Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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The Energy Star Label

The Energy Star label (Fig. 1-2) was created in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help consumers quickly and easily identify energy efficient products such as homes, appliances, and lighting. Energy Star products are also available in Canada. In the United States alone in the year 2000, Energy Star resulted in greenhouse gas reductions equivalent to taking 10 million cars off the road. Eight hundred and sixty four billion pounds of carbon dioxide emissions have been prevented due to Energy Star commitments to date. The Energy Star Homes program reviews the plans for new homes and provides design support to help the home achieve the five-star Energy Star Homes rating, by setting the standard for greater value and energy savings. Energy Star-certified homes are also eligible for rebates on major appliances. The program also supplies Energysmart computer software that walks you through a computerized energy audit of...

Energy Consumption Comparison

The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation funded a study overseen by British Columbia bale builder Habib Gonzalez. Using energy consumption data from BC bale homes, they were compared to equivalent frame-walled homes via computer modeling. The following is an excerpt from that report While straw bale houses have a theoretical energy saving advantage over conventional houses, there is little good data on how they actually perform. This survey attempted to provide a first cut at comparing the space-heating energy consumption of straw bale homes and conventional homes. Most surveys of this type compare the measured houses to control houses of the same size, construction quality, occupancy, etc. Control houses for this study were too hard to locate, given the diversity of straw bale house design and the use of slab-on-grade foundations. Only 3 of the 11 study homes had full or walkout basements. Instead of actual control houses, the energy use of the conventional houses was modeled...

EU energy efficiency labelling scheme

The EU labelling system was introduced in 1995 and now covers most domestic white goods. Labels must be displayed and range from 'A' for the most energy efficient to 'G' for the least efficient. The aim is to make it easy to make like-for-like comparisons in energy consumption when choosing white goods. The scheme is based solely on self-assessment by manufacturers. It falls within existing consumer protection legislation, dealing with the description of goods by those selling them, and enforcement is dealt with in the same way as for other retail complaints. The scheme was introduced to deal with domestic appliances and there is no scheme for commercial appliances. The labelling scheme has recently been extended to cover public buildings.

Barriers to energy efficiency

Despite the best efforts of government and others there are still a number of barriers that inhibit if not prevent the attainment of greater energy efficiency. Such barriers can be summarized as follows Legal The delays in implementing any measures may undermine their effectiveness. Statutory constraints such as obtaining approvals may inhibit the implementation of energy efficiency measures. Human Excessively sceptical or hostile attitudes towards the greenhouse effect hypothesis, coupled with problems such as environmental pollution and the depletion of fossil fuels may hamper the promotion of energy efficiency. Ignorance of the benefits and costs of undertaking energy efficiency is another factor that can inhibit the implementation of these measures. Technical The difficulty (in terms of access, compatibility or fixing) of installing energy efficiency measures to the fabric or services. Installations such as solar reflectors or PV panels may compromize the appearance of a building.

Energy efficiency strategy

Under the Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 local authorities are required to prepare a strategy for improving the energy efficiency of their housing stock. This involves setting targets for a 10-year plan to improve the energy efficiency of residential accommodation by a set percentage (30.9 ). The following is a typical list of energy efficiency measures that local authorities may set to achieve within 10 years two low-energy lights per household shall be installed in 80 of those without them Table 10.3 Typical energy efficiency measures for domestic premises (Based on BRECSU guidelines - see various case studies) Table 10.3 Typical energy efficiency measures for domestic premises (Based on BRECSU guidelines - see various case studies)

Energy efficient services Rationale

Services account for most if not all energy consumption in a building. They also account for around 40-50 per cent of the capital cost of a new work and can form a substantial part of the cost of an adaptation scheme. Moreover, services can take up nearly 30 per cent of the space in a building. It is therefore crucial that attention is given to the energy efficiency of services within a building.

Energy efficiency in nonresidential buildings Preamble

Energy efficiency, like spatial performance, is an important design criterion for offices. The primary environmental effect of energy use is the emission of carbon dioxide, which is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. If a building is made more energy efficient, therefore, by consuming less energy it will The following five key refurbishment options for achieving maximum energy efficiency in offices are

Future energy efficiency requirements

The statutory requirements relating to energy efficiency are unlikely to stand still. Improvements will still need to be made to continue reducing non-renewable fuel consumption, waste and pollution. The extent of these improvements will be influenced by the rate of climate change and government responses to it. Figure 10.11 Layout of typical factory building with energy-efficiency measures According to Gold and Martin (1999a,b), the likely aims of future legislation controlling energy efficiency and the environment are

Saving energy by introducing building control systems

In a study reported in Meyer (2000), in which the interviewees were asked which functions they would expect and require to be performed by a home automation system, the temperature reduction during the occupants' absence was requested in the first place. This request implies the reduction of heating energy consumption and the associated reduction of heating costs. As mentioned earlier, an installed bus system provides the option of single room control. The target room temperature can be (pre) determined for each room for a given time. Furthermore, the flow temperature can be adjusted depending on the heat output demanded by the individual spaces. These control options can reduce heating energy consumption, provided that they are properly programmed. However, the amount of energy to be actually saved strongly depends on the structural conditions of a specified building. The smaller the thermal mass of the building and the poorer the thermal insulation of the building skin, the greater...

Vortice Launches Two Energy Efficient Extractor Fans

Vortice who recently supplied a Heat Recovery Unit to the Code for the Sustainable Homes Level 6 Barratt Green House at the BRE Innovation Park, are launching two new extractor fans. Both are energy efficient versions of already proven successful products. The Vort Quadro ES, a centrifugal fan and the Lineo ES, an in-line mixed flow fan, offer particularly low power consumption and low noise levels thanks to electronically controlled, brushless motors equipped with ball bearings. The Quadro Micro, for ventilation of medium-sized rooms in commercial premises plus bathrooms, showers and toilets in domestic situations, is available with or without an over - run timer. They are available for either surface mounting or flush fitting for wall or ceiling installation with integral side extraction to ducting. The Lineo, with its compact dimensions, is ideal for installation in cramped areas.

A22 International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established in 1974 as an autonomous agency within the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), to carry out a comprehensive programme of energy cooperation among its 25 member countries and the commission of the European Communities. An important part of the Agency's programme involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, to increase long-term energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA SHC's research and development activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three working parties are charged with monitoring the various collaborative energy agreements, identifying new areas for cooperation and advising CERT on policy matters.

