Project monitoring and control

This stage involves using a variety of measures to ensure that the project is on target through Design and contract procurement - selection of design team members and type of contract appropriate for the proposed scheme. Managing and monitoring the design and construction. Establishing and controlling the budget. This involves cost monitoring - comparing the budget costs with the actual costs. Comparing planned to actual performance (see simple programme chart in Table 11.7). Cost control -...

Pest control Preamble

The urban environment is synonymous with large numbers of people. It represents potentially large sources of human spillage or waste, which in turn encourages the interest and the colonization of many pests such as birds, rats, mice and cockroaches. Even occupied buildings of course can suffer from vermin infestation. Many old, vacant buildings ripe for adaptation, however, are more likely to be infested with a variety of pests. Not only is it detrimental to health, the presence of pests is...

Adapting unoccupied buildings

Vacant buildings can also pose problems when subjected to adaptation. Such properties are more likely to be in a poor state of repair or even dilapidated. Ideally, before work commences all their windows and doors would normally be boarded up. If left open or unsecured vacant premises are more prone to damage by squatters and vandals. Moreover, because they are not heated or cleaned, unoccupied buildings tend to deteriorate at a faster rate than occupied properties. Moisture and dust levels...

Public private partnerships

Until recently an option such as Private Finance Initiative (PFI) was considered one of the best ways to fund major adaptation work. PFI involved a partnership arrangement between the public authority and private sector participants (e.g. contractors, funding bodies such as banks and pension funds, and large companies, etc.). PFI was launched in 1992 by the then Conservative administration. The current government did not abandon this scheme on taking office but rather developed and refined it....

Common adaptive reuse options

The most suitable adaptive reuse option will depend on the original use and intended use of the building. Table 4.3 compares housing conversion with commercial industrial conversion. As indicated previously, however, the type and form of adaptive reuse of a property is constrained as much by the imagination as well by economic and legal restraints. The photographs in Figures 4.6-4.9, for example, illustrate some imaginative reuses of redundant buildings. The next five sections deal respectively...

The impact of facilities management on adaptation

The emergence of facilities management in the last quarter of the 20th century has highlighted and attempted to address changes in business needs. Facilities management is a holistic, commercial-orientated discipline that administers, controls and organizes the non-core activities (such as maintenance, adaptation, cleaning, security, catering) to support the core business of an organization. It is an umbrella term that covers four key areas as shown in Table 4.1. As can be seen from the above...

External finishes

The external finishes to dormers are also influenced by economic and aesthetic factors. The cheeks of many dormers, for example, are normally tiled or slated to match the existing roof coverings. In some cases a small dead-light window is incorporated into each cheek. In older properties the sides of dormers are clad with zinc or lead sheeting. Nowadays they are often clad with either timber weatherboarding with or an insulated panel system finished with a render to match the existing walling....

Upperfloor vacancy

A common feature of many town centres is the widespread disuse or under-use of upper-floor space above shops and other ground level commercial properties in some inner city streets (DOE, 1997). This problem can manifest itself in inner urban areas even where the demand for retail and office space is high. The result is that frequently large sections of three-or four-storey terraced blocks have few or no occupiers in the upper floors. Unlike other forms of partial under-utilization, upper-floor...

Development of a fire

A fire can only start if there is an adequate supply of fuel, an adequate supply of oxygen and a means of ignition. The fire develops by, first of all, the fuel igniting. As more oxygen becomes available more fuel is consumed and the temperature rises significantly, making more fuel available. In other words materials that do not ignite easily become ignited as the temperature rises. Fires can be triggered deliberately or inadvertently. Arson accounts for a large proportion of fires in...

Breaking through

The timing of the 'breaking through' from an existing to a new building is of especial importance in lateral extension work. Ideally, it should be undertaken late rather than early in the contract. In other words, before this is done the new work should be fully secure and weather-tight. The breakthrough work must therefore be done with due care to minimize inconvenience to the building and its occupants. Forming a new opening in an existing wall must be done with due care to avoid danger to...

