Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency
The EU labelling system was introduced in 1995 and now covers most domestic white goods. Labels must be displayed and range from 'A' for the most energy efficient to 'G' for the least efficient. The aim is to make it easy to make like-for-like comparisons in energy consumption when choosing white goods. The scheme is based solely on self-assessment by manufacturers. It falls within existing consumer protection legislation, dealing with the description of goods by those selling them, and enforcement is dealt with in the same way as for other retail complaints. The scheme was introduced to deal with domestic appliances and there is no scheme for commercial appliances. The labelling scheme has recently been extended to cover public buildings.
Under the Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 local authorities are required to prepare a strategy for improving the energy efficiency of their housing stock. This involves setting targets for a 10-year plan to improve the energy efficiency of residential accommodation by a set percentage (30.9 ). The following is a typical list of energy efficiency measures that local authorities may set to achieve within 10 years two low-energy lights per household shall be installed in 80 of those without them Table 10.3 Typical energy efficiency measures for domestic premises (Based on BRECSU guidelines - see various case studies) Table 10.3 Typical energy efficiency measures for domestic premises (Based on BRECSU guidelines - see various case studies)
In a study reported in Meyer (2000), in which the interviewees were asked which functions they would expect and require to be performed by a home automation system, the temperature reduction during the occupants' absence was requested in the first place. This request implies the reduction of heating energy consumption and the associated reduction of heating costs. As mentioned earlier, an installed bus system provides the option of single room control. The target room temperature can be (pre) determined for each room for a given time. Furthermore, the flow temperature can be adjusted depending on the heat output demanded by the individual spaces. These control options can reduce heating energy consumption, provided that they are properly programmed. However, the amount of energy to be actually saved strongly depends on the structural conditions of a specified building. The smaller the thermal mass of the building and the poorer the thermal insulation of the building skin, the greater...
The simplest form of energy conservation is insulating heating pipes with foam or fiberglass. Pipe insulation costs about 0.30 to 0.80 per foot, and saves around 0.50 per foot each year. Fiberglass pipe insulation should be at least 19 mm (f in.) thick, and foam insulation 13 mm (2 in.) thick. Foam insulation should not be used on steam pipes, as it may melt. Steam pipes were usually asbestos-wrapped in the past, and existing ones can be left alone if they are well sealed, not flaky and not in a living space. If the white protective sheathing is damaged or missing, call a certified asbestos abatement contractor. fresh air without major increases in energy consumption. Heat exchangers are often included within heating and cooling systems, as part of other equipment or as separate units. In tightly built small buildings, the incoming and outgoing air streams are often adjacent to one another. By using a heat exchanger, 70 percent or more of the heat in the exhausted air can be extracted...
Vortice who recently supplied a Heat Recovery Unit to the Code for the Sustainable Homes Level 6 Barratt Green House at the BRE Innovation Park, are launching two new extractor fans. Both are energy efficient versions of already proven successful products. The Vort Quadro ES, a centrifugal fan and the Lineo ES, an in-line mixed flow fan, offer particularly low power consumption and low noise levels thanks to electronically controlled, brushless motors equipped with ball bearings. The Quadro Micro, for ventilation of medium-sized rooms in commercial premises plus bathrooms, showers and toilets in domestic situations, is available with or without an over - run timer. They are available for either surface mounting or flush fitting for wall or ceiling installation with integral side extraction to ducting. The Lineo, with its compact dimensions, is ideal for installation in cramped areas.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in 1974 as an autonomous agency within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to carry out a comprehensive programme of energy cooperation among its 25 member countries and the commission of the European Communities. An important part of the Agency's programme involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, to increase long-term energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA SHC's research and development activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three working parties are charged with monitoring the various collaborative energy agreements, identifying new areas for cooperation and advising CERT on policy matters.
Hanson Building Products has welcomed the publication of the Energy Saving Trust's latest guide, entitled 'Energy Efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 The EST encourages energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, and promotes better insulation and heating efficiency, and cleaner fuels for transport. The cover features Hanson's EcoHouse which demonstrates the company's latest developments in sustainable modern masonry construction and 'smart' living, as well as the benefits of offsite fabrication, high thermal mass and natural
Since Facilities Resource Management assumed operation of the campus in July of 1998, fossil fuel use has decreased by 15 . There is, however, room for substantial further improvements. A twofold approach to reducing energy consumption consists of 1) improving the thermal efficiency of buildings and operating efficiency of equipment, and 2) instituting creative policies and educational initiatives that encourage students, faculty, and staff to conserve energy. Buildings and activities within buildings currently account for greater than 90 of campus energy consumption. Effort should therefore focus on building renovation and on selecting appliances that minimize the use of energy (see EPAC statement on facilities in Section III). Innovative incentives should be created to encourage students, faculty, and staff to purchase and manage personal electronic equipment to minimize energy use.
There are now many architectural solutions which help provide more energy efficient homes, thus relying less on fossil fuels. Homes and landscapes can be designed for construction using a combination of recycled materials and materials which contain low levels of 'embodied' energy used in their manufacture and delivery (Figure 4.35) (see Edwards, 2000 Newton and Westaway, 1999 Harris and Borer, 2005). In terms of site layout, however, there are also approaches to the configuration of homes that allow them to be more energy efficient.
In the past, issues of energy conservation and electrical demand limitation were essentially economic decisions. Owners balanced the cost of installing con Energy conservation affects the work of the electrical engineer, the architect, the interior designer, and the building's owner and occupants. Conservation can start with the selection of high-efficiency motors, transformers, and other equipment. Electrical load control equipment is often necessary to meet code requirements for energy budgets. The electrical design should plan to accommodate expansion by making it simple to add additional equipment at a later date, rather than by over-sizing the original equipment. Sophisticated, sensitive electronic equipment is becoming a greater part of the commercial building electric load. Computers, building automation systems, telephone automation systems, printers, fax machines, PC networks, and copiers are commonplace. This high-tech equipment can save energy by limiting space...