Hanson Welcomes New Guide From Energy Saving Trust

Hanson Building Products has welcomed the publication of the Energy Saving Trust's latest guide, entitled 'Energy Efficiency and the Code for Sustainable Homes Level 4 The EST encourages energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, and promotes better insulation and heating efficiency, and cleaner fuels for transport. The cover features Hanson's EcoHouse which demonstrates the company's latest developments in sustainable modern masonry construction and 'smart' living, as well as the benefits of offsite fabrication, high thermal mass and natural

Reducing Energy Consumption

Since Facilities Resource Management assumed operation of the campus in July of 1998, fossil fuel use has decreased by 15 . There is, however, room for substantial further improvements. A twofold approach to reducing energy consumption consists of 1) improving the thermal efficiency of buildings and operating efficiency of equipment, and 2) instituting creative policies and educational initiatives that encourage students, faculty, and staff to conserve energy. Buildings and activities within buildings currently account for greater than 90 of campus energy consumption. Effort should therefore focus on building renovation and on selecting appliances that minimize the use of energy (see EPAC statement on facilities in Section III). Innovative incentives should be created to encourage students, faculty, and staff to purchase and manage personal electronic equipment to minimize energy use.

Energy Efficient Residential Forms

There are now many architectural solutions which help provide more energy efficient homes, thus relying less on fossil fuels. Homes and landscapes can be designed for construction using a combination of recycled materials and materials which contain low levels of 'embodied' energy used in their manufacture and delivery (Figure 4.35) (see Edwards, 2000 Newton and Westaway, 1999 Harris and Borer, 2005). In terms of site layout, however, there are also approaches to the configuration of homes that allow them to be more energy efficient.

C2d Energy Efficiency

Lighting consumes about 8 percent of the energy used in residences and 27 percent used in commercial buildings nationwide, and much of this energy is rejected as heat. For example, I lamps emit about 88 percent of their energy as heat, Q lamps 85 percent, F lamps 79 percent, MV lamps 73 percent, MH lamps 67 percent, and HS lamps 59 percent. Thus an easy way to economize on energy is to use cooler and more efficient lamps. This reduces energy losses far more than one may think. For example, changing an I lamp to an MH lamp may seem like only an 88 - 67 19 percent savings in energy but what really happens is that the 100 - 88 12 percent emit-tance of the I lamp is being replaced by the 100 - 67 33 percent emittance of the MH lamp. Thus the latter lamp produces the same output with only 12 33 of the input so the real energy savings is 88 - 67 x 12 33 64 percent. Similarly, a 29W CFL lamp with the same output as a 100W I lamp realizes a savings of not 88 - 79 9 percent but 88 - 79 x 12 21...

Water Heater Safety and Energy Efficiency

Either sealed combustion or a power-vented system will assure safety and energy efficiency in a water heater. In a sealed combustion system, outside air is fed directly to the water heater and the combustion gases are vented directly to the outside. Power-vented equipment can use house air for combustion, with flue gases vented by a fan. This is not a safe solution in a tightly sealed building. In 1987, the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act set minimum requirements for water heating equipment in the United States. Equipment is labeled with energy conservation information. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed standardized energy factors (EF) as a measure of annual overall efficiency. Standard gas-fired storage tank water heaters may receive an EF of 0.60 to 0.64. Gas-fired tankless water heaters rate up to 0.69 with continuous pilots, and up to 0.93 with electronic ignition. The 2001 DOE standards for water heaters will increase efficiency criteria, and should result...

Energy efficiency and housing forms

Homes with less exposed external surfaces are more energy efficient, as heat is always lost through roofs, walls and floors. As a result, apartments and terraced houses are more energy efficient than semi-detached or detached homes. Denser buildings may also be more sheltered from cooling winds by surrounding buildings (Figure 4.37). Figure 4.37 Apartments and terraces are more energy efficient whilst denser configurations provide more shelter from winds in exposed locations

Trimo Energy Saving Panel Lowers Bills and Cuts C02

Trimo's new TrimoEnergy panel is just one of a number of smart construction products being launched by the company for those seeking to reduce energy costs and lower their CO2 footprint. TrimoEnergy uses an innovative pre-painted Prelaq steel sheet material that when used to coat either one or both sides of the cladding panel works during the cyclic seasonal changes to reduce heating and cooling costs the result is annual savings as high as 10 . As an external coating TrimoEnergy works by reducing heat conduction into the building by reflecting the Sun's energy in the Near Infrared (NIR) part of the spectrum away from the building - advantageous during hot weather. As an internal coating, TrimoEnergy reflects thermal infrared energy back into the building, which is ideal during cold winter weather.

Energy Efficient Heating The Next Generation

Delivering 104 fuel efficiency (based on net calorific value), the new generation of condensing gas fired heaters - Reznor's UESA range - will substantially cut energy usage and fuel bills in buildings. Even at full output, their 104 efficiency is still maintained. Using advanced heat transfer technology and a MacroChannel heat exchanger manufactured from highly conductive aluminium, the UESA provides the highest level of heat transfer. Tthe exchanger recovers and transfers the heat back into the building - cutting fuel consumption. Due to its high efficiency, the UESA range also qualifies for Enhanced Capital Allowances, a Government scheme which enables businesses to benefit from installing energy efficient equipment, by claiming 100 first year capital allowances on the heaters and associated installation costs, further reducing the payback period. Available in four sizes with heat outputs ranging between 35kW-102kW for use with natural gas or propane, it suits many applications.

Massing and energy efficiency

Terraced housing and apartments are intrinsically more thermally efficient than detached dwellings, as they share walls. Theoretical studies and measured feedback have established the value of grouping buildings together for energy conservation, and this is common practice in most of Europe. In the UK, we build significantly more detached houses, in part because of unreliable acoustic performance, a problem that should be readily resolvable. Taller constructions can increase energy consumption due to greater exposure and the need for lifts. Many towns and cities are successfully developing the combination of high quality with high density.

Building changeability Problems and opportunities

Building adaptation, therefore, is essentially about responding to changes in demand for property. It is for this reason that it is more prevalent in industrialized countries. As the stock of property ages and building use varies over time, adaptation has become more common. Any building that performs poorly in terms of energy efficiency, comfort conditions or environmental impact is a potential candidate for adaptation (Energy Research Group, 1999).

Sustainability factors

Ideally the extension should provide an opportunity to enhance a property's environmental performance. The client may have a policy for the extension that requires the maximum use of indigenous materials, low energy use services and high thermal efficiency of the fabric. See Chapter 10 for more details of sustain-ability measures. Utilize as many local materials as possible but avoid recycled materials with high transport energy costs. This not only reduces costs but also helps ensure that the extension is compatible with the existing construction.