Summary

The increasing importance of sustainable construction is likely to remain one of the key drivers of the modernization of commercial and industrial buildings. Energy consumption of factories and offices needs to be reduced if companies are to remain cost conscious as well as competitive. This also applies to assembly institutional buildings such as hospitals and schools, for example (see BRECSU, GPGs 206 and 233, 1997). The use of ESTs or RETs can also help achieve a more sustainable building....

Three essential requirements

The process of adaptation has already been addressed in general terms. The conversion process is no different but has certain characteristics that are peculiar to this category of adaptation. Building conversion is basically another form of property development. Thus, as with any such venture there is an element of risk. The degree of risk will depend on a number of variables relevant to the proposed adaptation option selected. These variables include among other things the location of the...

General energy improvements Preamble

As pointed out by BRECSU (GPG 155, 2001) the energy efficiency of a dwelling can be improved without waiting to undertake a full refurbishment package. Repair and improvement schemes provide many opportunities for energy measures. Indeed, the economies of scale involved normally mean that it is cheaper to combine energy efficiency measures with repair and improvement work. It is usually more expensive and disruptive to do these measures separately at a later date. The main energy efficiency...

Refurbishing services Heating

The opportunity to upgrade the heating systems within a building may form part of a major refurbishment scheme. Under-floor heating could be used where there is a need to maximize space and avoid exposed heating panels (as described in Chapter 5). This can be installed within a gypsum screed, but may not be easy with existing floor slabs and levels as it raises the floor level by at least 50 mm. The lighting system can comprise halogen lamps for high-quality illumination. Long-lasting sodium...

Indoor air quality Preamble

It is generally accepted that people in the developed world spend the vast majority of their time indoors -between 80 and 90 per cent. Moreover, ironically, the indoor environment is now in some cases considered to be more polluted than outdoors (Maroni et al., 1995). This means that in the West especially building users may be being exposed to unhealthy environmental conditions because of potentially dangerous levels of airborne contaminants. There are a variety of factors that have made...

Modifying the layout

After salaries, office space represents the highest operational cost for commercial organizations (McGregor and Then, 1999). Maximizing the space of an office building through refurbishment and interior replanning, therefore, could enable a company to rationalize its property requirements. This could result in considerable rental savings if it can accommodate its entire staff in one building rather than two or more properties. The churn rate is also a factor influencing the regularity and...

Modern roof vent stacks

Another passive energy efficiency measure is to install a roof vent stack, which acts as a 'windcatcher'. It is a form of passive stack ventilation that has a circular or square louvred cowl. Monodraught Ltd is one company that supply and fits this method of maximizing natural daylighting in a building. This 'windcatcher' can be installed on its own or incorporated within a suncatcher tube. It is similar in style to the suncatcher pipe except that it does not require a reflective inner lining....

Economic

The maintenance costs of an old building, even one that has been refurbished, are usually still higher than those for new build. The rental income that can be derived from an existing building may not be as high as that obtained by a modern facility that fully meets the needs of today's building user. Moreover, the energy costs are likely to be higher as it is hard to match the insulation standards of new build. Some materials required for use in adaptation work to match existing are expensive...

Underfloor heating

Small domestic conservatories normally may not require any direct heating source as they are primarily used in the warmer months. Large conservatories, on the other hand, need to have an efficient heating system to achieve an adequate level of thermal performance throughout the year. Thin panel radiators with micro-bore piping can offer an adequate heating system in such circumstances but these take up space. PE-XC AL PE-XC pipe tied to D49 loose PE-XC AL PE-XC pipe stapled to insulation PE-XC...

Types of maintenance

There are essentially two main types of maintenance proactive (i.e. planned) and reactive (i.e. unplanned). The main branches of these two are illustrated in Figure 1.10. Planned preventative maintenance of course is more expensive to set up than unplanned maintenance. The latter, however, will result in more long-term running costs for a building maintained in this way (Chanter and Swallow, 1996 Wordsworth, 2000). Even with planned preventative maintenance the overall performance of a building...