Lighting consumes about 8 percent of the energy used in residences and 27 percent used in commercial buildings nationwide, and much of this energy is rejected as heat. For example, I lamps emit about 88 percent of their energy as heat, Q lamps 85 percent, F lamps 79 percent, MV lamps 73 percent, MH lamps 67 percent, and HS lamps 59 percent. Thus an easy way to economize on energy is to use cooler and more efficient lamps. This reduces energy losses far more than one may think. For example, changing an I lamp to an MH lamp may seem like only an 88 - 67 19 percent savings in energy but what really happens is that the 100 - 88 12 percent emit-tance of the I lamp is being replaced by the 100 - 67 33 percent emittance of the MH lamp. Thus the latter lamp produces the same output with only 12 33 of the input so the real energy savings is 88 - 67 x 12 33 64 percent. Similarly, a 29W CFL lamp with the same output as a 100W I lamp realizes a savings of not 88 - 79 9 percent but 88 - 79 x 12 21...
Either sealed combustion or a power-vented system will assure safety and energy efficiency in a water heater. In a sealed combustion system, outside air is fed directly to the water heater and the combustion gases are vented directly to the outside. Power-vented equipment can use house air for combustion, with flue gases vented by a fan. This is not a safe solution in a tightly sealed building. In 1987, the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act set minimum requirements for water heating equipment in the United States. Equipment is labeled with energy conservation information. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed standardized energy factors (EF) as a measure of annual overall efficiency. Standard gas-fired storage tank water heaters may receive an EF of 0.60 to 0.64. Gas-fired tankless water heaters rate up to 0.69 with continuous pilots, and up to 0.93 with electronic ignition. The 2001 DOE standards for water heaters will increase efficiency criteria, and should result...
Homes with less exposed external surfaces are more energy efficient, as heat is always lost through roofs, walls and floors. As a result, apartments and terraced houses are more energy efficient than semi-detached or detached homes. Denser buildings may also be more sheltered from cooling winds by surrounding buildings (Figure 4.37). Figure 4.37 Apartments and terraces are more energy efficient whilst denser configurations provide more shelter from winds in exposed locations
Trimo's new TrimoEnergy panel is just one of a number of smart construction products being launched by the company for those seeking to reduce energy costs and lower their CO2 footprint. TrimoEnergy uses an innovative pre-painted Prelaq steel sheet material that when used to coat either one or both sides of the cladding panel works during the cyclic seasonal changes to reduce heating and cooling costs the result is annual savings as high as 10 . As an external coating TrimoEnergy works by reducing heat conduction into the building by reflecting the Sun's energy in the Near Infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum away from the building - advantageous during hot weather. As an internal coating, TrimoEnergy reflects thermal infrared energy back into the building, which is ideal during cold winter weather.
The IEA sponsors research and development in a number of areas related to energy. The mission of one of those areas, the Energy Conservation for Building and Community Systems Programme (ECBCS), is to facilitate and accelerate the introduction of energy conservation and environmentally sustainable technologies into healthy buildings and community systems through innovation and research in decision-making, building assemblies and systems, and commercialization. The objectives of collaborative work within the ECBCS research and development programme are directly derived from the ongoing energy and environmental challenges facing IEA countries in the area of construction, the energy market and research. ECBCS addresses major challenges and takes advantage of opportunities in the following areas Overall control of the programme is maintained by an executive committee, which not only monitors existing projects, but also identifies new areas where collaborative effort may be beneficial. To...
Delivering 104 fuel efficiency (based on net calorific value), the new generation of condensing gas fired heaters - Reznor's UESA range - will substantially cut energy usage and fuel bills in buildings. Even at full output, their 104 efficiency is still maintained. Using advanced heat transfer technology and a MacroChannel heat exchanger manufactured from highly conductive aluminium, the UESA provides the highest level of heat transfer. Tthe exchanger recovers and transfers the heat back into the building - cutting fuel consumption. Due to its high efficiency, the UESA range also qualifies for Enhanced Capital Allowances, a Government scheme which enables businesses to benefit from installing energy efficient equipment, by claiming 100 first year capital allowances on the heaters and associated installation costs, further reducing the payback period. Available in four sizes with heat outputs ranging between 35kW-102kW for use with natural gas or propane, it suits many applications.
Terraced housing and apartments are intrinsically more thermally efficient than detached dwellings, as they share walls. Theoretical studies and measured feedback have established the value of grouping buildings together for energy conservation, and this is common practice in most of Europe. In the UK, we build significantly more detached houses, in part because of unreliable acoustic performance, a problem that should be readily resolvable. Taller constructions can increase energy consumption due to greater exposure and the need for lifts. Many towns and cities are successfully developing the combination of high quality with high density.
The statutory requirements relating to energy efficiency are unlikely to stand still. Improvements will still need to be made to continue reducing non-renewable fuel consumption, waste and pollution. The extent of these improvements will be influenced by the rate of climate change and government responses to it. Figure 10.11 Layout of typical factory building with energy-efficiency measures According to Gold and Martin (1999a,b), the likely aims of future legislation controlling energy efficiency and the environment are
Energy efficiency, like spatial performance, is an important design criterion for offices. The primary environmental effect of energy use is the emission of carbon dioxide, which is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. If a building is made more energy efficient, therefore, by consuming less energy it will The following five key refurbishment options for achieving maximum energy efficiency in offices are
The Energy Star label (Fig. 1-2) was created in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help consumers quickly and easily identify energy efficient products such as homes, appliances, and lighting. Energy Star products are also available in Canada. In the United States alone in the year 2000, Energy Star resulted in greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to taking 10 million cars off the road. Eight hundred and sixty four billion pounds of carbon dioxide emissions have been prevented due to Energy Star commitments to date. The Energy Star Homes program reviews the plans for new homes and provides design support to help the home achieve the five-star Energy Star Homes rating, by setting the standard for greater value and energy savings. Energy Star-certified homes are also eligible for rebates on major appliances. The program also supplies Energysmart computer software that walks you through a computerized energy audit of...
Services account for most if not all energy consumption in a building. They also account for around 40-50 per cent of the capital cost of a new work and can form a substantial part of the cost of an adaptation scheme. Moreover, services can take up nearly 30 per cent of the space in a building. It is therefore crucial that attention is given to the energy efficiency of services within a building.