Background The need for refurbishment

As seen in Chapter 1, all buildings eventually are affected to a greater or lesser degree by some form of obsolescence or inefficiency. Deficiencies in the fabric and services occur because of their inability to satisfy current requirements and handle technological change. Sooner or later they fail to meet some if not all of the user needs or statutory requirements. This occurs for three main reasons regardless of whether the building is fully or partially occupied or wholly vacant. Firstly, construction standards and requirements are continually improving because of Government policy to enhance energy efficiency and building performance. As the demands and expectations of property users tend to increase over time, this is also having a major impact on the building regulations. Secondly, wear and tear as well as exposure to the elements results in ongoing deterioration or other adverse change in the building structure and fabric. Thirdly, advances in technology and rising demands by...

Health benefits of refurbishment

The impact of poor housing on health is significant according to many researchers (see e.g. Burridge and Ormandy, 1995). Preventing dampness and hypothermia is another reason over above applying energy saving measures why modernization of housing should include thermal efficiency. The Office of National Statistics (Anon, 2000b), for example, reported that premature deaths in the UK from cold-related illnesses such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases have exceeded 50 000 per annum. Cold-related illnesses in other words account for around 10 per cent of all deaths in the UK, which has average annual mortality figure of about 580000 according to the www.statistics.gov.uk. The elderly living alone and householders on low-income are especially susceptible to this modern-day scandal, which of course ought not to happen on this scale in any part of the world. Properties housing these vulnerable occupiers would nevertheless benefit from energy efficiency improvements and other...

CLASP school buildings

Because of its articulated foundation design, a CLASP system was often used for schools and other similar buildings in areas with mining subsidence problems. However, older versions (e.g. Mark 1 and Mark 2), especially, are likely to require extensive energy efficiency upgrades as indicated in Figure 10.7.

Refurbishing public baths

Victorian baths were usually of a standard form of load-bearing masonry construction (e.g. thick solid sandstone walls topped with a slated pitched roof). The roof construction usually consisted of a heavy timber hammer beam trusses or mild steel trussed rafters. The energy-efficiency measures for school buildings having a high thermal mass described earlier, therefore, can apply to these properties.

Modern thermal upgrades for pitched roofs

Investigations into modern roof constructions by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) have indicated that conventional ventilation is not the only solution to condensation in loft spaces. Warm breathing roof construction (alternatively called 'sealed pitched roof construction') offers a dry, draught-free loft area, and gives better energy efficiency. This type of roof design requires minimal background ventilation.

Enhancing performance

One of the main ways in which the thermal performance of an existing building can be improved is to lower the U-value of its fabric. The main methods of doing this are shown later. At this juncture it is worth looking at the targets set by the government as part of its campaign to improve energy efficiency through the building regulations. Parts L and Section 6 of the English Welsh and Scottish building regulations respectively are regularly being overhauled to provide tighter controls on energy efficiency and conservation.

Passive cooling in refurbishment

Energy consumption relating to comfort conditions is not restricted to heating of buildings during winter. Even in temperate climates such as Britain some cooling inside the building will be required to combat overheating during summer. In some large office buildings cooling can account for a substantial proportion of their energy costs.

Summary and conclusion

The implications of information technology in both the home and work environments are enormous. Intelligent properties which will involve responsive environmental controls, as well as interactive internet-linked television and energy efficiency measures are likely to be amongst the most influential developments in building technology within the next 20 years. It is not only new buildings that will have these modern facilities. Existing properties, too, will also need to accommodate these advances to avoid obsolescence. Building adaptation is the process whereby this can be done. Climatic change requiring existing as well as new buildings to become more robust and energy efficient.

Thermal efficiency of insulation materials

Table 10.8 Energy efficiency issues Identify energy efficiency targets. However, with the ever-tighter controls on energy efficiency in the Building Regulations it is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve. For example, to attain a target U-value of 0.16 W m2K for a flat roof the mineral fibre insulation would have to be about 250 mm thick. its energy efficient (uses only 14 of the embodied energy that is used to manufacture glass fibre according to Second Nature UK Ltd, a supplier of sheep's wool insulation called Thermafleece )

Nofines concrete housing Preamble

The solid walls of no-fines construction are generally between 200 and 225 mm thick (BRE leaflet BR 160, 1989). They are rendered externally with a two-coat render and usually finished internally with plasterboard fixed to timber battens attached to the no-fines walling using cut-nails. Up until the late 1960s this form of walling was considered to be relatively efficient in thermal terms. With increasing energy efficiency demands following the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s, however, many of these original no-fines dwellings are now considered thermally inefficient (see typical problems listed below). Some form of rendered 'raincoat' overcladding system to the no-fines blocks would be needed to rectify this deficiency (see Chapter 9).

Integrity of the building Generally

Any adaptation scheme to an old building should try to incorporate the latest energy efficiency measures but care must be taken to ensure that there will be no conflict with, or devaluing of, its historic detail. In many cases good environmental practice can go hand in hand with building conservation.

What is adaptation Definitions

In one of the Energy Efficiency Office's Best Practice Programme publications (GIR 32, 1995), four types of 'refurbishment' were identified major repair, acquisition and rehabilitation, conversion, and re-improvement. Including extensions, these comprise most of the adaptation work featured in this book.

Government policy changes

These amendments to the Regulations are a response to the government's aim to increase energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The new requirements are more complex than earlier versions and for the first time elements apply to changes to existing buildings. In mid-September 2005, the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) and Department for the Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) announced new measures to make buildings more energy efficient to save one million tonnes of carbon per year by 2010. This is equivalent to emissions from more than one million semi-detached homes. The revised Part L will also make air pressure leakage testing of buildings mandatory, improving compliance with the regulations by showing where there is unacceptable leakage, which can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. Part L of the Building Regulations sets out standards for building work in order to conserve fuel and power and minimise heat loss, raising energy efficiency...

Requirements for sustainable adaptation Profitability

Energy efficiency actions In an adapted building this can be best achieved by reducing energy consumption and minimizing heat losses. Lighting, for example, accounts for the majority of energy consumption in commercial buildings (see THERMIE Maxibrochures, 1992). Adaptation schemes should therefore attempt to maximize natural daylighting (e.g. by installing light-wells or sun-pipes) if possible and provide energy efficient lighting where necessary. Global warming is likely to raise the demand for active cooling systems in buildings. Air conditioning in a building increases its energy consumption. In many cases it is more expensive to cool a building than it is to heat it. More reliance therefore will need to be placed on passive cooling measures to combat this problem.