Alterations to frames Changes in layout

Large factory or warehouse buildings are more often that not of some form of framed construction. Structural steel is the most popular material for the frame of low-rise structures. Pre-cast concrete frames because of their robustness and durability are common for portal frames in agricultural buildings. High-rise office buildings may, on the other hand, consist of cast in-situ reinforced concrete skeletal frame construction. Because of changes in work practices there may be a need to increase...

Preface to 2nd edition

In the Preface to the first edition I expressed a hope that the book would elicit feedback. Thankfully I have received some constructive comments from a number of practitioners and students. Generally they have been generous in their comments about the book and have given positive responses to help improve its contents. Some of the modifications in this edition therefore are the result of such feedback. The reactions to the book and its sales confirm that such a text is needed. Naturally, a...

Adaptive reuse of church buildings Characteristics of church buildings

Church buildings still form a distinctive part of the urban and rural landscape in many parts of Britain. With the trend towards a more secular society, however, this is becoming no longer the case in some areas. The Victorian era was the heyday for the erection of church buildings in Britain. During that period of course the Industrial Revolution and the British Empire were at their zenith. The rapid rise in population in the 19th century encouraged the expansion of towns. This in turn...

Adaptive reuse options Generally

There are a number of possible combinations for changing a building's use nowadays. Generally, however, as shown in Table 4.2 below, the range of possibilities is limited by the change from same use to a different use. In relative terms, single use to mixed-use adaptation is more likely than the reverse type of conversion. This is usually because the configuration and size of building may not suit a single occupancy. For example, a large workshop with offices above would not easily suit...

Nonresidential conversions

In urban areas in the 1960s through to the 1980s the boom in office sector prompted the conversion of many residential buildings to commercial use. With changes in the demand for office space in city centres, however, this trend is being reversed in some cases. Re-conversion of offices back to residential use is becoming popular in many older inner urban areas. This often requires a great deal of reinstatement work to walls and floors to bring the property back to its original character. Many...

Other impulses for refurbishment Preamble

As with any adaptation or new-build scheme the needs of the client are paramount. Other considerations, though, may impact on the modernization of a building. In general, the impulses that drive this form of adaptation are summarized as below. Improving the quality of the urban landscape and obtaining a more sustainable environment is a goal of central and local governments. Tackling urban blight is not only possible through slum clearance schemes and major new developments. Major...

Different floor levels

Buildings on sloping sites can be difficult to convert if they depend on uniting adjacent properties horizontally. This is because of the likelihood of different floor levels across mutual or party walls. Moreover, Kilmarnock and Loudoun District Council Knockinlaw, Kilmarnock 1930 39 (traditional construction) 4-in-a-block Four 4-apartment flats were converted to four 3-apartment terraced houses In the original plan the entrances to both the lower and upper flats were at the side of the block....

Reducing the number of empty properties Generally

Empty buildings are a wasted resource. They do not yield any rental income or property taxes. They are more prone to vandalism, occupancy by squatters, premature deterioration and intruder damage than occupied buildings. They take up valuable urban space, which could be redeveloped for more appropriate uses. In housing they are often a symptom of poverty and social depravation. In non-residential buildings they are indicative of blight and economic recession. In some cases the only effective...

Insect attack

Woodworm and termites also pose a great threat to timbers in service. This type of infestation can seriously undermine their structural integrity. It is often found in damp timbers affected by fungal attack, especially in older buildings that usually contain unprotected sapwood. As a general rule if there are more than 20 boreholes in any 100 mm section of timber, the infestation is considered severe (BRE Digest 307, 1986). Less than that, the timber may be treatable provided that it is not...

Significance of sustainability

Sustainability is defined as a set of processes aimed at delivering efficient built assets in the long-term (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR), 1998). It is about taking a strategic view of enhancing the impact of human development on the environment. The fundamental aim is to satisfy the requirements of people today without undermining the ability of our descendants to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission, 1987). In other words it is about social and...

Preamble

Despite their differences adaptation work and new-build schemes share many similarities. These two forms of construction work are procured using building contractors employing tradesmen, as well as semiskilled and un-skilled operatives. Both involve the expertise of consultant representatives such as surveyors, architects, engineers and other professionals. A project manager may be appointed for a large adaptation project such as a major refurbishment scheme to an office building involving...