Despite the best efforts of government and others there are still a number of barriers that inhibit if not prevent the attainment of greater energy efficiency. Such barriers can be summarized as follows Legal The delays in implementing any measures may undermine their effectiveness. Statutory constraints such as obtaining approvals may inhibit the implementation of energy efficiency measures. Human Excessively sceptical or hostile attitudes towards the greenhouse effect hypothesis, coupled with problems such as environmental pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels may hamper the promotion of energy efficiency. Ignorance of the benefits and costs of undertaking energy efficiency is another factor that can inhibit the implementation of these measures. Technical The difficulty (in terms of access, compatibility or fixing) of installing energy efficiency measures to the fabric or services. Installations such as solar reflectors or PV panels may compromize the appearance of a building.
The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation funded a study overseen by British Columbia bale builder Habib Gonzalez. Using energy consumption data from BC bale homes, they were compared to equivalent frame-walled homes via computer modeling. The following is an excerpt from that report While straw bale houses have a theoretical energy saving advantage over conventional houses, there is little good data on how they actually perform. This survey attempted to provide a first cut at comparing the space-heating energy consumption of straw bale homes and conventional homes. Most surveys of this type compare the measured houses to control houses of the same size, construction quality, occupancy, etc. Control houses for this study were too hard to locate, given the diversity of straw bale house design and the use of slab-on-grade foundations. Only 3 of the 11 study homes had full or walkout basements. Instead of actual control houses, the energy use of the conventional houses was modeled...
ENERGY STAR certifications have been developed by the EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for energy-efficient furnaces, central and room air conditioners, and heat pumps. ENERGY STAR homes are identified as at least 30 percent more energy efficient than the current International Energy Conservation Code requirements. Utility companies have realized that it costs less to offer rebates for the purchase of energy-efficient appliances than to build new power plants. Local electric utilities and some gas companies offer rebates for high-efficiency heat pumps and central air conditioners. Gas companies offer rebates for high-efficiency furnaces and boilers.
Global issues concerning energy conservation and reduction in pollution to combat climate change, and the loss of finite resources have also played a part in both the demand for, and supply of, property. Sustainability is the primary policy response of governments both in the West and other parts of the developed world to these problems (see Chapter 10). Building adaptation, therefore, is essentially about responding to changes in demand for property. It is for this reason that it is more prevalent in industrialized countries. As the stock of property ages and building use varies over time, adaptation has become more common. Any building that performs poorly in terms of energy efficiency, comfort conditions or environmental impact is a potential candidate for adaptation (Energy Research Group, 1999).
As seen in Chapter 1, all buildings eventually are affected to a greater or lesser degree by some form of obsolescence or inefficiency. Deficiencies in the fabric and services occur because of their inability to satisfy current requirements and handle technological change. Sooner or later they fail to meet some if not all of the user needs or statutory requirements. This occurs for three main reasons regardless of whether the building is fully or partially occupied or wholly vacant. Firstly, construction standards and requirements are continually improving because of Government policy to enhance energy efficiency and building performance. As the demands and expectations of property users tend to increase over time, this is also having a major impact on the building regulations. Secondly, wear and tear as well as exposure to the elements results in ongoing deterioration or other adverse change in the building structure and fabric. Thirdly, advances in technology and rising demands by...
Investigations into modern roof constructions by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) have indicated that conventional ventilation is not the only solution to condensation in loft spaces. Warm breathing roof construction (alternatively called 'sealed pitched roof construction') offers a dry, draught-free loft area, and gives better energy efficiency. This type of roof design requires minimal background ventilation.
One of the main ways in which the thermal performance of an existing building can be improved is to lower the U-value of its fabric. The main methods of doing this are shown later. At this juncture it is worth looking at the targets set by the government as part of its campaign to improve energy efficiency through the building regulations. Parts L and Section 6 of the English Welsh and Scottish building regulations respectively are regularly being overhauled to provide tighter controls on energy efficiency and conservation.
Energy consumption relating to comfort conditions is not restricted to heating of buildings during winter. Even in temperate climates such as Britain some cooling inside the building will be required to combat overheating during summer. In some large office buildings cooling can account for a substantial proportion of their energy costs.
Table 10.8 Energy efficiency issues Identify energy efficiency targets. However, with the ever-tighter controls on energy efficiency in the Building Regulations it is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve. For example, to attain a target U-value of 0.16 W m2K for a flat roof the mineral fibre insulation would have to be about 250 mm thick. its energy efficient (uses only 14 of the embodied energy that is used to manufacture glass fibre according to Second Nature UK Ltd, a supplier of sheep's wool insulation called Thermafleece )
The solid walls of no-fines construction are generally between 200 and 225 mm thick (BRE leaflet BR 160, 1989). They are rendered externally with a two-coat render and usually finished internally with plasterboard fixed to timber battens attached to the no-fines walling using cut-nails. Up until the late 1960s this form of walling was considered to be relatively efficient in thermal terms. With increasing energy efficiency demands following the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s, however, many of these original no-fines dwellings are now considered thermally inefficient (see typical problems listed below). Some form of rendered 'raincoat' overcladding system to the no-fines blocks would be needed to rectify this deficiency (see Chapter 9).
Any adaptation scheme to an old building should try to incorporate the latest energy efficiency measures but care must be taken to ensure that there will be no conflict with, or devaluing of, its historic detail. In many cases good environmental practice can go hand in hand with building conservation.
In one of the Energy Efficiency Office's Best Practice Programme publications (GIR 32, 1995), four types of 'refurbishment' were identified major repair, acquisition and rehabilitation, conversion, and re-improvement. Including extensions, these comprise most of the adaptation work featured in this book.
These amendments to the Regulations are a response to the government's aim to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The new requirements are more complex than earlier versions and for the first time elements apply to changes to existing buildings. In mid-September 2005, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) and Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) announced new measures to make buildings more energy efficient to save one million tonnes of carbon per year by 2010. This is equivalent to emissions from more than one million semi-detached homes. The revised Part L will also make air pressure leakage testing of buildings mandatory, improving compliance with the regulations by showing where there is unacceptable leakage, which can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. Part L of the Building Regulations sets out standards for building work in order to conserve fuel and power and minimise heat loss, raising energy efficiency...
