Preamble

Before fixing the brief for the adaptation work it may be worthwhile undertaking an energy audit of the building. This would be undertaken to identify building design dilemmas such as building usage seasonal conditions establish the building's thermal capacity. It would also help to identify energy appraisal yardsticks, such as fuel consumption in kWh m2 per annum (see RICS and EEO, 1992). Table 10.6 list some typical performance yardsticks for various categories of buildings based on floor...

Heat losses

Heat loss through a building's fabric has a major impact on its energy efficiency. According to Cairns (1993), the approximate percentages of heat losses from an uninsulated dwelling are as follows (with the revised figures as a result of increasing the insulation levels shown in brackets) 25 escapes through the roof (8 after insulation) 35 escapes through the walls (10-12 after insulation) 15 escapes in air leakage through the doors, etc. (9 after insulation) 15 escapes through the ground...

Barriers to energy efficiency

Despite the best efforts of government and others there are still a number of barriers that inhibit if not prevent the attainment of greater energy efficiency. Such barriers can be summarized as follows Economic The capital costs of schemes are often perceived as a disincentive. The payback period for some measures may exceed 10 years. Legal The delays in implementing any measures may undermine their effectiveness. Statutory constraints such as obtaining approvals may inhibit the implementation...

Energy efficient services Rationale

Services account for most if not all energy consumption in a building. They also account for around 40-50 per cent of the capital cost of a new work and can form a substantial part of the cost of an adaptation scheme. Moreover, services can take up nearly 30 per cent of the space in a building. It is therefore crucial that attention is given to the energy efficiency of services within a building. 1. Polycarbonate top dome can come in a variety of styles (e.g. square, for conservation work plain...

Sustainability factors

Ideally the extension should provide an opportunity to enhance a property's environmental performance. The client may have a policy for the extension that requires the maximum use of indigenous materials, low energy use services and high thermal efficiency of the fabric. See Chapter 10 for more details of sustain-ability measures. Harland (1998) indicates the main requirements in this respect for residential adaptation schemes are as follows Design for longevity, reusability and recyclability...

Health benefits of refurbishment

The impact of poor housing on health is significant according to many researchers (see e.g. Burridge and Ormandy, 1995). Preventing dampness and hypothermia is another reason over above applying energy saving measures why modernization of housing should include thermal efficiency. The Office of National Statistics (Anon, 2000b), for example, reported that premature deaths in the UK from cold-related illnesses such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases have exceeded 50 000 per annum....

Refurbishing public baths

Many towns and cities throughout Britain contain public swimming baths built during the second half of the 19th century. These Victorian buildings were built to last many years. However, in recent times, many have had to undergo major refurbishment programmes to bring them up to modern standards. Normal wear-and-tear, high-humidity conditions, and poor levels of maintenance have taken their toll on these buildings. Some have been left to become derelict. The more prestigious buildings have been...

Summary and conclusion

Adaptation work requires its participants, the consultants and contractors especially, to have a sound understanding of traditional as well as modern construction techniques. For example, they ought to have some knowledge of solid masonry walling, close couple pitched roof structures, lath and plaster and other forms of obsolete construction. In addition, they are also expected, when renovating or restoring historic buildings, to have sensitivity to conservation needs. Some of the risks...

Rationale

According to the BRE and the Energy Saving Trust (EST) buildings in Britain consume up to 50 per cent of the country's energy. Twenty-eight per cent of the UK's carbon dioxide emissions come from domestic energy use. Ninety per cent of total energy consumption is building energy use - the remaining 10 per cent is related to energy in manufacture. This coupled with the estimated 10 billion of energy wasted in the UK every year makes energy efficiency a major sustainability criterion. The British...

Energy efficiency in nonresidential buildings Preamble

Energy efficiency, like spatial performance, is an important design criterion for offices. The primary environmental effect of energy use is the emission of carbon dioxide, which is a major contributor to the Table 10.16 Approximate costs for BIPV systems (ECOTEC, 1998) PV curtain walling, glass glass crystalline modules PV curtain walling, glass glass thin-film amorphous modules Conventional wall systems (for comparison) Double glazing Cavity wall (brick block) Stone cladding Polished stone PV...

Thermal upgrading

One of the major requirements in any adaptation work is to enhance the energy efficiency of the building. This is usually best achieved by improving the level of insulation in the external walls, roof and ground floor of the building to reduce the overall U-value of the fabric (see Chapter 10). Table 3.7 Requirements for soundproofing floors and walls Table 3.7 Requirements for soundproofing floors and walls than 53 dB Minimum not less than 52 dB Existing 103 mm thick brick wall with plaster on...