Background Triggers for building conversion

It is for these reasons that housing conversion programmes are so attractive and have the added bonus of helping to achieve a more sustainable environment. Moreover, change-of-use schemes generate less energy and waste than comparable new-build projects (Energy Research Group, 1999).

Importance of sustainable adaptation

Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new Reducing CO2 and other toxic emissions from buildings to a minimum (e.g. to help combat the greenhouse effect) by making building more energy efficient. This means using insulation materials, such as mineral fibre, that do not contain chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or hydro-chlorfluorocarbons (HCFCs), the main ozone-depleting chemicals. The use of Halon, a CFC-containing fire-fighting gas in fire extinguishers, should also be avoided. Using low energy lighting with appropriate controls to reduce energy costs. Achieving a highly energy efficient fabric - super-insulated and with excellent air-tightness, but adequately ventilated to prevent excessive moisture build-up within the building. Incorporating more responsive and energy efficient services - with sensors and automatic controls to...

Significance of sustainability

Sustainable construction, in other words, whether in relation to new or existing buildings, deals with a variety of proactive processes. If a building can continue to function effectively for an indefinite period, it is considered sustainable. For example, sustainability in this context is primarily concerned with matters such as minimizing construction waste and pollution, saving energy, increasing the use of recycled and locally produced materials and relying less on toxic chemicals. It is also about using whole-life cycle costing in the design of new build and adaptation schemes to help determine economic maintenance cost levels. The primary goals of sustainable construction, therefore It is important to appreciate, however, that there is no end-point in this process - sustainability means continuous improvement. Not surprisingly, then, building adaptation is considered one of the most effective strategies for sustainability. Compared with new build it involves lower costs in...

Other impulses for refurbishment Preamble

It was noted earlier that sustainable construction is now an important part of the political and environmental agendas. Modernizing existing buildings can go some way to achieve a more sustainable environment. This means increasing energy efficiency and reducing wastage of non-renewable fuels and materials (see Chapter 10 especially).

Preface to 2nd edition

Even in the space of a few years a number of developments have occurred that have implications for the adaptation of buildings. Sustainability, of course, continues to gain increasing importance and this is reflected in many advances within the construction industry. The need for maximizing the use of environmentally friendly materials and processes, for example, is now well recognized. In particular the increasing importance of energy efficiency to sustainable refurbishment is such that it justifies a new separate chapter.

Modern roof vent stacks

Another passive energy efficiency measure is to install a roof vent stack, which acts as a 'windcatcher'. It is a form of passive stack ventilation that has a circular or square louvred cowl. Monodraught Ltd is one company that supply and fits this method of maximizing natural daylighting in a building.

Refurbishing services Heating

The lighting system can comprise halogen lamps for high-quality illumination. Long-lasting sodium bulbs can be used in light fittings in fire escape stairs and less well-used areas of the building as part of an overall energy efficiency strategy. The various measures to improve the energy efficiency of lighting are discussed in more detail in Chapter 9.

General energy improvements Preamble

As pointed out by BRECSU (GPG 155, 2001) the energy efficiency of a dwelling can be improved without waiting to undertake a full refurbishment package. Repair and improvement schemes provide many opportunities for energy measures. Indeed, the economies of scale involved normally mean that it is cheaper to combine energy efficiency measures with repair and improvement work. It is usually more expensive and disruptive to do these measures separately at a later date. The main energy efficiency measures to buildings are summarized as follows Use energy efficient lighting (see below). Energy efficient fixtures. Energy efficient heating and cooling systems. Building control system for energy efficiency and indoor air quality. High reflectance Energy Star roofing installed. 20 per cent savings in energy consumption.

Environmental

Positive knock-on effect on surrounding properties. Moreover, an adapted building ought to be more energy efficient than previously, particularly when sustainability is a key policy criterion. Because of their high thermal capacity and slow thermal response, some traditional buildings are relatively good at conserving energy. Older buildings tend to have thick solid walls, small windows and natural lighting and ventilation, which leads to economy in energy consumption (Scottish Civic Trust, 1981). However, this will depend on the U-values of the fabric of the building under consideration. As we have seen adaptation is an important sustainability criterion. This is because it reduces both energy consumption and the generation of waste. It minimizes the need for using up fresh material resources and energy required in producing and transporting them. In other words, the embodied energy and transport energy consumption is much lower than with a similar size new-build scheme. Moreover,...

Thermal upgrading

One of the major requirements in any adaptation work is to enhance the energy efficiency of the building. This is usually best achieved by improving the level of insulation in the external walls, roof and ground floor of the building to reduce the overall U-value of the fabric (see Chapter 10).

Ventilation

The correct balance between natural and mechanical ventilation in buildings is not easy to achieve. These days, there is increasing onus on designers and builders to minimize air leakage from buildings as a means of maximizing energy efficiency. The major drawbacks of this objective, however, are that eliminating background ventilation from a building can reduce the indoor air quality and increase the risk of interstitial condensation occurring in the external fabric. The latter can lead to moisture-related problems such as fungal

Legal

Achieving a higher level of compliance with the building regulations and other statutory provisions such as fire regulations, energy efficiency, disabled access and soundproofing is obviously beneficial to all concerned (see Chapters 10 and 11 especially). Meeting these requirements makes buildings safer, more comfortable and efficient as well as user-friendly. The Home Energy Conservation Act 1995, for example, local authorities are now duty bound to assess the energy efficiency of their stock of dwellings. This clearly has implications for upgrading the thermal performance of housing generally.

Public refurbishment

Energy management. TV monitoring, energy management, Refrigeration. Energy management.6 6. Energy management Monitoring of internal and external conditions, optimization of energy flows, zone controls, peak load shedding, energy cut-out for unoccupied rooms, improved insulation, energy reclaim systems from equipment. 6. Energy management Monitoring of internal and external conditions, optimization of energy flows, zone controls, peak load shedding, energy cut-out for unoccupied rooms, improved insulation, energy reclaim systems from equipment. 1. Energy efficiency (see Chapter 10).