Energy efficiency actions In an adapted building this can be best achieved by reducing energy consumption and minimizing heat losses. Lighting, for example, accounts for the majority of energy consumption in commercial buildings (see THERMIE Maxibrochures, 1992). Adaptation schemes should therefore attempt to maximize natural daylighting (e.g. by installing light-wells or sun-pipes) if possible and provide energy efficient lighting where necessary. Global warming is likely to raise the demand for active cooling systems in buildings. Air conditioning in a building increases its energy consumption. In many cases it is more expensive to cool a building than it is to heat it. More reliance therefore will need to be placed on passive cooling measures to combat this problem.
It is for these reasons that housing conversion programmes are so attractive and have the added bonus of helping to achieve a more sustainable environment. Moreover, change-of-use schemes generate less energy and waste than comparable new-build projects (Energy Research Group, 1999).
Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new Reducing CO2 and other toxic emissions from buildings to a minimum (e.g. to help combat the greenhouse effect) by making building more energy efficient. This means using insulation materials, such as mineral fibre, that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydro-chlorfluorocarbons (HCFCs), the main ozone-depleting chemicals. The use of Halon, a CFC-containing fire-fighting gas in fire extinguishers, should also be avoided. Using low energy lighting with appropriate controls to reduce energy costs. Achieving a highly energy efficient fabric - super-insulated and with excellent air-tightness, but adequately ventilated to prevent excessive moisture build-up within the building. Incorporating more responsive and energy efficient services - with sensors and automatic controls to...
Sustainable construction, in other words, whether in relation to new or existing buildings, deals with a variety of proactive processes. If a building can continue to function effectively for an indefinite period, it is considered sustainable. For example, sustainability in this context is primarily concerned with matters such as minimizing construction waste and pollution, saving energy, increasing the use of recycled and locally produced materials and relying less on toxic chemicals. It is also about using whole-life cycle costing in the design of new build and adaptation schemes to help determine economic maintenance cost levels. The primary goals of sustainable construction, therefore Biomass using the energy stored in plants and organic matter, such as woodchip-powered heat and power plant. It is important to appreciate, however, that there is no end-point in this process - sustainability means continuous improvement. Not surprisingly, then, building adaptation is considered one...
It was noted earlier that sustainable construction is now an important part of the political and environmental agendas. Modernizing existing buildings can go some way to achieve a more sustainable environment. This means increasing energy efficiency and reducing wastage of non-renewable fuels and materials (see Chapter 10 especially).
Even in the space of a few years a number of developments have occurred that have implications for the adaptation of buildings. Sustainability, of course, continues to gain increasing importance and this is reflected in many advances within the construction industry. The need for maximizing the use of environmentally friendly materials and processes, for example, is now well recognized. In particular the increasing importance of energy efficiency to sustainable refurbishment is such that it justifies a new separate chapter.
Another passive energy efficiency measure is to install a roof vent stack, which acts as a 'windcatcher'. It is a form of passive stack ventilation that has a circular or square louvred cowl. Monodraught Ltd is one company that supply and fits this method of maximizing natural daylighting in a building.
The lighting system can comprise halogen lamps for high-quality illumination. Long-lasting sodium bulbs can be used in light fittings in fire escape stairs and less well-used areas of the building as part of an overall energy efficiency strategy. The various measures to improve the energy efficiency of lighting are discussed in more detail in Chapter 9.
As pointed out by BRECSU (GPG 155, 2001) the energy efficiency of a dwelling can be improved without waiting to undertake a full refurbishment package. Repair and improvement schemes provide many opportunities for energy measures. Indeed, the economies of scale involved normally mean that it is cheaper to combine energy efficiency measures with repair and improvement work. It is usually more expensive and disruptive to do these measures separately at a later date. The main energy efficiency measures to buildings are summarized as follows Use energy efficient lighting (see below). Energy efficient fixtures. Energy efficient heating and cooling systems. Building control system for energy efficiency and indoor air quality. High reflectance Energy Star roofing installed. 20 per cent savings in energy consumption.
Because of its articulated foundation design, a CLASP system was often used for schools and other similar buildings in areas with mining subsidence problems. However, older versions (e.g. Mark 1 and Mark 2), especially, are likely to require extensive energy efficiency upgrades as indicated in Figure 10.7.
The implications of information technology in both the home and work environments are enormous. Intelligent properties which will involve responsive environmental controls, as well as interactive internet-linked television and energy efficiency measures are likely to be amongst the most influential developments in building technology within the next 20 years. It is not only new buildings that will have these modern facilities. Existing properties, too, will also need to accommodate these advances to avoid obsolescence. Building adaptation is the process whereby this can be done. Climatic change requiring existing as well as new buildings to become more robust and energy efficient.
Victorian baths were usually of a standard form of load-bearing masonry construction (e.g. thick solid sandstone walls topped with a slated pitched roof). The roof construction usually consisted of a heavy timber hammer beam trusses or mild steel trussed rafters. The energy-efficiency measures for school buildings having a high thermal mass described earlier, therefore, can apply to these properties.
The impact of poor housing on health is significant according to many researchers (see e.g. Burridge and Ormandy, 1995). Preventing dampness and hypothermia is another reason over above applying energy saving measures why modernization of housing should include thermal efficiency. The Office of National Statistics (Anon, 2000b), for example, reported that premature deaths in the UK from cold-related illnesses such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases have exceeded 50 000 per annum. Cold-related illnesses in other words account for around 10 per cent of all deaths in the UK, which has average annual mortality figure of about 580000 according to the www.statistics.gov.uk. The elderly living alone and householders on low-income are especially susceptible to this modern-day scandal, which of course ought not to happen on this scale in any part of the world. Properties housing these vulnerable occupiers would nevertheless benefit from energy efficiency improvements and other...