Boilers

Replacing old or inefficient central heating boilers is often necessary in residential and commercial refurbishment schemes. In such instances condensing boilers should be used because of their energy-saving potentials. In particular, condensing gas boilers operate at an average annual efficiency of 85 per cent, which is about 15 per cent more than the standard type (Harrison and Trotman, 2000). The recommended basic package for boiler and radiators of a gas central heating system indicated in...

Future energy efficiency requirements

The statutory requirements relating to energy efficiency are unlikely to stand still. Improvements will still need to be made to continue reducing non-renewable fuel consumption, waste and pollution. The extent of these improvements will be influenced by the rate of climate change and government responses to it. -X- Destratification fans EB Heating units -> H- 36.C m - Stores access doors (double roller shutter steel) ' Goods access (roller shutter steel) Figure 10.11 Layout of typical...

Deterioration and obsolescence The deterioration hypothesis

Defects in buildings have important implications for the adaptation of property. The systematic investigation and treatment of these is the discipline known as Building Pathology (CIB, 1993 Watt, 1999). This also involves the study and prediction of building life and durability. It is also concerned with issues such as changeability, maintenance cycles, service life, deterioration mechanisms, and failure rates. The deterioration hypothesis posits that the condition of a building tends to worsen...

Mothballing

Mothballing is the process of deliberately vacating and closing a building, and protecting it until such time as the property can be brought back into beneficial use. As indicated in Table 1.12 it may be worthwhile to mothball a redundant building. The main purpose behind the somewhat drastic action of closing up a building temporarily is to protect it from the elements as well as secure it against pests, squatters and vandals. Table 1.11 Options for property owners (adapted from Nutt, c. 1993)...

Roof structure

There are basically four types of roof structure that can be used in over-roofing schemes 1. Trusses This is the simplest arrangement and can be provided to achieve spans of up to 40 m or more. It is used with relatively low-duo mono-pitched roofs where there is no intention to occupy the loft space. A mansard version can, however, use a trussed rafter design to achieve a habitable space within the roof void. Barrel-vault or curved-roof profiles can be used as an alternative to straight mono...

CLASP school buildings

CLASP is an acronym for the Consortium of Local Authorities Special Programme, which is an unincorporated association of public sector authorities. It developed a building system that was originally designed in the early 1950s for educational use. The early success of the CLASP system, however, meant that it was soon developed for a wide variety of other building types including hospitals, police stations, airports, laboratories and offices. Because of its articulated foundation design, a CLASP...

Common adaptive reuse options

The most suitable adaptive reuse option will depend on the original use and intended use of the building. Table 4.3 compares housing conversion with commercial industrial conversion. As indicated previously, however, the type and form of adaptive reuse of a property is constrained as much by the imagination as well by economic and legal restraints. The photographs in Figures 4.6-4.9, for example, illustrate some imaginative reuses of redundant buildings. The next five sections deal respectively...

Development of a fire

A fire can only start if there is an adequate supply of fuel, an adequate supply of oxygen and a means of ignition. The fire develops by, first of all, the fuel igniting. As more oxygen becomes available more fuel is consumed and the temperature rises significantly, making more fuel available. In other words materials that do not ignite easily become ignited as the temperature rises. Fires can be triggered deliberately or inadvertently. Arson accounts for a large proportion of fires in...

Summary

The increasing importance of sustainable construction is likely to remain one of the key drivers of the modernization of commercial and industrial buildings. Energy consumption of factories and offices needs to be reduced if companies are to remain cost conscious as well as competitive. This also applies to assembly institutional buildings such as hospitals and schools, for example (see BRECSU, GPGs 206 and 233, 1997). The use of ESTs or RETs can also help achieve a more sustainable building....

Three essential requirements

The process of adaptation has already been addressed in general terms. The conversion process is no different but has certain characteristics that are peculiar to this category of adaptation. Building conversion is basically another form of property development. Thus, as with any such venture there is an element of risk. The degree of risk will depend on a number of variables relevant to the proposed adaptation option selected. These variables include among other things the location of the...