Project review

Regular briefings to assess progress as identified in the monitoring reports are important. Site meetings held once a week month (depending on the size of the job and time-scale involved) would be the main forum to review progress of the project. It would also be helpful for the project manager to review the successes and failings of the project once it is complete. Such feedback can then be used to help improve the knowledge base for future projects of this kind. Some form of post-occupancy...

Coating existing roof coverings

'Turnerization' is a trade name for a process involving the application of a black or rust red-coloured bituminous coating to a slated or tiled roof (Hollis, 2005). The rationale behind this brush- or spray-applied repair method is that it is intended to provide a watertight seal to the roof. It is sometimes considered as a means of refurbishing old or 'nailsick' roof coverings. Applying a bituminous coating to a roof, however, is a risky venture. It effectively traps any moisture in the roof...

Recycled water

Rainwater from roofs and hardstandings can be collected to underground tanks and recycled without much reprocessing. It's usually delivered on demand from such below ground containers by an in-tank submersible pump direct to toilets, washing machines and outside taps. The term 'greywater' can be used to describe non-foul wastewater from sinks, showers and baths. It therefore requires a higher level of treatment than ordinary rainwater. According to Anglia Water on average 45 per cent of water...

Tolerable standard

According to the Scottish Executive (2003) 'The Tolerable Standard (which is equivalent to the Fitness Standard in England) as amended by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001 was introduced in the 1969 Housing (Scotland) Act following recommendations made in the 1967 Cullingworth Report. Other than the incorporation of the basic standard amenities (listed above) by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001, it has remained largely unchanged.' The Scottish Executive (2003) 'emphasizes that the standard is not...

Importance of sustainable adaptation

Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles,' mainly because 'the UK construction industry generates about 70 m tonnes of waste a year, which is nearly a quarter of all waste'. Adaptation also saves valuable resources as well as reduces the volume of material being sent to landfill. That is why...

Historic interiors Finishings

Many old buildings have attractive and distinctive or unusual features and finishings that wherever possible should be retained in any sensitive adaptation scheme (Lander, 1982). Listed building status of course may protect these, but in other buildings without this form of protection valuable interiors may inadvertently be destroyed. Replacing these on a like-for-like basis may not be easy, but architectural salvage companies may be able to supply appropriate replacement items. The following...

Value for money

It has become increasingly recognized that the lowest cost option is not necessarily the best or even cheapest way to procure buildings. Duffy (1993) showed for example that a building's initial cost accounts only for about a third of its total cost over its whole life. The other two-thirds are used on maintenance and adaptation. In today's commercial world with its conflicting issues of scarce resources and increasing expectations there is greater pressure to obtain value for money (VFM) in...

Typical adaptation risks General perils of adaptation

The project manager of any adaptation scheme should take cognizance of the common problems associated with this type of work to avoid financial as well operational disasters. As highlighted in a short article in the journal Building (November 2001), refurbishment (i.e. adaptation) projects are notoriously risky. It listed some of the main problems in this regard The building can be different to the information on the original drawings. Access can be difficult, particularly for large pieces of...

Modern forms of construction

Adaptation is, of course, not restricted to buildings of traditional construction. Modern properties, too, may require adjustment even a few years after they are built. This occurs especially with supermarket buildings, which often require regular adaptation to keep up with changing retail requirements. As indicated in Chapter 1 a standard TESCO supermarket building in the west of Edinburgh comprising six 8-9 m wide bays, for example, was extended in 2002, 2 years after completion of its...

Fitness standard

The Local Government and Housing Act 1989 prescribes the Housing Fitness Standard in England and Wales. Houses not complying with this are classed as 'unfit for human habitation'. In Scotland the term Table 8.3 The three phases of the non-traditional building boom in the UK (adapted from Chandler, 1991) Table 8.3 The three phases of the non-traditional building boom in the UK (adapted from Chandler, 1991) Approximately 52 000 non-traditional dwellings were Although they were built using many...