Ideally the extension should provide an opportunity to enhance a property's environmental performance. The client may have a policy for the extension that requires the maximum use of indigenous materials, low energy use services and high thermal efficiency of the fabric. See Chapter 10 for more details of sustain-ability measures. Utilize as many local materials as possible but avoid recycled materials with high transport energy costs. This not only reduces costs but also helps ensure that the extension is compatible with the existing construction.
Positive knock-on effect on surrounding properties. Moreover, an adapted building ought to be more energy efficient than previously, particularly when sustainability is a key policy criterion. Because of their high thermal capacity and slow thermal response, some traditional buildings are relatively good at conserving energy. Older buildings tend to have thick solid walls, small windows and natural lighting and ventilation, which leads to economy in energy consumption (Scottish Civic Trust, 1981). However, this will depend on the U-values of the fabric of the building under consideration. As we have seen adaptation is an important sustainability criterion. This is because it reduces both energy consumption and the generation of waste. It minimizes the need for using up fresh material resources and energy required in producing and transporting them. In other words, the embodied energy and transport energy consumption is much lower than with a similar size new-build scheme. Moreover,...
The correct balance between natural and mechanical ventilation in buildings is not easy to achieve. These days, there is increasing onus on designers and builders to minimize air leakage from buildings as a means of maximizing energy efficiency. The major drawbacks of this objective, however, are that eliminating background ventilation from a building can reduce the indoor air quality and increase the risk of interstitial condensation occurring in the external fabric. The latter can lead to moisture-related problems such as fungal
Achieving a higher level of compliance with the building regulations and other statutory provisions such as fire regulations, energy efficiency, disabled access and soundproofing is obviously beneficial to all concerned (see Chapters 10 and 11 especially). Meeting these requirements makes buildings safer, more comfortable and efficient as well as user-friendly. The Home Energy Conservation Act 1995, for example, local authorities are now duty bound to assess the energy efficiency of their stock of dwellings. This clearly has implications for upgrading the thermal performance of housing generally.
In many modernization schemes, upgrading the thermal performance of walls often forms one of the main objectives. This is required not only to improve the building's energy efficiency. It is also done to arrest deterioration in the fabric as well as to enhance its appearance and provide weather protection. Improving the thermal efficiency of walls is obviously one of the main methods of increasing a building's energy efficiency. The other is draught-proofing doors and windows. The aim is to curb heat losses and energy consumption by lowering the U-value of the fabric. This can be done in one of three ways
The measures required to improve the energy efficiency of the fabric of school buildings are illustrated in Figure 10.7-10.10. The other measures that can be taken are summarized as follows Figure 10.8 Typical section through heavyweight school building showing energy efficiency measures
The maintenance costs of an old building, even one that has been refurbished, are usually still higher than those for new build. The rental income that can be derived from an existing building may not be as high as that obtained by a modern facility that fully meets the needs of today's building user. Moreover, the energy costs are likely to be higher as it is hard to match the insulation standards of new build. Some materials required for use in adaptation work to match existing are expensive and hard to come by.
Replacing old or inefficient central heating boilers is often necessary in residential and commercial refurbishment schemes. In such instances condensing boilers should be used because of their energy-saving potentials. In particular, condensing gas boilers operate at an average annual efficiency of 85 per cent, which is about 15 per cent more than the standard type (Harrison and Trotman, 2000). Energy consumption Energy saving measures Energy savings relating to lighting in residential and non-residential buildings can be improved by as Luminaires In a refurbishment scheme replacing existing light fittings using modern equipment can often result in substantial energy savings as well as improved visual conditions (THERMIE, 1992). Modern luminaires use reflector systems, which replace existing diffusers or prismatic panels.
One of the major requirements in any adaptation work is to enhance the energy efficiency of the building. This is usually best achieved by improving the level of insulation in the external walls, roof and ground floor of the building to reduce the overall U-value of the fabric (see Chapter 10).
According to the BRE and the Energy Saving Trust (EST) buildings in Britain consume up to 50 per cent of the country's energy. Twenty-eight per cent of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from domestic energy use. Ninety per cent of total energy consumption is building energy use - the remaining 10 per cent is related to energy in manufacture. This coupled with the estimated 10 billion of energy wasted in the UK every year makes energy efficiency a major sustainability criterion. The British Government responded in the mid-1990s by issuing several pieces of legislation to tackle this problem. For example, the Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 and the Energy Conservation Act 1996, deal specifically with this issue. These two Acts required all local authorities with housing responsibilities to prepare, publish and submit to the Secretary of State (for the then DETR) an energy conservation report identifying energy conservation measures for residential accommodation in their area. The...
Heat loss through a building's fabric has a major impact on its energy efficiency. According to Cairns (1993), the approximate percentages of heat losses from an uninsulated dwelling are as follows (with the revised figures as a result of increasing the insulation levels shown in brackets) Accordingly, following refurbishment, all housing should be as energy efficient as cost-effectiveness allows (GPG 82, 1992), in order to There are, of course, a variety of ways of attaining better energy efficiency in existing buildings. Solar energy schemes comprise one group and these are examined below. At a basic level, however, energy efficiency goals can be attained in a refurbishment scheme by using energy efficient lighting
Table 10.6 list some typical performance yardsticks for various categories of buildings based on floor area. As an alternative the yardsticks can also be based on building volume (i.e. GJ m3). These energy benchmarks can be used to determine the extent of the required energy efficiency measures. They are normally found by calculating the Normalized Performance Indicator (NPI) using the following formula Npi _ Corrected Annual Energy Consumption Floor Area
Energy management. TV monitoring, energy management, Refrigeration. Energy management.6 6. Energy management Monitoring of internal and external conditions, optimization of energy flows, zone controls, peak load shedding, energy cut-out for unoccupied rooms, improved insulation, energy reclaim systems from equipment. 6. Energy management Monitoring of internal and external conditions, optimization of energy flows, zone controls, peak load shedding, energy cut-out for unoccupied rooms, improved insulation, energy reclaim systems from equipment. 1. Energy efficiency (see Chapter 10).
