Locations with winter frost require deep foundations to prevent damage due to soil expansion frost (usually a depth of about one meter). Hillside locations may require caisson foundations to prevent sliding, but foundations are more common on flat sites. Locations with fire hazards require non-combustible material. Raising the structure off the ground may be the answer to flooding.

Building Codes Today

The IBC establishes minimum standards for the design and construction of building systems. It addresses issues such as use and occupancy, entry and exit during emergencies, engineering practices, and construction technology. Figure 11.2 is a general checklist to indicate whether a project is code-compliant or not.

Barriers

Inspection of mold in straw bale walls has shown that in most cases the moisture entered the wall during construction with the straw not being replaced prior to plastering. It can take up to two months for a perimeter wall to dry out, which is ample time to allow molds to form. Unplastered bales can withstand some surface wetting that will dry with air exposure. If during construction the walls are exposed to moisture then they should be inspected to see if the moisture has penetrated the core of the bales. A bale should be replaced if the moisture has penetrated more than three inches into the bale and above the 20 percent moisture content. Moisture meters with long probes are usually available from local farm supply stores. When handling any bales that have become moldy, wear personal protection in the form of respirators with HEPA filter cartridges, gloves, and goggles. Strong air blowers, used in the flood and fire industry, can be rented to dry surface moisture. Moisture can also...

Smallscale hydro

Ffestiniog Hydro Scheme

Hydropower has a history going back at least 2000 years. The Doomsday book records 5000 waterwheels. One of the earliest hydroelectric schemes and first in the world to power a private home was installed by the First Lord Armstrong in the 1880s at Cragside in Northumberland. This means, of course, that it is not exactly at the cutting edge of progress. The expansion of the National Grid sounded the death knell for many small hydroschemes. However, it is increasingly now being perceived as an important source of clean electricity, devoid of the environmental penalties associated with large-scale hydropower. It has minimal impact on the environment, resulting in almost zero emissions of SO2, CO2 and NOx. Nor does it cause acidification of water on the contrary, it can oxygenate rivers and streams.

Climate Change

Most weeks we read in the press, that climate change is upon us and that matters can only get worse. There is even a 'suspicion abroad' that conditions are worse than we think. Recently, official pronouncements reported in the press added to the concern they have led to headlines such as 'End of the World is nigh - it's official' 'Human race is killing the planet says Meacher' and 'Risk to the environment poses the same dangers as terror, warns Blair' (The Guardian, March 2003). Scientists are, however, more circumspect. As Pearce pointed out as far back as 1989, ' .there is uncertainty about the nature and effect of these changes to climate. For example, there is uncertainty about the exact trace gas emissions which will enter the atmosphere and the precise fuel mix which will be used in the future. There is also uncertainty about the nature and extent of the ecological changes which will be brought about by pollution in particular, there is uncertainty about the ways in which the...

Scene For The Future

Structural Engineering Disasters

When I started, the AR was in desperate straits commercially, rapidly losing money and circulation. Something had to be done, and remedies ranged from turning it into a magazine covering earthquakes and natural disasters to becoming a colour supplement to The Architects' Journal, our sibling. I was convinced that the magazine could become successful again by building on its great days under Richards and his proprietor Hubert de Cronin Hastings. The AR had flirted with amateur sociology and various forms of graphic criticism it was essential to bring the magazine back to being fundamentally about architecture and its immediately related disciplines.

Strength

Normal glass is extremely dangerous in earthquakes and other natural disasters. Only safety glass (tempered or laminated) should be used. Certain buildings like hospitals, fire services, police stations etc. have much greater need to remain serviceable in such situations and should use laminated-tempered glass only.

The Building

The police facility should be constructed of non-combustible materials. The design of the building, Including the exterior surfaces, landscaping, and other elements, should be planned to reduce the number af areas where explosives moy be hidden. Reinforced masonry on the exterior walls and either concrete or a lightweighl concrete layer on the roof, will improve the building's resistance la manmade sic or natural disasters. Many refinements to increase building safety and security can be provided at little additional cost. All or most af the glass areas, both interior and exterior.

Drainage Classes

Erodibility This refers to the extent to which a soil mass can withstand the forces of wind or water erosion. Figure 810-10 shows degrees of erodibility for various types of soils. (Kefer to Section 253 Natural Hazards Landslides and Snow Avalanches, for information on process of

Nako Temple Complex

And extreme climatic conditions and natural disasters. The walls of these historic structures are made of (Adobe) a sun-dried large sized mud brick laid in mud mortar with the foundation in rubble stone masonry, generally rests on a stable solid ground1. The thickness of the walls varies from 2 feet to about three feet. Vertical measurements shows that sometimes the outer faces of the walls are slanted so that the wall thickness is wider at the base and gradually tapers to the top, providing extra stability to these tall and flexible structures. Due to the cold climatic conditions for most time of the year, the openings in the walls of these temples are minimum possible and contribute to less than 5 of the total wall surface in a rectangular space and are located at the center of the wall. Besides the wooden doorframes such punctures in the walls are reinforced with thick vertical and horizontal tensile wooden members connected to each other with flexible joint. Series of wooden...

Empowering Community

What one saves on materials supports people rather than corporations. The simplicity of the technique lends itself to owner builder and sweat-equity housing endeavors and disaster relief efforts. Properly designed corbelled earthbag domes excel in structural resilience in the face of the most challenging of natural disasters. Does it really make sense to replace a tornado-ravaged tract house in Kansas with another tract house An earthbag dome provides more security than most homeowner insurance policies could offer by building a house that is resistant to fire, rot, termites, earthquakes, hurricanes, and flood conditions.

First Results

It provides basic information about other related running projects dealing with flooding, and on their impact on Cultural Heritage. An analysis is made also on other natural hazards, e.g. earthquake, landslides, subsidence etc. and their threat for Cultural Heritage. The European Commission has launched several international research projects on natural hazards affecting Cultural Heritage. These projects are valuable for the CHEF project because most of them European relevance and provide highly objective information. To take advantage of the synergies of similar research projects it is necessary to use the contacts that have been established within many networks, especially with end-users, who are the most important addressees for the project results.

Laminated Glass

Global terrorism and natural disasters have emphasized the need for architects to address emerging design challenges regarding safety, security, sustainability, and energy efficiency. As the building industry examines these performance issues and design criteria, architects are increasingly turning to laminated glass because of its many high performance benefits. While laminated glass is a relatively new architectural product in the United States, it has been a popular design tool in Europe for many years. Europe's experience with blasts and natural disasters has led many countries to place a premium on the safety and security of their citizens, especially in public buildings. Standards vary by country, but generally all government and public buildings including hospitals, daycare centers, airports, post offices, and train stations, must be built to withstand blast. In addition to the safety, security, and sound reduction benefits it affords, laminated glass also contributes to...

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Preparing for Armageddon, Natural Disasters, Nuclear Strikes, the Zombie Apocalypse, and Every Other Threat to Human Life on Earth. Most of us have thought about how we would handle various types of scenarios that could signal the end of the world. There are plenty of movies on the subject, psychological papers, and even survivalists that are part of reality TV shows. Perhaps you have had dreams about being one of the few left and what you would do in order to survive.

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