Health hazards from pest infestation

There are a variety of different diseases that can be borne by pigeons, starlings and other urban birds, as well as rats and mice. Many of these diseases, such as salmonellosis and thrush, are infectious to humans. There are many ectoparasites that can be carried by pigeons and the many mites that can be found thriving on or around their areas of roosting. Inconspicuous corpses of dead birds are breeding grounds for flies and the inevitable contamination they create. Bird droppings on and...

Basic principles

The use of solar energy using RET in buildings such as PV is gaining greater acceptance. PV technology uses silicone solar cell contact grids on a metal base plate to collect solar radiation (Sick and Erge, 1996). The collected energy from light is converted to electricity (see Figure 10.5) to satisfy some if not all of a dwelling's electrical needs. PV can also be used, for example, to enhance the efficiency of the hot-water heating system in a dwelling. The effect of this is to raise the...

Basic design criteria

There are twelve key design criteria that apply principally to domestic adaptation schemes (based on Williams, 1995). They can however relate to non-residential properties as well so long as allowances are taken for differences in scale, form and use. The criteria are as follows 1. Harmonizing Any external modifications to the existing building, such as a proposed extension, should tone-in with the surrounding properties. The design, for example, can either match or contrast with that of the...

Background Triggers for building conversion

Building conversion is usually stimulated by the need to ensure that properties have a continuing use. It is essentially a response to accommodate changes in the type or style of occupancy demand for a property. The intention to keep it in beneficial use is critical in such cases. Bringing new life to an old building threatened with disuse and eventual demolition is the ultimate positive objective of conversion. For many occupiers a change of use is often seen as the cheapest and most...

Impact on rental and capital values

Adapting a building is more likely to have a positive rather than negative impact on both its rental and capital values. A refurbished commercial property is more appealing to prospective tenants and therefore it can command a better level of rent. Similarly, the capital value of a refurbished property because of this improvement in its attractiveness is more likely to secure a prospective buyer. However, as indicated earlier there is no guarantee that the increase in value will match the...

Environmental improvements to nonresidential buildings Entrance foyer

The construction of a new canopy over the main entrance can transform an otherwise plain front elevation. It can give the building a distinctive new look (see Figure 8.3). This may include the installation of revolving doors as well as the provision of a very durable aluminium entrance matting system. Respectively these latter features will prevent draughts and dirt accumulation at the entrance. As in housing, improved access for disabled people is another important requirement for commercial...

Vacancy of nonresidential buildings

There is no comparable mass condition survey programme for non-residential properties. This is most likely because of the diversity of size and type of individual institutional, industrial, commercial, and agricultural buildings makes it difficult to both determine and present a total stock figure for these properties. According to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM, 2003b) There were about 1.9 million business addresses in England and Wales in 1994, each on average occupying about...

Lateral extensions

This chapter considers the factors that need to be addressed in the design and construction of lateral extensions to buildings. It outlines the requirements and precautions for enlarging a building's volume horizontally. Conservatories as well as conventional domestic and commercial extensions are examined in this part of the book. Background Rationale for enlarging buildings Increasing the capacity of a building is one of the most visible forms of adaptation. The way this is normally done is...

Adaptation plan of work Background

The plan of work for adaptation schemes can generally follow that for new-build projects. The version described below is based on the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work. This procedure, of course, is primarily designed for new-build schemes. However, cognizance has to be taken of the subtle differences between adaptation and new build. There are likely to be greater levels of consultation between the client and contractor in the refurbishment of an occupied property. This...

Typical internal refurbishment Common areas

Common parts of an office block such as entrance halls, stairs, as well as statutory fire escape requirements and landings lend themselves easily to refurbishment. These areas are the most conspicuous and most heavily used parts of commercial properties. Thus, their refurbishment rate may be higher than for other parts of the building. Internal refurbishment of a commercial building can entail more than redecoration of the wall finishes. It can include stripping out existing finishes and...

Performance management The performance concept

The performance concept has been used in some areas of the construction industry since the early 1970s. It is based on a more systematic way of determining and achieving desired results by focusing on ends rather than means (CIB, 1993a). Adaptation is one of the two primary elements of building performance management (see Figure 1.6). The other element is maintenance (which includes repair). Maintenance is the act of keeping a building in a pre-determined state. 'Repair' involves making good to...