The masonry 'spine wall' (see Figure 14.36) can be used for office blocks, where precast prestressed concrete floor units can span up to 8 m onto the corridor walls or spine. Current thinking in office layout is that the depth of space from a window should be 6 m maximum for natural daylight to be enjoyed by the user. Coupled with energy costs for lighting and air-conditioning costs, this form of layout has its advantages. Masonry structures also have a naturally high thermal mass aiding natural ventilation and reducing the need for air-conditioning.
For environmental and cost considerations, it is often worthwhile to study historical building materials and systems. Timber framing, stone masonry, wattle and daub, and thatch all offer the potential to use sustainably harvested natural materials to create beautiful, non-toxic, efficient homes.
The depth to which the deepest boreholes are taken will depend, as usual, on the nature of the soils and of the proposed construction. For instance, for the design of a nuclear power plant on deep alluvium, detailed knowledge of the soil is required to a depth of perhaps 200 m, while general knowledge of the nature of subsoil will be necessary down to bedrock or rock-like material.
Vard's energy efficiency and green building programs is about 36 , about twice that of Harvard's multi-billion-dollar endowment.11 In other words, to improve their rate of return, Harvard's endowment managers would be well advised to put as much money as possible into the campus's sustain-ability initiatives The same could be said for most private universities.
In practice, however, taking this responsibility runs into a number of serious problems. One, to 'build in' particular mediations, or to eliminate undesirable ones, it is necessary to predict what mediating roles technologies-in-design will play in their future use contexts, while there is no univocal relationship between the activities of designers and the eventual mediating role of the products they design. Technological mediations are no intrinsic qualities of technologies, but are brought about in complex interactions between designers, users, and the technologies. As became clear above, technologies can be used in unforeseen ways, and therefore are able to play unforeseen mediating roles. The energy-saving light bulb is another example of this, having actually resulted in increased energy consumption since such bulbs often appear to be used in places previously left unlit, such as in the garden or on the fa ade of a house, thereby canceling out their economizing effect (Steg,...
The project's 13 buildings (above) are powered by an efficient on-site combined heat and power plant. Timber cladding (below) brings the massive buildings down to a pedestrian-friendly scale. Elmpark is some 40 percent denser than is normally allowed under Dublin law, but the project's sophisticated, sustainable design was approved by a city council that saw the virtue in this high-density, energy-efficient project. Stuttgart, Germany-based environmental engineering firm Transsolar collaborated closely with BCMEA to create this holistic project. The project's 13 buildings (above) are powered by an efficient on-site combined heat and power plant. Timber cladding (below) brings the massive buildings down to a pedestrian-friendly scale.
The advantages of electronic filters are that they generally have low energy costs because they don't create a lot of resistance. The airflow through the units remains constant, and the precipitating cell is reusable, avoiding long-term filter replacement costs. The major disadvantages are that they become less efficient with use, precipitating cells require frequent cleaning, and they can produce ozone, either as a by-product of use or intentionally. Those installed into HVAC systems have a relatively high initial cost, including expensive installation.
Sustainable design places an emphasis on maximising comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously and, in combination with appropriate ventilation requirements, preventing those conditions that are associated with ill-health. This can be aided by the appropriate, climate dependent, use of thermal mass. The thermal storage capacity of materials and the concept of thermal mass, are widely understood. Human beings sense temperature as a combination of air temperature, modified by the air velocity, and radiation from, or to, surrounding surfaces.
Computer simulations can be useful design tools to estimate the future energy consumption of a building. Strategies worked out at planning stage can be double-checked after completion of the project and improved if required. This involves a detailed track record highlighting the actual energy consumption values that might differ from original estimates. Energy consumption may be recorded in relation to a particular research project or over a certain period of time. Ongoing control and documentation also reduce the risk of failures of the system. Constant improvement of the procedures of use and adjustment to the requirements of the users will enhance the energy performance of the building and make facilities more convenient and easy to use, which helps to avoid handling errors.
The dam (including the power plant, intake tunnels, etc.) was created from 4.5 million cubic yards (3.4 million cubic meters) of concrete. That would be enough to build a two-lane road from Seattle, Washington, to Miami, Florida. The dam's total weight is 6.6 million tons (5.9 million metric tons). Each of the power plant's generators weighs 4 million pounds (1.8 million kilograms), about the same as four-and-a-half fully loaded airplanes.
incandesces and releases visible light. Incandescent bulbs have a low initial cost but are the most expensive to operate for the same level of light. Incandescent lamps have by far the shortest life and are the least energy efficient of the lamps discussed here. A 100-watt incandescent bulb only radiates 10 of its electric energy input as light over 70 is radiated as heat in the infrared spectrum. Light output decreases to 80 to 90 of its initial value as it reaches it rated life. Incandescent light color is usually yellowish white, but lamps with different color outputs are available. Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 High energy efficiency High energy efficiency Highest energy efficiency
You can guarantee cool, refined work from STA and this 7000sq.m. university building is no exception. It is very energy efficient and, as one might expect, internally flexible, with its accommodation centred around a central atrium or 'hub' feature which aims to serve as the focus o of movements, meetings etc. Externally, the cladding is a s well-designed and rather sleek glass rain-screen. u
No matter how you heat your home, you can always find ways to prevent heat waste. Create sheltered entries so doors don't open directly outside. Mud rooms, boot rooms, and closed porches are more than just practical they save on energy costs, too. Inside the house, match heat distribution to activity. An office, where you sit for long periods, will likely require more heat than a kitchen, where you are moving about or creating
Optimum start stop controls vary the heating system start-up time depending on the weather, so as to achieve a required temperature by a required time. Heat-up times are reduced during milder weather, saving energy. Optimum stop facilities turn boilers off when the resulting temperature fall-off will still allow the required temperature to be met at the end of occupancy. This means they close down earlier on mild days. The greatest energy savings are likely to be in lightweight buildings and with heating systems of low thermal capacity.
