Learn How To Survive Energy Crisis
The oil embargo and the energy crisis of 1973 led to increased interest in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy sources such as solar power. Solar architecture was a direct response to the oil crisis, and its popularity grew in the late 1970s, particularly in the American southwest where there is abundant sunlight. Passive solar design principles were soon adapted to climates beyond that of the American southwest, as new technologies emerged and know-how improved. As concern grew over the use of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) to produce electricity, interest in the use of sunlight as an alternative source to meet some of the energy demands of buildings increased, albeit grudgingly.
Duced during the 1970s caused a certain embarassed revulsion because the awkward solar technology overpowered the architectural program and form, reducing design to something less than the sum of its parts. Ecological architecture built since the energy crisis carries the stigma of solar collectors and generally suffers from the same positivist logic of functionalist modernism, by which the complexity of architecture as an aesthetic, urban, and structural system is reduced to solving prioritized functions. Although there had been a thriving industry producing solar water heaters before World War II, their poor efficiency (ten-year life expectancy) and the low price of postwar electricity made them economically obsolete. The resurgence of solar heaters during the 1970s energy crisis was thus an unacknowledged revival. There had been an earlier generation of solar architecture, proposed initially between 1938 and 1958, when scientists and architects at MIT collaborated on four...
We need to go further than the perception of solar access as only a way of providing energy to heat, light, cool, and ventilate our buildings. We need to extend the concept of solar access to include a more rewarding quality of urban life based on opening our experiences to complex natural rhythms. This step goes beyond current perceptions of an energy crisis.
As mentioned previously, the 1978 Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA) requires that electric utilities buy electrical power from small suppliers. The price is established at a price equal to the cost the utility avoids by not having to produce that power. This has been interpreted as the cost of the fuel alone, without consideration of the cost of additional plant construction and related expenses. Under PURPA, energy has been purchased at around three cents per kWh by the same utilities that sell energy at eight to fourteen cents per kWh. This policy has discouraged development of grid-connected PV installations. With the metering systems currently in use and the relatively high initial product costs, PV grid-connected systems can seldom justify the cost of installation on economic grounds only, but this is changing. Some utilities allow the installation of small individual PV modules in existing conventional buildings. These PV modules plug into conventional outlets in the...
An important part of the Agency's programme involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, to increase long-term energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA SHC's research and development activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three working parties are charged with monitoring the various collaborative energy agreements, identifying new areas for cooperation and advising CERT on policy matters.
The staggering increase in oil prices during the 1970s concentrated world attention on the energy crisis. It seems probable that the world will exhaust its fossil fuels by the middle of the 21st century, or soon after, by which time we can only hope that man's ingenuity will have learnt how to extract energy from other renewable sources such as waves, the sun and wind.
Although the UK has a non-fossil fuel obligation requiring electricity generating companies to become involved in selling electricity generated without fossil fuels, there was no specific requirement for them in 1998 to buy PV-generated electricity from grid-connected buildings. The project team found only one of the six regional generators ready to do so Northern Electric.
Providing that ultra low pressure drop air distribution is specified and combined with most of the building components described earlier, it is possible to reduce the annual electrical load to the point where it can be met by grid-connected building integrated photovoltaics. The study undertaken by Conphoebus showed that photovoltaics could be integrated with return air flues built into the ventilated facade system however, this would be more appropriate for passive cooling applications in Mediterranean climates, as the heat loss from glass ducts in winter reduced the efficiency of the heat recovery system in more temperate applications.
Glen Hunter and Joanne Sokolowski built an off-grid, passive solar, straw bale home on 100 acres of land near Peterborough in 2002 2003. Glen and his father, Ronald, acted as General Contractor for the 2,650-square-foot home. Paul Dowsett of ScottMorris Architects created a modern style home and incorporated the passive solar elements a wall of windows faces south to let in the sun in the winter, but an overhang keeps the sun out in the summer. The overhang sits on a cupola with windows on all four sides that draw out the heat in the summer. There had never been hydro service on the land, so Glen and Joanne chose solar and wind with battery and generator back up for electricity. Hot water is provided via a solar thermal system with an on-demand propane boiler for backup. This heat is used in the radiant in-floor heating system as well as for domestic hot water. The house is one level with no basement. It will eventually have three bedrooms and two bathrooms, but will retain the very...
Until 1973, daylighting was considered part of architectural design, not part of lighting design. Since an artificial lighting system had to be installed anyway, the practice was to ignore daylight, even to the extent of shutting it out completely. However, when the energy crisis hit in the mid-1970s, the extensive use of electrical energy in nonresidential buildings for lighting drove designers to integrate the cheapest, most abundant, and in many ways most desirable form of lighting, daylighting.
Electricity supply utility are still at an early stage, but initial indications are that simple one-way metering will be appropriate since almost all the generated power will be used within the building under normal operating conditions. The PV installation is required to comply with Engineering Recommendation G77 produced by the Electricity Association, which specifies the requirements for small grid-connected electricity generating installations.