Thermal insulation

In many modernization schemes, upgrading the thermal performance of walls often forms one of the main objectives. This is required not only to improve the building's energy efficiency. It is also done to arrest deterioration in the fabric as well as to enhance its appearance and provide weather protection. Improving the thermal efficiency of walls is obviously one of the main methods of increasing a building's energy efficiency. The other is draught-proofing doors and windows. The aim is to curb heat losses and energy consumption by lowering the U-value of the fabric. This can be done in one of three ways

Rationale

According to the BRE and the Energy Saving Trust (EST) buildings in Britain consume up to 50 per cent of the country's energy. Twenty-eight per cent of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from domestic energy use. Ninety per cent of total energy consumption is building energy use - the remaining 10 per cent is related to energy in manufacture. This coupled with the estimated 10 billion of energy wasted in the UK every year makes energy efficiency a major sustainability criterion. The British Government responded in the mid-1990s by issuing several pieces of legislation to tackle this problem. For example, the Home Energy Conservation Act 1995 and the Energy Conservation Act 1996, deal specifically with this issue. These two Acts required all local authorities with housing responsibilities to prepare, publish and submit to the Secretary of State (for the then DETR) an energy conservation report identifying energy conservation measures for residential accommodation in their area. The...

Heat losses

Heat loss through a building's fabric has a major impact on its energy efficiency. According to Cairns (1993), the approximate percentages of heat losses from an uninsulated dwelling are as follows (with the revised figures as a result of increasing the insulation levels shown in brackets) Accordingly, following refurbishment, all housing should be as energy efficient as cost-effectiveness allows (GPG 82, 1992), in order to There are, of course, a variety of ways of attaining better energy efficiency in existing buildings. Solar energy schemes comprise one group and these are examined below. At a basic level, however, energy efficiency goals can be attained in a refurbishment scheme by using energy efficient lighting

Preamble

Table 10.6 list some typical performance yardsticks for various categories of buildings based on floor area. As an alternative the yardsticks can also be based on building volume (i.e. GJ m3). These energy benchmarks can be used to determine the extent of the required energy efficiency measures. They are normally found by calculating the Normalized Performance Indicator (NPI) using the following formula Npi _ Corrected Annual Energy Consumption Floor Area

Boilers

Replacing old or inefficient central heating boilers is often necessary in residential and commercial refurbishment schemes. In such instances condensing boilers should be used because of their energy-saving potentials. In particular, condensing gas boilers operate at an average annual efficiency of 85 per cent, which is about 15 per cent more than the standard type (Harrison and Trotman, 2000). Energy consumption Energy saving measures Energy savings relating to lighting in residential and non-residential buildings can be improved by as Luminaires In a refurbishment scheme replacing existing light fittings using modern equipment can often result in substantial energy savings as well as improved visual conditions (THERMIE, 1992). Modern luminaires use reflector systems, which replace existing diffusers or prismatic panels.

Schools

The measures required to improve the energy efficiency of the fabric of school buildings are illustrated in Figure 10.7-10.10. The other measures that can be taken are summarized as follows Figure 10.8 Typical section through heavyweight school building showing energy efficiency measures

Economic

The maintenance costs of an old building, even one that has been refurbished, are usually still higher than those for new build. The rental income that can be derived from an existing building may not be as high as that obtained by a modern facility that fully meets the needs of today's building user. Moreover, the energy costs are likely to be higher as it is hard to match the insulation standards of new build. Some materials required for use in adaptation work to match existing are expensive and hard to come by.

Beyond Sustainable Design

Designed by William McDonough + Partners, the 26,941 square meter (290,000 square ft) building houses a manufacturing plant and office showroom. About 700 people work in the manufacturing plant and offices, which contain a fitness center with basketball court and exercise machines overlooking a country landscape, and convenient break areas. Key green building features include good energy efficiency, indoor air quality, and daylighting. The site features a restored wetlands and prairie landscape.

The Building Envelope

This dynamic approach leads the architect to support proper thermal and lighting conditions through the design of the building's form and structure, supported by the mechanical and electrical systems. Engineers design these support systems with passive control mechanisms that minimize energy consumption.

Examples of Structural Layout Suiting Masonry

The masonry 'spine wall' (see Figure 14.36) can be used for office blocks, where precast prestressed concrete floor units can span up to 8 m onto the corridor walls or spine. Current thinking in office layout is that the depth of space from a window should be 6 m maximum for natural daylight to be enjoyed by the user. Coupled with energy costs for lighting and air-conditioning costs, this form of layout has its advantages. Masonry structures also have a naturally high thermal mass aiding natural ventilation and reducing the need for air-conditioning.

NMB Bank The Netherlands

An integrated approach was adopted at the outset of the building project, looking at the overall operation of the organisation and allowing architects, engineers and landscapers to contribute their ideas. Energy efficiency was given a high priority. The building was designed to operate without air-conditioning, and a passive system controls all the heating, cooling and ventilation needs. Located at the top of each tower is a solar collector and a heat recovery unit. The windows are designed to provide an average 500 lux, whilst excluding external traffic noise and preventing excessive heat loss and unwanted gains. Integration of good insulation levels and careful use of passive heating and ventilation backed up by well-controlled mechanical services mean that it has an energy consumption of 96kWh m2 per annum, approximately 90 less energy than a typical 1970s office block. Compared to the consumption of the previous HQ building erected 10 years earlier, it gives savings in fuel bills...

Building envelope and construction

All six projects are located either in a cold or temperate climate, where a compact building form with a well-insulated and air-tight building envelope with minimized thermal bridges is essential to reduce heat losses through transmission or air leakage. The high quality of the building envelopes is shown in Figure 1.2.1. Except for the low energy project, Gelsenkirchen, the U-values for walls, roof and floor range from 0.10 to 0.15 W m2K. High quality windows are equally important. The U-values for the windows, including the frame and glazing, range from to 0.64 to 0.9 W m2K, except for the low energy buildings in Gelsenkirchen. The two projects, Sunny Woods and Stans, both have good U-values for the walls, roof and floor but the overall average U-values for the whole envelope are not among the best. This is because these projects have large window areas. To be fair, the passive solar gains must be considered relative to the worsening of the overall envelope U-values for these...

Traditional Building Materials

For environmental and cost considerations, it is often worthwhile to study historical building materials and systems. Timber framing, stone masonry, wattle and daub, and thatch all offer the potential to use sustainably harvested natural materials to create beautiful, non-toxic, efficient homes.

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

The European Commission's Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (2000) indicated the need for specific measures to address the performance of buildings and to help the EU to meet its climate change objectives under the Kyoto Protocol commitments. In response, the European Commission (EC) proposed the Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings, with a timetable for implementation by 2006. The aim was to create a common framework for calculating the energy performance of buildings and thereby provide a level playing field for judging the efforts of member states in achieving energy savings. It would also

Heat production and distribution

Part of the space heating demand is covered by usable heat gains from the occupants (circa 1200 kWh year) and by energy efficient appliances and lighting (2900 kWh year). The remaining space heating demand is covered by electric resistance heating (900 W) in the supply air.

