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Passion Blog Pro Review

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Bridge No 3 Ball Pipe King Post Bridge

It is estimated that as many as 40 Ball Pipe Truss Bridges were manufactured in E . Windsor, Ma . in the late 1800's by the local entrepreneur Charles Ball . Only three of these bridges are known to survive . The Ball Pipe King Post Bridge shown below was originally located on Holiday Road in Dalton, Ma but was replaced with a new structure in 1990 (see Figure 11 .4) . The bridge was taken over by the Windsor Historical Commission and has been in open storage since then This bridge is of the King Post design with a span of 40 ft The Windsor Historical Commission

Expositions of 1876 and 1893 Initial Catalysts for Exporting American Architecture

Because so many U.S. architects, engineers and builders were culturally tethered to Europe, it is tempting to see the cross-fertilization of architectural knowledge prior to the 1870s as largely a one-way street from Europe to the former British colony of the United States. However, this Eurocentric assumption is called into question when one considers how the economy of the former colony was also so intermeshed with those of non-European regions. For example, during the eighteenth century, because of the sugar, molasses and rum trade with Europe and the Caribbean, many North American entrepreneurs were active throughout Central America. As historians have shown, that trade was directly related to the importation of slave labour from Africa (Meinig, 1986). In the mid-nineteenth century, American railway promoters enticed male workers from southern China to help construct the transcontinental railroad, completed in 1869 (Takaki, 1993). Architectural historians have shown how some of...

Archaeology and the Old Testament

The following example is a rather representative one. In the early XX century a tablet archive was found in the city of Umma, in Mesopotamia. But since Umma isn't mentioned in the Bible, and no enthusiastic entrepreneur could identify it with some Biblical town, the excavations in Umma were stopped, and the archives scattered without even being studied. The tablets were sold to Paris collectors for one franc per piece ( 444 ).

After Italys Defeat At Adwa

In the wake of this national disaster, politicians were reluctant to pursue Italian expansion any further. In late 1896, the government signed a treaty with the Emperor abandoning any designs on Ethiopia. Eritrea was assigned its first civilian governor, Ferdinando Martini, in 1897, when the colony was commonly judged to be a failure due to its poor agricultural results and high cost. Over the decade he served as governor, Martini changed this perception by establishing stable relations with Ethiopia and re-directing Italian goals away from agricultural development by and for Italians toward agricultural exploitation for export.12 The improvement of the Italians' status in Eritrea paralleled a general upswing in Italian affairs after the turn of the century. Under a series of administrations (mostly dominated by Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti), the economy benefited from new industrial growth, Italian politicians displayed new confidence in Italy as a nation, and Italian...

Postcolonial Topographies

The 18-hole golf course in the Lang Co beach resort area that opened in 2003, south of Hue on the South China Sea, has no doubt placed Hue on the global map for dedicated golf audiences as golf courses begin playing an increasingly important role in both global tourist flows as well as in the life of the Asian metropolis (Koolhaas 2000 320). Beach resorts are planned for Canh Duong and Thuan An, and spas have been developed including the Thuy Tien Lake resort and the Tan My Medical Minerals Water Resort. The number of domestic and international visitors to the Bach Ma National Park, in the southern area of the province, is dramatically increasing while a growing number of independent entrepreneurs in Hue are developing small- and medium-size tourist services - from hotels to travel agencies and to restaurants - and challenging the economic sector once entirely run by the State. In the early 1990s, as Kennedy and Williams have recognized, Vietnam began to script its tourism route

The Dilemma of Technology

Low Tech Reinforced Concrete

Building, providing shelter and water and roads, was the first wholly man-made techno logy. It has a long history, containing as it does many of the leaps in understanding made by man as he sought to control and dominate his environment. The architecture and that understanding often went hand in hand. The Romans, the Gothic masons, the eariy-19th-century entrepreneurs and many, many others developed an architecture which reflected their understanding of the materials available to them and how these could be used. Architec ture and technology were one. An architecture could be understood by looking at its techno-logy - not always, of course, but there were generally clues of form, shape and texture which derived from the materials being used. Technology was simpler in those days. One man. an Individual, could know all the rules of building and a talented individual could advance that understanding and invent new forms.