Modern suncatcher tubes

A contemporary and more efficient alternative to the traditional light-well is to use a proprietary circular sealed daylight duct. 'SunPipe', for example, is a silverized aluminium tube that comes in diameter ranges from 200-1000 mm. Larger diameter tubes are best used in commercial buildings. These can be used on flat roofs as well as pitched ones. The super-reflective mirror-finished tube intensifies and directs daylight and sunlight down to the habitable room below where the light is evenly...

Side extensions

In residential property, an attached garage often forms the main type of side extension. In other instances, the side extension may be required to provide an enlarged or additional room. More usually, however, a two-storey extension comprising, say, a garage on the ground floor and a bedroom on the upper floor forms the main type of addition incorporating these functions. Figure 5.3 illustrates a typical example of a side extension. A major design restraint is that many local planning...

Technical factors Constructional forms

Conservatories were originally viewed as merely glorified greenhouses. Granted, the construction of these two structures is similar. The former, however, requires a higher standard of construction and comfort conditions. As a result they need double or even triple glazing, whereas greenhouses only have single glazing. The superstructures of many conservatories, like greenhouses, are designed to be dismantled and re-erected elsewhere. Figure 5.15 Typical conservatory designs (GGF, 1999) There...

Requirements for sustainable adaptation Profitability

For any business, profitability is an important criterion of sustainability in relation to new build. It is a valid objective for construction generally but is much harder to attain in adaptation work, particularly in the context of building conservation. An adapted building can rarely achieve the same rate of return as a newly constructed facility. This is because, inevitably, the former cannot match the latter in terms of overall performance. As with new build, an adapted building ought to be...

Conservatories Introduction

Conservatories are a common form of small-scale extension in residential properties nowadays. This is because they are cheaper and easier to erect than more substantial forms of lateral extensions. In domestic cases they are normally restricted to small single-storey structures having not less than three-quarters of the area of their roof and not less than one-half of the area of their external walls made of translucent material. This type of lateral extension, however, is sometimes also...

Preface to 1st edition

This book was written to fill a perceived gap in the market for a text that deals with the fundamentals of building adaptation. It is not, in other words, just another tract on the rehabilitation and re-use of existing property. There is currently no single volume available that is specifically designed to provide a general introduction to the conversion, extension and refurbishment of property for students of building surveying and other cognate undergraduate programmes in the built...

Reasons for redundancy of old church buildings Excess supply of buildings

Over-capacity is a problem that is not restricted to ecclesiastical buildings. Since about the middle of the 20th century buildings associated with traditional industries - such as coal-mining, textile and steel manufacturing - have been similarly afflicted by changing socio-economic factors. This has inevitably led to a surfeit in the number of such buildings. The stock of church buildings is now well in excess of demand. It is not surprising therefore that many church buildings are redundant....

Viability

Viability is usually the most important and influential of all the assessment criteria because ultimately any development decision is based on financial considerations. Indeed, the main reason for the adaptation of nonresidential property is to maximize income or asset value (Martin and Gold, 1999). In contrast, functional and personal considerations as well as financial matters play a role in the adaptation of residential property. According to Martin and Gold (1999) the main issues that...

Adapting old buildings Objectives

Adapting old buildings brings with it problems over and above those encountered in ordinary adaptation schemes. Such buildings have more than their fair share of structural and fabric problems. They usually contain materials and construction methods that are uncommon if not obsolete, such as lath and plaster or solid (un-insulated) walling. Thus the primary aim of any adaptation scheme involving the conversion or renovation of an old building is to achieve a sustainable and beneficial reuse....

Reducing or enlarging the useable space

As indicated earlier, old buildings often have high floor-to-ceiling heights. In many non-residential properties such as churches and function halls, there was only one storey, even though the roof was over 5 m above ground level. In economic, functional and environmental terms, this is a waste of space. The accommodation within such an interior is thus harder and more expensive to heat and keep clean. High ceilings are relatively inaccessible without tower scaffolding. This makes repainting...