Your College or University

Vard's energy efficiency and green building programs is about 36 , about twice that of Harvard's multi-billion-dollar endowment.11 In other words, to improve their rate of return, Harvard's endowment managers would be well advised to put as much money as possible into the campus's sustain-ability initiatives The same could be said for most private universities.

Detail of the plantings on the to fold into the landscape

The recycled steel standing seam roof, located over the north lobby, has a 50-year life span and doesn't pollute rainwater runoff from the roof. Traditional asphalt shingle roofs, and other petrochemical-based products, have hydrocarbon particulates that are picked up by rainwater. The remainder of the exposed roof is a rubber ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) roof assembly, also more environmentally friendly than the standard asphalt installation. In addition, it is Energy Star-rated to reduce solar heat gain and reduce the heat island effect.

Cost and quality benefits

Lighting is a source of significant energy savings and is amongst the shortest payback of any energy efficiency measure. Design input to lighting and luminaires, window design, reflection and glare can contribute to direct savings - that is, in cooling requirement as well as increased worker satisfaction and productivity. An American study compared daylit and non-daylit schools energy reductions with daylighting were 22-64 and payback for new daylit schools three years. There was also an increase in student performance.

Reznor Chosen For Lowcarbon Heating Solution

Diamond Power Speciality Ltd., manufacturer of boiler cleaning and ash-handling systems, has installed Reznor floor-standing warm air heaters as part of a complete low-energy building design solution in its new Dumbarton plant. A total of 10 Reznor floor-standing warm air heaters, ranging in output from 30kW to 140kW, were installed around the production, high-bay warehouse and despatch areas of the plant. The units are high-efficiency modules equipped with modulating burners and a fresh-air ventilation option. The heaters are configured to warm the premises to 19 to 22 C, with automatic shut-off when the upper limit is reached. The Reznor heaters also have a mechanical heat recovery feature, which means that they can re-use heat generated by air compressors to provide 'free' warmth for the factory. In summer, the heaters provide fresh air ventilation to keep internal temperatures cooler.

Mechanical Engineering Design Process

Energy costs can be reduced or eliminated by improving building insulation, lighting design, and the efficiency of HVAC and other building equipment. Buildings that allow natural ventilation, and those that employ such techniques as heat reclamation, thermal-storage systems, and flexible air handling and chiller units lower energy use and reduce costs. The architect and engineers usually make the decisions on what systems to employ, but the responsibility for finding appropriate solutions depends on creativity and integrated efforts of the entire design team, in which the interior designer should play a significant role.

Phases Of The Design Process

By considering these activities and their schedule, the amount of heat that will be generated by the activities, and the building's orientation, the engineer then determines the HVAC zones for the building. Each of these zones has its own set of functional, scheduling, and orientation concerns that determine when and how much heating, cooling, or ventilation is needed. For each zone, the engineer establishes the thermal load (the amount of heat gained or lost) for the worst winter and summer conditions, and for average conditions during the majority of the building's operating hours. An estimate of the building's annual energy consumption may also be made at this time.

Brochure Captures Winter Heating Stove Range

Euroheat has brought out its new Stanford heating stove brochure, displaying a stunning winter range that will inspire anyone looking to turn an ordinary space into a room with a feature centrepiece. The new brochure is also a useful read as it contains several user reference guides which unravel the mysteries of conventional flues, balanced flues, fuel types and energy efficiency. There is also a taster of the wide range of heating stove accessories available from Euroheat.

Control gear for discharge lamps

To operate discharge lamps it is therefore necessary to use a ballast to limit the current. In their simplest form these are ohmic current limiters. This type of current limiting device is not frequently used, however, since it tends to heat up, which in turn leads to substantial energy consumption they are occasionally used for self-ballasted mercury lamps, which use a filament as an ohmic current limiter. Operating the lamps at 25-40 kHz presents a number of advantages, above all, enhanced luminous efficacy. This in turn means that the luminous power is achieved, but at a lower energy consumption. At the same time there is considerably less power loss. The high operating frequency of the lamps also prevents stroboscopic and flicker effects, and magnetic interference and humming, all of which are associated with conventional ballasts.

Superefficient Heating Stoves Are In Demand

With rising fuel prices and concerns for the environment, super-efficient wood burning stoves are becoming more and more popular. This is the experience of Euroheat whose managing director, Simon Holden said Demand for our HWAM range of Scandinavian designed contemporary heating stoves has never been stronger primarily because they feature a patented 'automatic' system as standard, which makes them as clean, economical and as energy efficient as possible. The 'automatic' system consists of a bimetallic strip that automatically regulates the supply of air for the stove's combustion. Precisely engineered, it adjusts itself each time firewood is added to achieve optimal combustion. The benefit of such efficient stove combustion is that it produces cleaner emissions and increases energy output by up to 30 o compared to conventional wood burning stoves.

Policy Ecology Building Society

The overall strategy was to produce a building that has very low energy requirements. This is achieved by producing an airtight structure with very low leakage and high levels of insulation. Building regulations state that there should be no more leakage than 10 m3 per hour at a pressure of 50 Pa.

Designing as Combining Agencies

In practice, however, taking this responsibility runs into a number of serious problems. One, to 'build in' particular mediations, or to eliminate undesirable ones, it is necessary to predict what mediating roles technologies-in-design will play in their future use contexts, while there is no univocal relationship between the activities of designers and the eventual mediating role of the products they design. Technological mediations are no intrinsic qualities of technologies, but are brought about in complex interactions between designers, users, and the technologies. As became clear above, technologies can be used in unforeseen ways, and therefore are able to play unforeseen mediating roles. The energy-saving light bulb is another example of this, having actually resulted in increased energy consumption since such bulbs often appear to be used in places previously left unlit, such as in the garden or on the fa ade of a house, thereby canceling out their economizing effect (Steg,...

Award Colorado Court Habitat

Colorado Court is a demonstration building featuring a gas-powered CHP system. It incorporates energy-efficient measures to exceed standard practice, including passive strategies beginning with locating and orienting the building to optimise the solar and ventilation microclimate shaping the building to induce buoyancy for natural ventilation designing windows to maximise daylighting shading south-facing windows and minimising west-facing glazing designing windows to maximise natural ventilation shaping and planning the interior to enhance daylight and natural air flow distribution.