Exporting American Construction and Planning to Russia

Albert Kahn Architect Ford Review

Cohen has also explained how, by the early 1930s there was a proliferating Russian interest not only in American skyscrapers, but in broader-scale American city planning approaches, as shown in publications by David Arkin, Alexei Shchusev and L.E. Zagorsky (Ibid., pp. 151-153). Cohen and Brumfield's research, therefore, demonstrates many Russians' sustained fascination with American architecture, construction technology and city planning. What is also clear is how actively certain American industrial entrepreneurs and contracting adventurers in Russia were building upon that foundation of curiosity and inspiration. One of the most vivid and literal examples of that 'constructing upon a foundation' is found 265 miles east-north-east of Moscow where, in the late-1920s, the Austin Company, a successful, Cleveland-based construction firm helped plan and then build the first stage of a new industrial city, Molotov (also known as Gorky and Nijni Novgorod) whose raison d' tre rested on the...

Factory as Model Early Versions

In Britain the first enlightened industrialists, engineers, entrepreneurs and inventors, such as Richard Arkwright, the Strutts and the Wedgwoods, set the pace, but in mainland Europe factory communities were the province of the ruling autocrat. Thus in architectural form, as in economic and social respects, they had much in common with the predetermined, hierarchical organization of the landed estate. Emphasizing the point, many of the first generation of manufactories in the Low Countries were housed in the castles, churches and monasteries that had been seized or expropriated during the French Revolution or under Austrian rule. The enclosed microcosm of factory and labour force soon attracted the attention of social and political theorists for here was a society in miniature upon which larger, improved worlds could be founded. Architecture and plan provided an image and a structure, within which intriguing and important adjustments might be made.

From US Metropole to Latin American Peripheries

Tom Thumb Golf, a popular recreational activity in the U.S. c. 1930, just as the country was experiencing the Depression. Some American entrepreneurs began exporting this recreation which, although not as popular as going to the cinema, enjoyed certain popularity in some contexts (e.g., Italy). (Source American Exporter, 1930, 107(4), p. 24) engineering or general contracting in which he does not operate' (Macmillan, 1911, p. 106). One of those directions or branches concerned the water works Hempel erected at Palatina, and another was related to electric power plant construction for Havana's Presidio and Arsenal, as well as for the towns of Guanbac n, C rdenas and Matanzas. A similar kind of diversification characterized the firm of Champion & Pascual, known primarily in Cuba as importers of furniture and Underwood typewriters from the U.S., but also renowned as 'one of Cuba's leading houses contracting for machinery and engineering . . . They built the bridge over the...

New Spirit of Construction Federations of Contractors and their Challenges to Rationalize

Asia, Africa and the Middle East were notably absent in this regard, a fact that takes on greater significance in the light of future endeavours, as will be seen below. It is also noteworthy that the Committee was involving itself in operations of different scales, from sausage factories in Norway to public works projects in Colombia and Uruguay. And in light of previous instances where American builders and entrepreneurs were actively promoting high-rise commercial towers, the dissemination of the 'modern office building' in both London and Rio de Janeiro is also compelling.

Factory as Laboratory or Laboratory as Factory

In 1785 John Hall, an apprentice millwright, arrived in Dartford, Kent, and set up in a shack as a self-employed smith. Soon becoming a sought-after and busy mechanic for the various mills that processed corn, paper, oil and gunpowder, as well as for local people and businesses, he soon had to move to larger premises. Around him, his former apprentices and erstwhile business partners formed a network of men continuously pushing at the limits of mechanization and looking out for patents to buy, from home and abroad. They interested themselves in paper-making and canning machinery as well as rotary printing, signalling a tempting world of commercial possibilities through innovative manufacture.