General energy improvements Preamble

As pointed out by BRECSU (GPG 155, 2001) the energy efficiency of a dwelling can be improved without waiting to undertake a full refurbishment package. Repair and improvement schemes provide many opportunities for energy measures. Indeed, the economies of scale involved normally mean that it is cheaper to combine energy efficiency measures with repair and improvement work. It is usually more expensive and disruptive to do these measures separately at a later date. The main energy efficiency...

Refurbishing services Heating

The opportunity to upgrade the heating systems within a building may form part of a major refurbishment scheme. Under-floor heating could be used where there is a need to maximize space and avoid exposed heating panels (as described in Chapter 5). This can be installed within a gypsum screed, but may not be easy with existing floor slabs and levels as it raises the floor level by at least 50 mm. The lighting system can comprise halogen lamps for high-quality illumination. Long-lasting sodium...

Modifying the layout

After salaries, office space represents the highest operational cost for commercial organizations (McGregor and Then, 1999). Maximizing the space of an office building through refurbishment and interior replanning, therefore, could enable a company to rationalize its property requirements. This could result in considerable rental savings if it can accommodate its entire staff in one building rather than two or more properties. The churn rate is also a factor influencing the regularity and...

Types of maintenance

There are essentially two main types of maintenance proactive (i.e. planned) and reactive (i.e. unplanned). The main branches of these two are illustrated in Figure 1.10. Planned preventative maintenance of course is more expensive to set up than unplanned maintenance. The latter, however, will result in more long-term running costs for a building maintained in this way (Chanter and Swallow, 1996 Wordsworth, 2000). Even with planned preventative maintenance the overall performance of a building...

Preface to 2nd edition

In the Preface to the first edition I expressed a hope that the book would elicit feedback. Thankfully I have received some constructive comments from a number of practitioners and students. Generally they have been generous in their comments about the book and have given positive responses to help improve its contents. Some of the modifications in this edition therefore are the result of such feedback. The reactions to the book and its sales confirm that such a text is needed. Naturally, a...

Other impulses for refurbishment Preamble

As with any adaptation or new-build scheme the needs of the client are paramount. Other considerations, though, may impact on the modernization of a building. In general, the impulses that drive this form of adaptation are summarized as below. Improving the quality of the urban landscape and obtaining a more sustainable environment is a goal of central and local governments. Tackling urban blight is not only possible through slum clearance schemes and major new developments. Major...

Reducing the number of empty properties Generally

Empty buildings are a wasted resource. They do not yield any rental income or property taxes. They are more prone to vandalism, occupancy by squatters, premature deterioration and intruder damage than occupied buildings. They take up valuable urban space, which could be redeveloped for more appropriate uses. In housing they are often a symptom of poverty and social depravation. In non-residential buildings they are indicative of blight and economic recession. In some cases the only effective...

Significance of sustainability

Sustainability is defined as a set of processes aimed at delivering efficient built assets in the long-term (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR), 1998). It is about taking a strategic view of enhancing the impact of human development on the environment. The fundamental aim is to satisfy the requirements of people today without undermining the ability of our descendants to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission, 1987). In other words it is about social and...

Project review

Regular briefings to assess progress as identified in the monitoring reports are important. Site meetings held once a week month (depending on the size of the job and time-scale involved) would be the main forum to review progress of the project. It would also be helpful for the project manager to review the successes and failings of the project once it is complete. Such feedback can then be used to help improve the knowledge base for future projects of this kind. Some form of post-occupancy...

Recycled water

Rainwater from roofs and hardstandings can be collected to underground tanks and recycled without much reprocessing. It's usually delivered on demand from such below ground containers by an in-tank submersible pump direct to toilets, washing machines and outside taps. The term 'greywater' can be used to describe non-foul wastewater from sinks, showers and baths. It therefore requires a higher level of treatment than ordinary rainwater. According to Anglia Water on average 45 per cent of water...

Tolerable standard

According to the Scottish Executive (2003) 'The Tolerable Standard (which is equivalent to the Fitness Standard in England) as amended by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001 was introduced in the 1969 Housing (Scotland) Act following recommendations made in the 1967 Cullingworth Report. Other than the incorporation of the basic standard amenities (listed above) by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001, it has remained largely unchanged.' The Scottish Executive (2003) 'emphasizes that the standard is not...

Importance of sustainable adaptation

Adapting a property as opposed to constructing a new building not only helps to reduce energy consumption, pollution and waste. As pointed out by Edwards (1998) 'recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles,' mainly because 'the UK construction industry generates about 70 m tonnes of waste a year, which is nearly a quarter of all waste'. Adaptation also saves valuable resources as well as reduces the volume of material being sent to landfill. That is why...