Electronic Air Cleaners

The advantages of electronic filters are that they generally have low energy costs because they don't create a lot of resistance. The airflow through the units remains constant, and the precipitating cell is reusable, avoiding long-term filter replacement costs. The major disadvantages are that they become less efficient with use, precipitating cells require frequent cleaning, and they can produce ozone, either as a by-product of use or intentionally. Those installed into HVAC systems have a relatively high initial cost, including expensive installation.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient SHGC

Windows for colder climates should have SHGCs greater than 0.7, while warmer climates should have lower coefficients. Energy Star products for northern climates must have a U-factor of 0.35 or less for windows and 0.45 or less for skylights. Central climate Energy Star windows should have 0.40 U-factors, and SHGCs of 0.55 or less. Windows for southern, warm climates should have 0.75 U-factors, and SHGCs below 0.40 to earn the Energy Star label.

Passive environmental control

Sustainable design places an emphasis on maximising comfort and energy efficiency simultaneously and, in combination with appropriate ventilation requirements, preventing those conditions that are associated with ill-health. This can be aided by the appropriate, climate dependent, use of thermal mass. The thermal storage capacity of materials and the concept of thermal mass, are widely understood. Human beings sense temperature as a combination of air temperature, modified by the air velocity, and radiation from, or to, surrounding surfaces.

Planning and operation

Computer simulations can be useful design tools to estimate the future energy consumption of a building. Strategies worked out at planning stage can be double-checked after completion of the project and improved if required. This involves a detailed track record highlighting the actual energy consumption values that might differ from original estimates. Energy consumption may be recorded in relation to a particular research project or over a certain period of time. Ongoing control and documentation also reduce the risk of failures of the system. Constant improvement of the procedures of use and adjustment to the requirements of the users will enhance the energy performance of the building and make facilities more convenient and easy to use, which helps to avoid handling errors.

Types of Lamps Useful in Horse Facilities

Incandesces and releases visible light. Incandescent bulbs have a low initial cost but are the most expensive to operate for the same level of light. Incandescent lamps have by far the shortest life and are the least energy efficient of the lamps discussed here. A 100-watt incandescent bulb only radiates 10 of its electric energy input as light over 70 is radiated as heat in the infrared spectrum. Light output decreases to 80 to 90 of its initial value as it reaches it rated life. Incandescent light color is usually yellowish white, but lamps with different color outputs are available. Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 Table 11.3. Light Source Wattage, Lifespan, Energy Efficiency, and Some Advantages and Disadvantages'1 High energy efficiency High energy efficiency Highest energy efficiency

Lighting 143 Table 114 Typical Applications of Light Sources in Horse Facilities

A quartz-halogen bulb is a type of incandescent bulb that has the tungsten metal filament in a halogen gas-sealed quartz bulb (Fig. 11.8). Halogen bulbs are slightly more energy efficient and have longer life than incandescent bulbs. A more noticeable advantage is that quartz-halogen bulbs produce a whiter light than incandescent, which is helpful where good color recognition is important. During lamp operation the halogen gas combines with tungsten molecules that have evaporated off the filament. The tungsten is redeposited on the filament rather than on the quartz bulb interior, so there is almost no bulb darkening with age as in an incandescent bulb. This halogen regenerative process requires high-temperature operation that also produces the brighter, higher color temperature light. The quartz bulb walls are necessary to withstand this high temperature but suffer from sensitivity to oil and dirt from human skin, which causes premature lamp failure. Figure 11.10. Fluorescent...

More Design Options Mechanical Systems

Too many owners and builders do not consider their mechanical systems until too late in the design process, figuring that they can just be added into any design. But the best and most efficient homes are designed with their mechanical systems fully in mind, so they are well integrated into the building.

School of Social Sciences

You can guarantee cool, refined work from STA and this 7000sq.m. university building is no exception. It is very energy efficient and, as one might expect, internally flexible, with its accommodation centred around a central atrium or 'hub' feature which aims to serve as the focus o of movements, meetings etc. Externally, the cladding is a s well-designed and rather sleek glass rain-screen. u

Interior Design Implications

Some spaces require diverse thermal conditions. In winter, we expect offices to be relatively warmer than circulation spaces, which are transitional from the exterior to the interior. Just like a space can seem lighter and higher if preceded by a lower, darker space, transitional spaces that are closer to outside temperatures can make key spaces seem more comfortable without extreme heating or cooling, saving energy over the life of the building.

Dont Squander Your Heat

No matter how you heat your home, you can always find ways to prevent heat waste. Create sheltered entries so doors don't open directly outside. Mud rooms, boot rooms, and closed porches are more than just practical they save on energy costs, too. Inside the house, match heat distribution to activity. An office, where you sit for long periods, will likely require more heat than a kitchen, where you are moving about or creating

Performance in practice and lessons learned

Energy efficiency was an important criteria for this building and according to Bolin and Hamilton (1996), the design heating and cooling load predictions were 10 less than Arizona State targets, So it's our job now to present a system that does have the qualities that we promise, to back up the built reality and we have to bring the data, accurately projected, of the kind of savings that will be generated by letting us have our way with this, and the benefits to the client organisation and their whole culture, if you will, by accepting it And so it's the start of this journey, and we'll be going from a conceptual level of schematics, through design development, but now's the time we win the audience, and then what's important to do is listen to your clients with their agenda, you know, give the proposition a language and a potential that captures their imaginations, empowers them to be part of the team from the beginning, and then you go on a journey excitedly together. Because, you...

Application A Performance Toolkit For Portfolio Management

Energy efficiency Electric lighting energy consumption over required illuminance level in l< Wh mJ year lux Comparison of the calculation and energy consumption (MJ) In order to make a comparison with real consumption data, the computations were carried out with the actual Atlanta climate for 2000 and 2001. Note that the normative calculations are based on the standard reference year for Atlanta, enabling a year to year comparison of the energy performance, not biased by the annual weather variations. For benchmarking purposes, we have to compare PI values with actual use. In the case of the energy Pis, this is warranted as the normative procedure gives reliable estimates of the expected real energy consumption. A big advantage of the normative calculation is that it provides a breakdown of energy consumers, as shown in table 7.2. The outcome of the breakdown will help building owners and facility managers to have a sense of where the attention should be paid and where the budget...