Landscape architecture in Hungary

The two landscape architecture projects chosen as case studies represent two very different creations in terms of style, philosophy and environment. One is a typical urban open space which - relative to Hungarian conditions - is a trendy, neo-modern masterpiece of the younger generation, developed under the influence of the French geometric style. The other is the garden of a rural guest-house, managed by an entrepreneur who has moved from the city to the countryside. In the case of this garden, the landscape designer's remarkable achievements have aroused the owner's sensitivity towards the rural landscape and its traditions and towards the interrelationship between humans and the environment.

Exporting Steelframed Skeletons of American Modernity

The exporting of American architecture began in the mid-nineteenth century as a disjointed set of personal adventures and commercial initiatives. Some of the adventurers were entrepreneurs selling either building components or prefabricated structures, such as slave structures, windmills and wharf buildings. Others were daring individualists with a flair for the unknown. Still others were building and planning consultants who were either lured abroad by new kinds of clients or propelled overseas by their U.S.-based headquarters. The scope of activities associated with this small and disparate cast of architectural exporters is easier to chart after 1876, From a building material standpoint, these exporting activities were frequently related first to timber, iron and steel (a focus of attention in this first chapter), and then to concrete (scrutinized more fully in Chapter 2). Economically, these activities should be seen in the context of the 1893 depression, which provided an...

Symbols and Culture in Urban Theory

Gerald Suttles (1984) refined the sociocultural position by more systematically clarifying how urban culture is marked in the spatial quotidian (through statuary, place names, commemorated buildings, and bumper stickers) and generalized as collective belief (through journalism and popular cultural catchphrases, folklore, and sports legends). Urban boosters create the myths and artifacts which celebrate the memories of the founders, entrepreneurs, and heroes of the city, while authors, artists, and journalists (especially critics, columnists, and experts) formulate and qualify the tastes, aesthetics, and reputations of local culture.6 Suttles blasts Firey for interpreting local urban culture retrospectively. Suttles sees culture not just serving a residual or restorative (1984 283-6) function that gradually acquires the patina of antique or artifact, but something that is actively promoted, created, and interpreted by boosters, artists, and journalists in the shock cities of the...

American Building and Planning in China 19071937

Ciclon David Republica Dominicana

American architects, planners, construction companies and real estate development firms were among the growing cast of international entrepreneurs who sought profits from an ever-changing China during this so-called 'republican' period, beginning after the fall of the Qing empire in 1911. American engineers, however, were establishing their presence in China before American architects began to practice there. Among the earliest engineering involvement by U.S. professionals occurred in 1907, when an American import-export firm in Shanghai (Fearon, Daniel & Company) contracted with a new company established by two Danes (Andersen, Meyer & Company) to finance an engineering department on a joint-account basis (Far Eastern Review, 1931, 27, p. 151). That same year the President of Andersen, Meyer travelled to the U.S. and secured the exclusive right to represent the General Electric Company in China. In 1908 Andersen, Meyer parlayed that right into more bountiful cash when it secured its...

Hong Kongs Cheung Kong Center 19951999

In the early 1990s Li Ka-shing, one of Hong Kong's most powerful industrial entrepreneurs, began planning the erection of a new 62-storey corporate headquarters for one of his flagship companies, Hutchison Whampoa Property Group (Chan, 1996).6 In 1995 he chose one of central Hong Kong's prime locations, at the corner of Garden Road and Queen's

Reassessing creativity

What being creative is should be redefined, as well as its emphasis. We should move away from an obsession with the creativity in entertainment, of media celebrities and fashion, although invention in these areas is often impressive. There is a creative divide. Some activities are deemed to be creative and others not, such as social work, and the latter become disenfranchised by the fashionability of creativity in narrower fields. But creative heroines and heroes can be found in any sphere, from social entrepreneurs to scientists, business people, public administrators and artists. In a study assessing the characteristics of 20 creative projects in Helsinki, including cutting-edge digital media, homelessness campaigns, business entrepreneurs, physical regeneration, social enterprise and scientific research, I concluded that the personal characteristics of project initiators and key staff are similar across completely different disciplines.6 They share an exploratory open-mindedness,...