Value for money

It has become increasingly recognized that the lowest cost option is not necessarily the best or even cheapest way to procure buildings. Duffy (1993) showed for example that a building's initial cost accounts only for about a third of its total cost over its whole life. The other two-thirds are used on maintenance and adaptation. In today's commercial world with its conflicting issues of scarce resources and increasing expectations there is greater pressure to obtain value for money (VFM) in...

Typical adaptation risks General perils of adaptation

The project manager of any adaptation scheme should take cognizance of the common problems associated with this type of work to avoid financial as well operational disasters. As highlighted in a short article in the journal Building (November 2001), refurbishment (i.e. adaptation) projects are notoriously risky. It listed some of the main problems in this regard The building can be different to the information on the original drawings. Access can be difficult, particularly for large pieces of...

Modern forms of construction

Adaptation is, of course, not restricted to buildings of traditional construction. Modern properties, too, may require adjustment even a few years after they are built. This occurs especially with supermarket buildings, which often require regular adaptation to keep up with changing retail requirements. As indicated in Chapter 1 a standard TESCO supermarket building in the west of Edinburgh comprising six 8-9 m wide bays, for example, was extended in 2002, 2 years after completion of its...

Fitness standard

The Local Government and Housing Act 1989 prescribes the Housing Fitness Standard in England and Wales. Houses not complying with this are classed as 'unfit for human habitation'. In Scotland the term Table 8.3 The three phases of the non-traditional building boom in the UK (adapted from Chandler, 1991) Table 8.3 The three phases of the non-traditional building boom in the UK (adapted from Chandler, 1991) Approximately 52 000 non-traditional dwellings were Although they were built using many...

Basic principles

The use of solar energy using RET in buildings such as PV is gaining greater acceptance. PV technology uses silicone solar cell contact grids on a metal base plate to collect solar radiation (Sick and Erge, 1996). The collected energy from light is converted to electricity (see Figure 10.5) to satisfy some if not all of a dwelling's electrical needs. PV can also be used, for example, to enhance the efficiency of the hot-water heating system in a dwelling. The effect of this is to raise the...

Basic design criteria

There are twelve key design criteria that apply principally to domestic adaptation schemes (based on Williams, 1995). They can however relate to non-residential properties as well so long as allowances are taken for differences in scale, form and use. The criteria are as follows 1. Harmonizing Any external modifications to the existing building, such as a proposed extension, should tone-in with the surrounding properties. The design, for example, can either match or contrast with that of the...

Background Triggers for building conversion

Building conversion is usually stimulated by the need to ensure that properties have a continuing use. It is essentially a response to accommodate changes in the type or style of occupancy demand for a property. The intention to keep it in beneficial use is critical in such cases. Bringing new life to an old building threatened with disuse and eventual demolition is the ultimate positive objective of conversion. For many occupiers a change of use is often seen as the cheapest and most...

Impact on rental and capital values

Adapting a building is more likely to have a positive rather than negative impact on both its rental and capital values. A refurbished commercial property is more appealing to prospective tenants and therefore it can command a better level of rent. Similarly, the capital value of a refurbished property because of this improvement in its attractiveness is more likely to secure a prospective buyer. However, as indicated earlier there is no guarantee that the increase in value will match the...

Environmental improvements to nonresidential buildings Entrance foyer

The construction of a new canopy over the main entrance can transform an otherwise plain front elevation. It can give the building a distinctive new look (see Figure 8.3). This may include the installation of revolving doors as well as the provision of a very durable aluminium entrance matting system. Respectively these latter features will prevent draughts and dirt accumulation at the entrance. As in housing, improved access for disabled people is another important requirement for commercial...

Vacancy of nonresidential buildings

There is no comparable mass condition survey programme for non-residential properties. This is most likely because of the diversity of size and type of individual institutional, industrial, commercial, and agricultural buildings makes it difficult to both determine and present a total stock figure for these properties. According to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM, 2003b) There were about 1.9 million business addresses in England and Wales in 1994, each on average occupying about...

Lateral extensions

This chapter considers the factors that need to be addressed in the design and construction of lateral extensions to buildings. It outlines the requirements and precautions for enlarging a building's volume horizontally. Conservatories as well as conventional domestic and commercial extensions are examined in this part of the book. Background Rationale for enlarging buildings Increasing the capacity of a building is one of the most visible forms of adaptation. The way this is normally done is...