LEDs are a revolutionary new lighting technology that reduce energy consumption, allow lighting to be programmed by computer and permit wide variations in lighting color. LEDs use chips, not bulbs, so emit a lot less heat than incandescent or even fluorescent lamps. Made with computer chips, they are easily dimmable and programmable. LEDs are already in major use in traffic signals, as cities and counties throughout the country are using them to replace standard bulbs. In addition to saving energy, the LEDs' long life reduces maintenance costs for replacing burned-out bulbs by almost 90 . A lighting design colleague of mine recently used LEDs for highlighting a light-rail bridge, programmed to put on a light show every time a train passed over. The possibilities for using LEDs in lighting design are endless
The most common form of wall construction utilising reconstructed stone pre-cast cladding, as manufactured by Trent Concrete, has achieved a B rating in the 2008 BRE Green Guide to Specification. This rating underlines the inherent sustainable benefits of concrete. Firstly, it has immense strength. Offering superb resistance to decay and degradation, Trent's products last and last. Lifetime energy costs are also significantly reduced thanks to concrete's impressive thermal mass. By keeping heat in during winter and out during summer, the building relies far less on heating and air conditioning, thus minimising its long-term carbon footprint.
The traditional approach to air-conditioning is to provide a ducted system in which fans operate at a constant speed throughout the year. It is generally the case that much larger volumes of air are required to cool spaces than for pure ventilation. So an all-air system has large fans and airhandling equipment, in large ceiling voids. The duct and fan sizes are determined by the peak summer condition, which may last only for a few hours. The rest of the time the fans push large volumes of air around needlessly, and electrical energy consumption on air handling is higher than it need be. A contemporary space- and cost-efficient alternative is to use a cold surface (chilled ceilings or beams) to perform the cooling, and to use a reduced size air system for the ventilation and latent cooling roles. By using low air velocities (1-2m s rather than 5-6 m s), it is possible to achieve substantial reductions in fan energy consumption.
Building codes increasingly require energy-efficient 3 lighting. Energy restrictions commonly apply to all buildings over three stories, and to all building types except low-rise housing. These energy restrictions are relatively new code requirements, and continue to be modified and accepted in new jurisdictions. Minimum code requirements must be met to acquire a building permit. Codes usually allow trade-offs between energy-efficient building envelope components and energy use by HVAC or lighting. Interior lighting energy use can usually be calculated by either a building area method, or on a space-by-space basis. Code requirements typically apply to new construction and additions, and do not require alteration or removal of existing systems, although some efforts at relamping existing fixtures may be required. The energy-efficiency code requirements mandate automatic shutoff provisions for interior lighting. Incandescent lighting may effectively be eliminated for exit signs. Some...
The goal for lighting educational spaces is to conserve energy while supporting a rich learning environment through careful selection and location of lighting fixtures and controls. Institutional and educational buildings have tight budgets and require extremely hardy, vandal-proof, and low energy consumption lighting. Maintenance is generally poor and on a repair rather than prevention basis, so equipment should be as maintenance-free as possible.
The energy efficiency, maintenance and use of the building were constant themes running throughout the design. In order to meet the client's objectives, simple and robust strategies have been adopted wherever possible. The design team is working with BP Solar who will provide the PV installation (modules, wiring and power conditioning equipment) as a turnkey package, to be installed during the final stages of the main building contract.
Window energy ratings A European system of energy rating bands for complete window units based on the range A (best) to G (poorest) gives guidance to specifiers on energy efficiency. The ratings take into account a combination of the three key factors which affect performance namely, U-value, solar gain and heat loss by air infiltration. The
The building achieves energy savings of up to 50 compared to a standard supermarket design, by using a combination of novel and best practice sustainable construction methods. It scored the maximum BREEAM rating of 31 points for energy efficiency. Low ambient artificial lighting levels mean that fewer luminaires are installed at ceiling level. The localised merchandise lighting is economical to install and operate.
How does a green building maintain its energy savings over the long haul This is one of the critical questions in green building design, since there is plenty of evidence that building energy performance degrades over time. Systems wear out, and new building maintenance and operations people may fail to make necessary repairs, carry out preventive maintenance and generally fail to manage the building's energy-using systems as originally designed. Green buildings are encouraged by LEED to take two simple measures to counteract this tendency toward energy-efficiency degradation. First, projects can gain a LEED point by developing a monitoring and verification plan, following established international protocols and then installing sensors that measure the actual performance of key energy-using systems such as chillers and boilers. The sensors are connected to the building The leading force in the US behind measurement and verification is the Federal Energy Management Program, which...
The narrow plan (13.5 m wide) and high ceilings (3.45 m) allows natural light to be exploited. There are large areas of glazing, in the form of opening windows. At occupancy level these are manually operated, while the high-level hopper windows are integral to the natural ventilation strategy and under the control of the building energy management system. The top floor incorporates clerestory windows, giving this floor much higher
Sustainable architecture is more than energy efficient or zero-emission architecture. It must adapt to and respect its environment in the broader context of 'milieu'. This encompasses the natural, ecological, bio-economic, cultural and societal setting. A successful solution must address the following principles, taken from the 1992 Rio Declaration (WCED, 1992)
The landmark building of the government complex is the City Hall designed by John Lee. Its roof has an eye-catching form like the wings of a roc. It is equipped with solar voltaic panels as part of the effort to reduce energy consumption and costs. Below the roof the building is divided into two almost symmetrical parts containing the various administrative functions of the city. In front of the building is the 'Crystal Island', a transparent steel and glass structure, and a green zone that extends to Lotus Hill.
Air barrier systems provide several advantages for building projects, including increased interior comfort, durability and energy efficiency. With these attributes, they are suitable for a variety of applications in various climates. Air barriers have the potential to reduce air leakage to acceptable levels for less than 1.50 square foot of gross building area, and are often specified for buildings. Air barriers are typically regulated through energy codes, which recognize the importance of airtight buildings and energy efficiency. As of early 2006, several states have developed existing and pending legislation on air barriers, as well as compliance criteria.
This was explored in another paper by the author in 1999 (Wood, 1999b). The automated building is many people's perception of an 'intelligent building'. Robert Heller (1990) gave a 'glimpse into the future' description of life in an intelligent building, 'complete with sensory, biometric and personal sensors and scanners'. Many buildings have sophisticated control systems endeavouring to provide relatively static internal environmental conditions and or to provide security by access control. These may be known as energy management systems (EMS) or building management systems (BMS).