Museum Buildings Construction And Design Manual

Gregory, Jed Emerson, and Peter Economy. Enterprising Nonprofits A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York John Wiley, 2001. -. Strategic Tools for Social Entrepreneurs Enhancing Performance of Your Duke University, Fuqua School of Business. Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship. www.fuqua.duke.edu centers case about (accessed April 5, 2008).

Central Glendale California USA a traditional suburban downtown turned into an edge city 197590 1994 to the present

The lack of entrepreneurial spirit and absentee landlordism. Land values dropped to as low as 6 to 7 a square foot. The total land value of the Central Business District of Glendale decreased from 31.2 million in 1950 to 20 million in 1970 despite inflation and even though Glendale was and is a relatively affluent city.

Platform Lifts And Residential Elevators

Tina had worked for architects for quite a few years before going off on her own. She remembered the days just after the ADA took effect and before manufacturers had developed appropriate solutions to wheelchair access problems in small businesses. In particular, Tina remembered the time her boss had asked her to do some research on elevators. His client was hoping to expand her restaurant from one floor to two, and they needed to figure out how to make the second floor accessible. Tina's research revealed that the cost of installing an elevator in the restaurant and the space that it would take up would both be prohibitive. Since the enactment of the ADA, there has been a need for another type of vertical transportation, the limited use limited application (LU LA) elevator. In general, LU LA elevators were created to fill the void between the commercial elevator and the vertical platform or wheelchair lift. Typical applications include schools, libraries, small businesses, churches,...

Revisualizing soft and hard infrastructures

The notion of infrastructure needs rethinking. The hard is the container within which the soft contents (the value-added) are created. Hard and soft are mutually interdependent. Yet the physical is usually privileged. The milieu is people and place together, a physical setting in which a critical mass of entrepreneurs, intellectuals, knowledge creators, administrators and power brokers can operate in an open-minded, collaborative context, and where face-to-face interaction creates new ideas, artefacts, products, services and institutions.

From Components to Systems the American Construction Specialist

In the nearly four decades between 1876 and 1914, the exporting of American structural steel contributed to proliferating U.S. trade activities and helped create a significant platform from which later American practitioners and entrepreneurs benefited. International exhibitions, military victories, the object lessons demonstrated by high-rise construction in American cities nationwide, and sporadic but intensifying transactions between American firms and foreign clients all contributed to the creation of this platform. Architects played a role in this initial phase of American architectural exporting, but they were not the protagonists. Instead, by virtue of their scope, reflected clearly in the evidence cited above, The author was describing how American engineers (and others involved in construction-related entrepreneurship at the turn of the twentieth century) were creating systems out of disparate components and, in so doing, were becoming more efficient and marketable in the...

Conclusions For American Architecture

Chinese entrepreneur Li Qingfu in front of his company headquarters, modelled after the U.S. Capitol. (Photograph by Ritzu Shinozaki) Figure 6.9. Kentucky Fried Chicken in Shanghai and California Beef Noodle King. The globalization of American fast-food is one of the most obvious examples of architectural exportation in the early twenty-first century Less obvious, but also pervasive is the appropriation of the prototypical brand by local entrepreneurs who seek to capitalize on name- and form-recognition to create a profitable hybrid. (Photograph above by the author photograph below by Wang Gang Feng) Figure 6.9. Kentucky Fried Chicken in Shanghai and California Beef Noodle King. The globalization of American fast-food is one of the most obvious examples of architectural exportation in the early twenty-first century Less obvious, but also pervasive is the appropriation of the prototypical brand by local entrepreneurs who seek to capitalize on name- and form-recognition to...