Adaptation plan of work Background

The plan of work for adaptation schemes can generally follow that for new-build projects. The version described below is based on the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) Plan of Work. This procedure, of course, is primarily designed for new-build schemes. However, cognizance has to be taken of the subtle differences between adaptation and new build. There are likely to be greater levels of consultation between the client and contractor in the refurbishment of an occupied property. This...

Typical internal refurbishment Common areas

Common parts of an office block such as entrance halls, stairs, as well as statutory fire escape requirements and landings lend themselves easily to refurbishment. These areas are the most conspicuous and most heavily used parts of commercial properties. Thus, their refurbishment rate may be higher than for other parts of the building. Internal refurbishment of a commercial building can entail more than redecoration of the wall finishes. It can include stripping out existing finishes and...

Performance management The performance concept

The performance concept has been used in some areas of the construction industry since the early 1970s. It is based on a more systematic way of determining and achieving desired results by focusing on ends rather than means (CIB, 1993a). Adaptation is one of the two primary elements of building performance management (see Figure 1.6). The other element is maintenance (which includes repair). Maintenance is the act of keeping a building in a pre-determined state. 'Repair' involves making good to...

Side extensions

In residential property, an attached garage often forms the main type of side extension. In other instances, the side extension may be required to provide an enlarged or additional room. More usually, however, a two-storey extension comprising, say, a garage on the ground floor and a bedroom on the upper floor forms the main type of addition incorporating these functions. Figure 5.3 illustrates a typical example of a side extension. A major design restraint is that many local planning...

Technical factors Constructional forms

Conservatories were originally viewed as merely glorified greenhouses. Granted, the construction of these two structures is similar. The former, however, requires a higher standard of construction and comfort conditions. As a result they need double or even triple glazing, whereas greenhouses only have single glazing. The superstructures of many conservatories, like greenhouses, are designed to be dismantled and re-erected elsewhere. Figure 5.15 Typical conservatory designs (GGF, 1999) There...

Requirements for sustainable adaptation Profitability

For any business, profitability is an important criterion of sustainability in relation to new build. It is a valid objective for construction generally but is much harder to attain in adaptation work, particularly in the context of building conservation. An adapted building can rarely achieve the same rate of return as a newly constructed facility. This is because, inevitably, the former cannot match the latter in terms of overall performance. As with new build, an adapted building ought to be...

Preface to 1st edition

This book was written to fill a perceived gap in the market for a text that deals with the fundamentals of building adaptation. It is not, in other words, just another tract on the rehabilitation and re-use of existing property. There is currently no single volume available that is specifically designed to provide a general introduction to the conversion, extension and refurbishment of property for students of building surveying and other cognate undergraduate programmes in the built...

Reasons for redundancy of old church buildings Excess supply of buildings

Over-capacity is a problem that is not restricted to ecclesiastical buildings. Since about the middle of the 20th century buildings associated with traditional industries - such as coal-mining, textile and steel manufacturing - have been similarly afflicted by changing socio-economic factors. This has inevitably led to a surfeit in the number of such buildings. The stock of church buildings is now well in excess of demand. It is not surprising therefore that many church buildings are redundant....

Viability

Viability is usually the most important and influential of all the assessment criteria because ultimately any development decision is based on financial considerations. Indeed, the main reason for the adaptation of nonresidential property is to maximize income or asset value (Martin and Gold, 1999). In contrast, functional and personal considerations as well as financial matters play a role in the adaptation of residential property. According to Martin and Gold (1999) the main issues that...

Adapting old buildings Objectives

Adapting old buildings brings with it problems over and above those encountered in ordinary adaptation schemes. Such buildings have more than their fair share of structural and fabric problems. They usually contain materials and construction methods that are uncommon if not obsolete, such as lath and plaster or solid (un-insulated) walling. Thus the primary aim of any adaptation scheme involving the conversion or renovation of an old building is to achieve a sustainable and beneficial reuse....

Residential conversions

Conversions to residential use are the most popular type of change of use. This is mainly due to the continuing high levels of demand for good quality dwellings in familiar settings. Given the restrictions on building on greenbelt areas and lack of buildable urban land for housing, this type of conversion is likely to remain popular for many years. The formation of new openings (called 'slapping' in parts of Britain such as Scotland) is a common feature of converting small dwellings into larger...