Residential conversions

Conversions to residential use are the most popular type of change of use. This is mainly due to the continuing high levels of demand for good quality dwellings in familiar settings. Given the restrictions on building on greenbelt areas and lack of buildable urban land for housing, this type of conversion is likely to remain popular for many years. The formation of new openings (called 'slapping' in parts of Britain such as Scotland) is a common feature of converting small dwellings into larger...

Government policy changes

One of the main policies emerging from the CIP that has a bearing on building owners users has been to update the relevant parts of the Building Regulations. Since 1 April 2002 major changes to Part F (equivalent to Section 3 in Scotland), Part J (Section 4), Part L (Section 6) and Part M (Section 4) of the Building Standards have come into force. They are more complex than earlier versions and for the first time elements apply to changes to existing buildings. These amendments to the...

Best value Rationale

The report by Egan (1998) on 'Re-thinking Construction' prompted a drive for a fundamental change in the way construction projects are delivered. It affects everyone involved in the design and construction of adaptation as well as new-build projects. Reducing capital costs, defects and accidents, and improving predictability, productivity and contractor's profitability are its main aims. Table 2.2 Summary of English and Scottish housing stock by age (DETR, 1998 Scottish Homes, 1997) Table 2.2...

Background Climate change

The hypothesis of adverse change in the global climate is now generally accepted (UNEP, 2001). It is mainly the precise causes, scale and significance of this phenomenon that are in some dispute. The UK government in late 2000, however, unveiled a clear strategy aimed at reducing the country's contribution to climate change by cutting emissions of carbon dioxide by 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010. Carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels. It accounts for over 80 per...

Solar energy in refurbishment Advantages of solar energy

Refurbishment or other adaptation work can present an ideal opportunity to apply different solar energy options. It also presents challenges, however, because retrofitting such techniques in existing buildings can be difficult owing to the physical constraints and financial restraints involved. 'Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source and, therefore, has economic as well as environmental and social value' (ISE, 1997). It can be categorized into 'active' and 'passive' techniques....

Background Rationale of adaptive reuse

In Chapter 3 the focus was on the general principles of converting buildings other purposes. The adaptive reuse of property is considered in more detail in this chapter. It is concerned with converting buildings into other, more effective and efficient uses. More effective here means that the adapted property serves the client's requirements better and gives the building an extended useful life. For example, this may be because the building's appearance is not in keeping with the corporate...

What is adaptation Definitions

'Adaptation' is derived from the Latin ad (to) and aptare (fit). In the context of this book it is taken to include any work to a building over and above maintenance to change its capacity, function or performance (i.e. any intervention to adjust, reuse or upgrade a building to suit new conditions or requirements). As regards existing buildings adaptation has traditionally come to have a narrower meaning that suggests mainly some form of change of use. The term has also been commonly used to...

Commercial buildings Building types

Before looking at the constructional characteristics of commercial buildings it would be useful to classify their main forms of construction. They can be divided into two broad groups unframed and framed. Unframed Solid or cavity wall construction (usually up to a maximum of six storeys) or column and slab construction (usually up to a maximum of about 12 storeys). Framed Steel or reinforced concrete - skeletal form for multi-storey blocks. Table 2.5 Typical forms of modern construction Type of...

Nonresidential refurbishment Rationale and strategy

The primary objective of any refurbishment programme is to improve a building's overall performance and enhance productivity (see Figures 8.2 and 8.3). Office buildings are no exception in this regard. Property investors know that the security of their investment is highly dependent upon the quality of the building they own. Giving the building a facelift is a distinctive way of enhancing its appearance and durability. Traditionally, most office buildings were refurbished, if at all, only once...

Office floor excluding tenantsfitout

Renewing the floor and ceiling finishes of office floor space can give it a rejuvenated look. The flooring can comprise close-pile anti-static carpeting in common office areas and cushioned sheet linoleum or vinyl for the circulation spaces. The installation of suspended ceilings with low-glare integrated light fittings can transform a previously tired looking space. These facilities are often a focal point for important meetings or presentations. They therefore usually demand a superior level...