As discussed above, the primary energy equivalent of the annual PV yield can offset some to all of the primary energy (fossil fuels and electricity) needed by a house. In the case of an all-electric house (for example, space heating and DHW supplied by a compression heat pump), the PV yield can be directly compared to the electricity consumption by these technical systems. A sophisticated energy-saving concept is a precondition for such a PV application. Figure 14.1.1 shows the relevance of the PV output for different high-performance housing concepts. The light grey arrows indicate primary energy delivered the dark grey arrows point to the primary energy equivalent of the annual PV yield. The width of each arrow indicates the amount of energy. Except for the stand-alone case, all PV systems are grid connected.
This is now recognized by most governments, though there is still a reluctance to take sufficient measures to overcome the problems involved. The 'fossil fuels' which provide the bulk of the energy we use at present, are still thought of as cheap alternatives to action, ignoring the fact that coal, gas, and oil are a finite resource with limited life for the future, leading to a potential energy crisis. The future therefore appears to lie in the development of alternative sources of energy, but the problem facing us today is in taking action to ameliorate the energy crisis as it exists.
Within a fuel cell, hydrogen reacts with oxygen - pure or extracted from the air - and induces an ion flux through the electrolyte (usually an ion-porous membrane). Electrical power is generated while water is produced as a main reaction product (see Figure 12.6.1). This high-exothermic electrochemical reaction can be carried out at various temperature levels, depending on the type of cell (see Table 12.6.1). The temperatures together with the waste heat from the reformer have to be considered for applications with combined heat and power use (CHP). The electrochemical reaction under real conditions induces a voltage ranging from 0.6 V to 0.9 V DC per cell. Therefore, cells are stacked (connected in series) to reach a useful voltage. In a high-performance house, the DC current is converted to AC by an inverter, comparable to those developed for PV applications. With the exception of autonomous houses, the systems are grid connected. The so-called 'self-sufficient solar house' in...
It was not until the energy crisis, and the realization that our reliance on fossil fuels had limitations, that people started to question this high energy approach, and began to look at ways to reduce the electricity load in buildings, and one of the more obvious ways was to return to an understanding of the natural resource of daylight.
For a long time, renewable technologies in the UK were probably stigmatised by this linkage and unfounded assumptions about the lifestyle implications. These suggested that they were only relevant to those who wished to 'give up' on quality of life. In practice, some technical choices (low-tech solar panels or composting toilets) might impose lifestyle changes whilst others (grid connected wind) probably do not.
AI Gore, Honorary ASLA, wrote in the New York Times recently, Here is the good news The bold steps that are needed to solve the climate crisis are exactly the same steps that ought to be taken in order to solve the economic crisis and the energy security crisis. In Chinese, the word crisis is composed of two characters one represents danger, the other opportunity. What opportunities should landscape architects be aware of
The cause of micro-hydro has recently been further advanced by the development of a 'power controller' by a Danish engineer, Steen Carlsen. This makes it possible to create stand-alone power plants much more cheaply. It supplies AC current to a quality matching that from a large public grid and at a price that is a mere fraction of that from traditional synchronous generators previously necessary for stand-alone plants. The device provides a fixed voltage within a margin of 1 . This has an impact on the life of light bulbs for example. If a filament bulb receives an excess voltage of 10 its life expectancy is reduced by 70 . In developing countries this is an important consideration. Another problem with isolated off-grid communities is that they have a problem with surplus electricity. A further trick of the power controller is that it can 'deceive' conventional electric motors into acting as though they were connected to the grid. This allows cheap standard electric motors to be...
However there is a wide chasm that presently exists between professionals in the preservation community and environmental professionals. The obvious debate is whether it is a sustainable strategy to maintain an aesthetic and keep original material or whether it is more important to achieve better water shedding and thermal performance by compromising the original material. Windows are sources of heat loss and gain and curtain walls even more so. This was not a great concern to designers of large structures enveloped in glass prior to the Energy Crisis of 1973. However energy use is of primary importance today
Figure 5.1 shows a grid-connected PV installation, thus developing Figure 2.10 in more detail. Obviously, it is notional - the actual design will require the services of electrical engineers. Note that the inclusion and arrangement of components will also vary with the system and the manufacturers. Figure 5.1 shows a grid-connected PV installation, thus developing Figure 2.10 in more detail. Obviously, it is notional - the actual design will require the services of electrical engineers. Note that the inclusion and arrangement of components will also vary with the system and the manufacturers. A grid-connected PV installation Starting with the grid, it is essential to contact the electricity supplier early on and obtain its permission to connect, whether or not any electricity will be exported to the grid (and similarly whether or not it will be paid for). Clients with grid-connected PV buildings will need to ensure that the installation will cause no safety hazards and will comply...
In theory a PV installation can be sized and the cost calculated afterwards, much as engineers might size a heating system which is indispensable for a building. However, because PVs are an option and in the case of building-integrated, grid-connected systems, the grid supply is always available (and currently at a lower unit price), sizing and costing in practice proceed iteratively. Thus, before looking at determining the area of PV array we will examine some basic costs. The results of a study that looked at the cost of a one-off 2kWp grid-connected single house are shown in Figure 4.2 (6). Costs have fallen somewhat since this work was done but it remains a useful approximation. Note the higher percentage cost of the modules compared with Figure 4.1 due, most likely, to the scale of the installation. Bulk purchasing tends to significantly reduce module cost and total costs. In sizing a grid-connected PV array there are a number of key points to Installation 14 keep in mind
Living Off The Grid
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