S Robert Hastings 261 Introduction

A key selection criterion for the heat-producing system is that the energy supply source should have minimal fixed costs. To take the example of gas, while condensing gas furnaces can achieve a nominal efficiency over 100 per cent, the very small quantity of gas consumed results in the fixed costs exceeding the energy costs, in the following example (Table 2.6.1), by 235 per cent

Optimum startstop controls

Optimum start stop controls vary the heating system start-up time depending on the weather, so as to achieve a required temperature by a required time. Heat-up times are reduced during milder weather, saving energy. Optimum stop facilities turn boilers off when the resulting temperature fall-off will still allow the required temperature to be met at the end of occupancy. This means they close down earlier on mild days. The greatest energy savings are likely to be in lightweight buildings and with heating systems of low thermal capacity.

Power Line Carrier Plc Systems

Adding sophisticated building management controls to an existing building would be very expensive if all new wiring had to be installed. Power line carrier (PLC) systems use existing or new electrical power wiring as conductors to carry control signals for energy management controls in existing large, complex facilities. Low-voltage, high-frequency, binary-coded control signals are injected into the power wiring. Only receivers tuned to a particular code react to the signals. In residential use, the control signal generator can be a small manually programmed controller. In commercial facilities, computers operate an energy management or lighting controller.

Characteristics of Various Effects

Table 530-2 lists characteristics for each type of display, or effect. It should be realized that these evaluations are both generalized and subjective and that a particular characteristic for any display can be reinforced. For example, an increased flowrate will improve the visibility, sound level, and wind stability but adversely affect the splash pattern and energy efficiency of a display

CERT Funding Now Available For Perma Roclc External Wall Insulation

With the UK Government's commitment to reducing C02 emissions through increased energy efficiency, the use of external wall insulation (solid wall insulation) has become more common place, with widespread adoption of the technology on new-build schemes in addition to the more established traditional refurbishment sector. It is one of the principal drivers of energy efficiency improvements in existing homes in Great Britain and marks a significant strengthening of efforts to reduce household carbon emissions - with a doubling of the level of activity of its predecessor Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC). CERT will maintain a focus on vulnerable consumers and now includes new innovative and flexible approaches to energy efficiency, including PermaRock external wall insulation systems PermaRock systems are also EST approved products, confirming that our systems are among the most energy efficient in their category, helping reduce energy costs and preventing climate change.

Project background and the design process

Following the 1989 decision to relocate the Inland Revenue from London to Nottingham, a design-and-build scheme had been selected and its piled foundations were already in place when, in 1991, construction was suspended. The selected scheme had resulted in such a public outcry, particularly in view of its historically sensitive location overlooked by Nottingham Castle, that an architectural competition was then held. The brief called for a design which would be adaptable to changing needs in the Inland Revenue office environment, even to the extent of housing other tenants, and was one of the first governmental buildings to ask for state-of-the-art energy efficiency (Berry, 1998) associated with a strong preference for natural lighting and ventilation (Berry et al., 1995 11). Michael Hopkins and Partners' scheme, with Ove Arup and Partners as consulting engineers, was adjudged the winner in 1992. fa ade, solar-assisted ventilation, thermal mass, and good daylight levels. Energy was to...

Residential Appliances

Congress passed the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act, over the objections of the Department of Energy (DOE) but backed by utilities, appliance manufacturers, and environmental groups. This law sets minimum efficiency criteria for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, refrigerators, freezers, and other appliances. When you specify any electrical equipment or appliance, look for the energy efficiency rating (EER) and the estimated yearly operating cost, listed on the yellow and black fed eral EnergyGuide label attached to every air conditioner, fan, dishwasher, dryer, refrigerator, or freezer sold in the United States. The EnergyGuide label gives you a way to compare one appliance with another. Higher energy efficiency results in lower energy use and lower operating costs. As we discussed earlier, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the DOE have established the Energy Star label in voluntary cooperation with manufacturers...

An Interview with Bob Fowler

A There are probably a dozen reasons. First, I have an adventurous spirit and see the need for finding more sustainable ways to build. I also have a farming background and know the properties of straw and the disposal problems straw in the field presents to farmers. So I appreciate that these problems can be turned into assets. As an architect and an engineer, as well as a builder, I find straw bale something I can really get excited about. Not just for the fact that you can build very good-looking buildings with it, but for the environmental reasons, the energy efficiency, and the affordabil-ity of it.

Precast Concrete Delivers Stonewall Green Promise

Offering superb resistance to decay and degradation, Trent's products last and last. Lifetime energy costs are also significantly reduced thanks to concrete's impressive thermal mass. By keeping heat in during winter and out during summer, the building relies far less on heating and air conditioning, thus minimising its long-term carbon footprint. Trent Concrete has embraced

LEDs Lightemitting Diodes

LEDs are a revolutionary new lighting technology that reduce energy consumption, allow lighting to be programmed by computer and permit wide variations in lighting color. LEDs use chips, not bulbs, so emit a lot less heat than incandescent or even fluorescent lamps. Made with computer chips, they are easily dimmable and programmable. LEDs are already in major use in traffic signals, as cities and counties throughout the country are using them to replace standard bulbs. In addition to saving energy, the LEDs' long life reduces maintenance costs for replacing burned-out bulbs by almost 90 . A lighting design colleague of mine recently used LEDs for highlighting a light-rail bridge, programmed to put on a light show every time a train passed over. The possibilities for using LEDs in lighting design are endless

Variablespeed drives VSDs

The traditional approach to pipe and ductwork systems has been to oversize pumps and fans at the design stage, and to correct this during commissioning using valves and dampers to control the flow by increasing the system resistance. While mechanical constrictions do control the flow, they increase the system resistance, which results in increased energy loss as well as unnecessary capital expenditure. This is one of the main reasons why the energy consumption associated with fans and pumps is high in many buildings. An alternative approach to the use of valves and dampers is to control the flow rate by varying the speed of fan and pump motors. VSDs ensure that even if fans and pumps are oversized, energy consumption will not be greatly increased. This makes the installation of VSDs one of the most cost-effective energy efficiency measures.

Lighting System Tuning

Daylight compensation is another energy saving control system, one that works by automatic dimming. Daylight compensation reduces artificial lighting in parts of a building when daylight is available for illumination needs. The system's designer establishes zone areas, usually south exposures and sometimes east or west exposures depending on the latitude and climate. The northern exposure has only a narrow perimeter zone with adequate daylight, and doesn't usually need automatic dimming. The zone size is set at the maximum room depth that will receive a minimum of one half of its light from daylight for several hours per day. Photocells trigger dimming as required. Daylight compensation dimming can reduce energy use in perimeter areas by up to 60 percent, and will pay for itself in from three months to three years. As opposed to dimming, minute by minute changes caused by the constant switching on or off of lamp levels can by very annoying to the space's occupants, and is damaging to...

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