Government policy changes

One of the main policies emerging from the CIP that has a bearing on building owners users has been to update the relevant parts of the Building Regulations. Since 1 April 2002 major changes to Part F (equivalent to Section 3 in Scotland), Part J (Section 4), Part L (Section 6) and Part M (Section 4) of the Building Standards have come into force. They are more complex than earlier versions and for the first time elements apply to changes to existing buildings. These amendments to the...

Best value Rationale

The report by Egan (1998) on 'Re-thinking Construction' prompted a drive for a fundamental change in the way construction projects are delivered. It affects everyone involved in the design and construction of adaptation as well as new-build projects. Reducing capital costs, defects and accidents, and improving predictability, productivity and contractor's profitability are its main aims. Table 2.2 Summary of English and Scottish housing stock by age (DETR, 1998 Scottish Homes, 1997) Table 2.2...

Background Climate change

The hypothesis of adverse change in the global climate is now generally accepted (UNEP, 2001). It is mainly the precise causes, scale and significance of this phenomenon that are in some dispute. The UK government in late 2000, however, unveiled a clear strategy aimed at reducing the country's contribution to climate change by cutting emissions of carbon dioxide by 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010. Carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels. It accounts for over 80 per...

Problems

As with forming new openings in existing walls, care has to be taken to minimize collateral damage associated with partial demolition. This may consist of minor downtakings of ceilings or floors to more major work such as the demolition of load-bearing elements. Again, it is vital to consider the structural implications of removing parts of a building. Lean-to extensions and other additions as well as internal spine walls may be providing some lateral restraint to the wall they are abutting....

Solar energy in refurbishment Advantages of solar energy

Refurbishment or other adaptation work can present an ideal opportunity to apply different solar energy options. It also presents challenges, however, because retrofitting such techniques in existing buildings can be difficult owing to the physical constraints and financial restraints involved. 'Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source and, therefore, has economic as well as environmental and social value' (ISE, 1997). It can be categorized into 'active' and 'passive' techniques....

Background Rationale of adaptive reuse

In Chapter 3 the focus was on the general principles of converting buildings other purposes. The adaptive reuse of property is considered in more detail in this chapter. It is concerned with converting buildings into other, more effective and efficient uses. More effective here means that the adapted property serves the client's requirements better and gives the building an extended useful life. For example, this may be because the building's appearance is not in keeping with the corporate...

What is adaptation Definitions

'Adaptation' is derived from the Latin ad (to) and aptare (fit). In the context of this book it is taken to include any work to a building over and above maintenance to change its capacity, function or performance (i.e. any intervention to adjust, reuse or upgrade a building to suit new conditions or requirements). As regards existing buildings adaptation has traditionally come to have a narrower meaning that suggests mainly some form of change of use. The term has also been commonly used to...

Commercial buildings Building types

Before looking at the constructional characteristics of commercial buildings it would be useful to classify their main forms of construction. They can be divided into two broad groups unframed and framed. Unframed Solid or cavity wall construction (usually up to a maximum of six storeys) or column and slab construction (usually up to a maximum of about 12 storeys). Framed Steel or reinforced concrete - skeletal form for multi-storey blocks. Table 2.5 Typical forms of modern construction Type of...

Nonresidential refurbishment Rationale and strategy

The primary objective of any refurbishment programme is to improve a building's overall performance and enhance productivity (see Figures 8.2 and 8.3). Office buildings are no exception in this regard. Property investors know that the security of their investment is highly dependent upon the quality of the building they own. Giving the building a facelift is a distinctive way of enhancing its appearance and durability. Traditionally, most office buildings were refurbished, if at all, only once...

Office floor excluding tenantsfitout

Renewing the floor and ceiling finishes of office floor space can give it a rejuvenated look. The flooring can comprise close-pile anti-static carpeting in common office areas and cushioned sheet linoleum or vinyl for the circulation spaces. The installation of suspended ceilings with low-glare integrated light fittings can transform a previously tired looking space. These facilities are often a focal point for important meetings or presentations. They therefore usually demand a superior level...

Integrity of the building Generally

Raac Concrete Roof

In this context integrity is a concept that relates to what extent or degree the building retains its original characteristics, form, nature and use. There are four key aspects of building integrity architectural, constructional, cultural and structural, each of which must be considered in any adaptation scheme, particularly one involving a change of use. An adaptive reuse whilst involving little alteration to a building's exterior, could involve propose radical change to its interior. This may...