Property development at Kings Cross railway lands

The balance of uses put forward by the KXRLG is radically different, mainly because the share of offices is much lower. The KXRLG presented two proposals (KXRLG1 and KXRLG2 in Table 9.1). The second proposal assumes a political and economic context where urban regeneration is not dependent on real estate profits (and thus not London of the 1980s and early 1990s). The result is that offices become a secondary element, to the advantage of housing, space for small businesses and social facilities. These are the priorities that emerged from consultation with the local community.

Settlements And Government Sponsorship 1890s1930s

In contrast, the Fascist government would commit enormous resources to colonial agricultural development, in two more or less distinct phases by subsidizing capitalist enterprises, largely in the 1920s, and by commissioning new settlements through a variety of agencies in the 1930s. In the dominant pattern of the 1920s, colonial governments handed expropriated lands over in concessions to individual entrepreneurs, and rather than financing them directly, they supplied indirect aid, such as selling materials at reduced prices, and financing public works, roads, and railroads. Under government decrees, in addition, investors were able to obtain especially good loans in Rhodes, the Bank of Sicily opened lines of credit for agricultural entrepreneurs in 1928, the same year that

Power Status And Architecture

Bernd And Hilla Becher Photography

Of the thirties, New York had become the paradigm of the vertical early twentieth-century American city. Structures such as the Empire State Building and Rockefeller Center signaled that the entrepreneurial spirit had not been tamed by Black Friday and its aftermath. In accordance with the spirit of the times, enthralled by the thought of cities dominated by soaring, solipsistic towers, Architectural Forum declared in 1930 that the skyscraper was the appropriate expression of the power and glory of the American nation.8 The journal thus anticipated a mood slowly developing among critics and historians, a conviction that the prestige and expansion of businesses were to be measured in high buildings. The call for skyscrapers may be explained as a consequence of the fact that the country's westward expansion had reached its limits even before the end of the nineteenth century American expansionism was henceforth transposed from the horizontal to the vertical dimension.9 The discovery...

The beginning of the 20th century

These were ideal circumstances for the introduction of a means to produce hot water which required no fuel, needed no cleaning and operated with no maintenance - a solar system. American entrepreneurs took European know-how and developed the first commercial roof solar water systems. Clarence M. Kemp from Baltimore brought his Climax Solar Heater onto the market. Frank Walter improved the concept and marketed a roof-integrated system. A solar water heating industry boomed, particularly in California. Then, in the 1930s, enormous natural gas reserves were discovered, crippling the young, active solar industry (Butti and Perlin, 1980).

An Abortive American High Rise for Londons Strand

A second key product that exemplified American construction in the late nineteenth century was the skyscraper, which American entrepreneurs began to market and construct overseas at the end of the nineteenth century. As Chicago, New York and many other U.S. cities began to see their skylines change due to innovations in steel-framing for high-rise towers, some Americans realized that these structures could be packaged as a set of discrete, stackable components to be assembled abroad, in principle if not always in practice, as easily as in America. The time seemed ripe for such forays, especially in Europe, because several designers from the Old World by the 1890s were being awed in Chicago or New York by the birth of the 'American Century' christened in the form of the skyscraper (Cohen, 1995, pp. 19-37). Not all were thrilled, however. In 1901, when the first American-style skyscraper was being planned for the Strand in London, some critics feared that by exporting the skyscraper,...

And there are many more

Amsterdam's underground breeding ground of inventiveness was inextricably linked to its squatter movement, as activists and artists occupied abandoned structures and buildings. With names like Silo or Vrieshuis Amerika, these often acted as experimentation zones. Crucially, in contrast to most cities in the world, Amsterdam recognized the importance of these alternatives. In 1999 it set up the Breeding Places Fund, whose aim is to provide affordable small-scale infrastructure for artists and cultural entrepreneurs in response to dramatic changes in the cultural landscape of Amsterdam. Amsterdam's popularity and gentrification had threatened the city's cultural ecology, but since then, around 1000

Drawing power and the resonance of cities

They may have no more talent than someone from a place lacking confidence. The collective psychology of a city plays a significant role in achieving its objectives. It affects its ambition, its chutzpah and its vision. That is why we can talk of 'can do' or entrepreneurial places, such as Birmingham in the past or present-day Shanghai or even Hong Kong. Conversely, Taipei's or Osaka's current difficulties with the rise of mainland China affects them deeply.