This structure was designed to expand easily in response to needed growth, using a modular system. A base module of 25x80ft (7.6x24m) is supported by 22ft (6.7m) high masts. Two half end modules provide enclosure at both ends. Only one base module with both end enclosures is shown here. For sustainable energy efficiency the membrane was designed of translucent natural canvass allowing natural daylight. Edge, ridge, and valley cables where designed as bridge rope for flexibility in adjusting to the curvatures. Membrane prestress was introduced by turnbuckle adjustment at cable ends anchored to helix ground anchors. Variable prestress was required in order for the ridge cables to remain in vertical plains as required for repeatability or the modules. The prestress levels were determined by computer an iysi-s. Mats were designed as standard steel pipes with pin joint attachment to the foundation. The oiii joints avoided bending stress for optimal efficiency moment resistant joints wouia...
Air infiltration resistance An air barrier must resist airflow. While there are no mandatory requirements at the national level, individual states have adopted energy conservation codes that require air tightness and allow for different compliance options for air infiltration resistance of air barrier materials, assemblies, or whole buildings (as previously described). and energy consumption levels. Air barriers play a critical role in controlling these effects of air leakage.
The total costs of the needed investment and cost of energy losses for adding insulation are presented in Table 4.2.1. Costs for the 'anyway action' of a new surface treatment only are excluded, so only costs that are related to the energy saving investment are compared. The optimum layer thickness is 23 cm. All costs are area-specific ( m2 wall area). Only the energy-related costs have to be taken into account when calculating the total costs of an energy saving action. For a new building, a surface treatment only of the outer wall is necessary in any way. So, these 'anyway costs' ( 30 m2) can be subtracted from the investment costs. The energy losses and the related running costs can be calculated directly by using the U-value of the construction times the number of degree days x 24 for the relevant climatic region. The added insulation layer is assumed to have a lifetime of 50 years. The economic optimal insulation thickness is about 23 cm, resulting in costs of about 0.030 per...
According to Smith (I997), the overall capital cost of the building was little different from what would have been anticipated for an 'approximately equivalent air-conditioned building'. In terms of the inside air temperatures recorded, the building was 'performing at least as well as predicted, if not better' while, at around half their energy consumption '.Eastgate out-performs other Harare buildings of similar quality and size'.
In addition, all of the buildings' systems were replaced. These include a new energy efficient hydronic radiant heating system, all new electrical and data systems, energy efficient lighting, enhancement of natural daylighting, and the integration of a photovoltaic panel system. This system produces approximately 2 kW of power at peak capacity or 8 kWh per day.
Built on a long, narrow site near Amsterdam's Ring Road, the ING headquarters lies between the Zuidas area of high-rise buildings and a green zone Dalle Nieuwe Meer. The architects Intentionally kept the structure low on the green side and made it rise in the direction of the city. In order to allow motorists a view to the green zone and at the same time to give the offices a view over the highway, the building is set up on pilotis ranging in height from 9 to 12.5 meters. A great of attention was paid to the energy efficiency of the structure, for example with a double-skin fa ade that facilitates natural ventilation while providing a sound bi against traffic noise. A pumping system makes use of an aquifer located 120 meters under the building to provide cold warm thermal storage. Successive stories v the building intermingle and offer glimpses from one to another. Atriums, loggias and gardens vary the interior space as well. As the architects have written, 'the headquarters...
The debate on a sustainable city form has so far been rather disappointing and has not produced much over and above the list of generally accepted sustainability criteria. Confused definitions and research focusing on a limited number of aspects (such as efficiency in terms of energy, transport, etc.) have not generated reliable answers to the question of a more sustainable city form in terms of energy efficiency, viability of public transport and of services and facilities. Research results are inconclusive and no clear city model emerges that promises to be definitely preferable to other models. It therefore seems appropriate to start research at the other end of the list of properties of a city that is, to look for those models that promise a high degree of user-friendliness. Once city models have been established that respond positively to the relevant sustainability criteria listed at the end of the previous chapter the investigation will be able to focus more effectively on...
Zero operational energy is now achievable and a practical possibility. Sue Roaf's 'eco-house' in Oxford, built in the 1990s, utilises passive solar gains through a two-storey sunspace and photovoltaic cells to capture and store energy, exporting electricity to the National Grid at times of surplus. Robert and Brenda Vale's 'autonomous house' at Southwell in Nottinghamshire uses thermal mass with thick insulation to achieve a very low-energy solution. Subsequent developments at Hockerton, also in Nottinghamshire, using an earth-sheltered approach, and the Peabody Trust's BEDZED (Beddington Zero Energy Development) in Carshalton, South London, have continued the quest. The BEDZED scheme, designed by Bill Dunster, incorporates living and working environments to also reduce energy used in travel.
Although well-insulated buildings help to reduce energy consumption, and indirectly limit carbon dioxide emissions by decreasing the amount of heating they require, increasing concern over the potential effects on the ozone layer of CFC gases used as foaming agents has led to a review of the materials and their manufacturing processes, resulting in the Montreal Protocol. Now producers of foamed polyurethane offer foaming formulations containing blowing agents
Lightweight external cladding systems installed over timber and steel frame walls have become increasingly popular. This trend was initially driven by the fashion for rendered finishes and has gained momentum in recent years with the call for more energy efficient buildings and building materials.
By mounting compact fluorescent light fittings within the internal light shelf, and fitting daylight sensors with variable dimming, it was possible to switch the artificial lights on only as daylight levels began to fall. The artificial light is reflected off the ceiling and arrives on the working plane at similar paths to the daylight, allowing seamless integration between both light sources, and minimising energy consumed by lighting. Using this strategy it is possible to reduce the annual lighting energy consumption from 44kWh m2 y on a good practice contemporary office in the UK to 19kWh m2 y on our research model.
Motion sensors for lighting conserve energy. Most lighting is indirect for patient comfort. Daylighting controls limit energy consumption and use available sunlight. Each private patient room has the ability to control the temperature within set points. Large energy-efficient windows in patient rooms provide abundant daylighting.
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