Integrity of the building Generally

Raac Concrete Roof

In this context integrity is a concept that relates to what extent or degree the building retains its original characteristics, form, nature and use. There are four key aspects of building integrity architectural, constructional, cultural and structural, each of which must be considered in any adaptation scheme, particularly one involving a change of use. An adaptive reuse whilst involving little alteration to a building's exterior, could involve propose radical change to its interior. This may...

Roof extensions Means

In tight sites the capacity to extend a building laterally can be severely limited. Mid-terraced properties for example can only allow an extension of a suitable size at the rear. Even so there may be little if any room Schematic vertical cross-section (not to scale) Schematic vertical cross-section (not to scale) A. Traditional method of forming a light-well with skylight. B. Modern method of forming a light-well using a reflective duct (e.g. Sun Pipe). 1. New opening formed in existing roof....

Using project management Preamble

Any construction work, from the smallest adaptation job to the largest new-build scheme will require some form of project management if the critical success factors (time, cost, safety and quality) are to be achieved. This form of management has become the main methodology used to administer major projects from space programmes to new car designs as well as large building work. It can also be employed in medium-large scale adaptation schemes that require careful administration and control...

Building regulations compliance

Building Regulation Distance From Sink

The code compliance and space planning problems of an adaptive reuse can be highlighted in the proposed conversion of a large office building to flats. The property, which was built in the late 1930s, is shown in Figure 4.15. Its of Art Deco style and has Grade 2 listed status. The following building elements therefore require minimum intervention i.e. the original appearance to remain and retention of the original interior features of the entrance lobby, hall and stairwell. The fenestration...

Generally

As shown in Chapter 6 over-roofing is becoming a common way of replacing existing flat roofs. In this section we shall look at ways of upgrading flat and pitched roofs that do not involve changing their basic profile. Such upgrading works entail one or a combination of the following three measures 1. Replacing the existing roof coverings with similar or new material to enhance its appearance and weather resistance. On refurbishment, Capex overcladding systems can extend the life of a building...

Walltie repairs and renewal Traditional masonry

Wall-tie failure is primarily caused by premature corrosion of the galvanized mild steel ties see Figure 7.9 . The BRE IP 12 90 reported that this problem could eventually affect virtually all of the cavity-walled buildings constructed before 1981. After that time wall ties were designed to have much higher levels of resistance to corrosion. This means that some 10 million dwellings are potentially at risk of this problem Good Repair Guide GRG 4, 1997 . Schematic cross-section not to scale 1....

Thermal efficiency of insulation materials

In upgrading the thermal performance of elements it is important to be aware of the relative properties of each of the various insulation materials in relation to their thickness. These are summarized in Table 10.10. Identify energy efficiency targets. Undertake an energy audit of the building see guide by RICS and Increasing daylighting through roof sky lighting and sun-pipes. Reducing overheating through the use of external louvres or blinds or Reducing heating demand through installation of...

Anhydrite screeds

Part of the refurbishment of a building may involve refurbishing the concrete ground or upper floors. Installing an anhydrite screed over an existing sound concrete substrate is one way of doing this. Moreover, anhydrite screeds work well with underfloor heating. Concrete ground-bearing slab with insulation above slab 1 The surface below the insulation should be both smooth and flat to a tolerance of 5 mm in 3 m power-trowelled or levelled with screed . Concrete ground-bearing slab with...

Types of underpinning Traditional

Pier And Beam Foundations Sandy Soil

The main traditional forms of underpinning are brick with concrete footings, and mass concrete. They usually have a maximum depth of about 3 m and when complete are generally continuous over the length Table 7.5 Main types of modern underpinning methods Grouting This involves injecting a viscous cement or resin grout into the ground to 'stiffen' and or expand the soil under the wall affected by subsidence. It is more suited for use in non-cohesive soils such as gravely and sandy soils. Needle...

Repairs to reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete RAAC was a popular choice as structural material in educational, commercial and industrial buildings between 1950 and 1980. It was primarily used for pre-cast wall panels and flat roof planks in factory and warehouse blocks. 'Siporex', for example, was a common proprietary brand of RAAC wall panel. However, the term autoclaved aerated concrete AAC is a slight misnomer in that it is not a true form of concrete. AAC is not concrete in its constituent...