Roof extensions Means

In tight sites the capacity to extend a building laterally can be severely limited. Mid-terraced properties for example can only allow an extension of a suitable size at the rear. Even so there may be little if any room Schematic vertical cross-section (not to scale) Schematic vertical cross-section (not to scale) A. Traditional method of forming a light-well with skylight. B. Modern method of forming a light-well using a reflective duct (e.g. Sun Pipe). 1. New opening formed in existing roof....

Using project management Preamble

Any construction work, from the smallest adaptation job to the largest new-build scheme will require some form of project management if the critical success factors (time, cost, safety and quality) are to be achieved. This form of management has become the main methodology used to administer major projects from space programmes to new car designs as well as large building work. It can also be employed in medium-large scale adaptation schemes that require careful administration and control...

Building regulations compliance

Building Regulation Distance From Sink

The code compliance and space planning problems of an adaptive reuse can be highlighted in the proposed conversion of a large office building to flats. The property, which was built in the late 1930s, is shown in Figure 4.15. Its of Art Deco style and has Grade 2 listed status. The following building elements therefore require minimum intervention i.e. the original appearance to remain and retention of the original interior features of the entrance lobby, hall and stairwell. The fenestration...

Generally

As shown in Chapter 6 over-roofing is becoming a common way of replacing existing flat roofs. In this section we shall look at ways of upgrading flat and pitched roofs that do not involve changing their basic profile. Such upgrading works entail one or a combination of the following three measures 1. Replacing the existing roof coverings with similar or new material to enhance its appearance and weather resistance. On refurbishment, Capex overcladding systems can extend the life of a building...

Nofines concrete housing Preamble

This form of construction is a non-proprietary material that is used as the solid wall construction of dwellings BRE leaflets BR 156 and 160, 1989 . As its name indicates no sand or other 'fine' aggregate are used in the mix. It uses only cement and course aggregate such as clinker mixed with potable water. This mix produces a cellular reinforced concrete with relatively large voids uniformly spread throughout its mass SEBD, 2001 . No-fines concrete was employed for housing construction in the...

Walltie repairs and renewal Traditional masonry

Wall-tie failure is primarily caused by premature corrosion of the galvanized mild steel ties see Figure 7.9 . The BRE IP 12 90 reported that this problem could eventually affect virtually all of the cavity-walled buildings constructed before 1981. After that time wall ties were designed to have much higher levels of resistance to corrosion. This means that some 10 million dwellings are potentially at risk of this problem Good Repair Guide GRG 4, 1997 . Schematic cross-section not to scale 1....

Thermal efficiency of insulation materials

In upgrading the thermal performance of elements it is important to be aware of the relative properties of each of the various insulation materials in relation to their thickness. These are summarized in Table 10.10. Identify energy efficiency targets. Undertake an energy audit of the building see guide by RICS and Increasing daylighting through roof sky lighting and sun-pipes. Reducing overheating through the use of external louvres or blinds or Reducing heating demand through installation of...

Anhydrite screeds

Part of the refurbishment of a building may involve refurbishing the concrete ground or upper floors. Installing an anhydrite screed over an existing sound concrete substrate is one way of doing this. Moreover, anhydrite screeds work well with underfloor heating. Concrete ground-bearing slab with insulation above slab 1 The surface below the insulation should be both smooth and flat to a tolerance of 5 mm in 3 m power-trowelled or levelled with screed . Concrete ground-bearing slab with...

Types of underpinning Traditional

Pier And Beam Foundations Sandy Soil

The main traditional forms of underpinning are brick with concrete footings, and mass concrete. They usually have a maximum depth of about 3 m and when complete are generally continuous over the length Table 7.5 Main types of modern underpinning methods Grouting This involves injecting a viscous cement or resin grout into the ground to 'stiffen' and or expand the soil under the wall affected by subsidence. It is more suited for use in non-cohesive soils such as gravely and sandy soils. Needle...

Repairs to reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete

Reinforced autoclaved aerated concrete RAAC was a popular choice as structural material in educational, commercial and industrial buildings between 1950 and 1980. It was primarily used for pre-cast wall panels and flat roof planks in factory and warehouse blocks. 'Siporex', for example, was a common proprietary brand of RAAC wall panel. However, the term autoclaved aerated concrete AAC is a slight misnomer in that it is not a true form of concrete. AAC is not concrete in its constituent...