Irrational Warfare and Rational Corporate Systems for Construction and Trade c 19141920

This matrix . . . gained in strength throughout the first half of the twentieth century as Americans explored new markets and mobilized the nation's resources for two world wars. As a knowledge organization, the matrix enabled investigators from separate fields of inquiry and institutions to come together and collaborate. The American matrix . . . was flexible, allowing industrialists, managers, scientists, engineers, self-taught inventors, and other entrepreneurs to move among institutions. (Zunz, 1998, p. 4)

Dalston Cultural House

Go to the Gherkin or to the Royal Festival Hall and one experiences a cultural dimension to the architecture that is easily taken for granted. Go to Peckham Library and that aspect becomes pertinent and unavoidable. Similarly, at the Dalston Culture House, architecture gets mixed with an ethnic vibrancy that is very London and not at all the City or the South Bank. You can go and mix architecture and jazz any evening, but also try a Saturday afternoon to see how the DCH swims within a sea of local entrepreneurial culture except that some of this is about to be swept away in a tidy-up to the car park in order to create a new Gillett Square (part of Mayor Livingstone's 100 squares programme for London).

The hard and the soft

The soft also includes the atmosphere which is allowed to exist by giving vent to the emotional realm of experiences and which is more visceral. We need to remember that essentially no city plans start with words like 'happy' or 'beauty'. There are technically driven and conceived. No wonder there is little interest from the broader public. The soft milieu needs to allow space for the maverick, the boundary breaker, as this person is often is one that looks at a problem or opportunity in a new light. The environment also fosters linkages within itself and with the outside world, as otherwise it does not sufficiently learn from the best of what others are doing. Collectively these attributes create a culture of entrepreneurship.

The creative city idea is allembracing

The creative city idea claims that if conditions are right, ordinary people can make the extraordinary happen, given the chance. Here a glance at the inventiveness of social workers, business people, scientists, social entrepreneurs or public servants in solving problems highlights the potential - and many of these activities are deemed to be dull. I focus on this type of inventiveness because it is perhaps more significant than the creativity we usually focus on, such as new music, graphics or fashion trends.

Unconventional Wisdom

Trump implies that the successful entrepreneur should not have to try too hard, that success comes 'naturally'. Yet we can see that the relaxed atmospheres of The Mirage and Shadow Creek are contrivances of staggering complexity, marshalled under twin pressures of customer power and investment debt. Trump implies that contrary to this, powerful individuals do not, by their nature, have to try so hard to please.

What is a creative idea

Many cities around the world say they are going to become the 'education city'. This idea is narrow it implies and feels as if it is only the education sector that is involved. It excludes everyone else. 'A talent strategy for ' idea would be better it is easy to understand clearly many people would need to be engaged and they can see their involvement from the arts to education to business providing professional development. It can be layered to focus on identifying, harnessing, attracting, sustaining or exploiting talent. Or it can focus on the stages of talent from getting people to be curious, enterprising, entrepreneurial or innovative. Its weakness it that it could apply anywhere. To say, as Memphis is beginning to say, that it is 'the city of second chances' is quite strong. It projects a positive ethos openness, the willingness to listen, tolerance. It recognizes that the city is disadvantaged without over-egging the pudding. It acknowledges business...

Preparing A Business Strategy And Plan

A business plan is an operating tool, which, when properly used, can help manage the business and work effectively toward its success. Moreover, lenders require one. A well-written business plan communicates ideas to others and provides the basis for a financial proposal. It will also determine the feasibility of a project and lay out the action necessary to complete it. A good plan can help convince a bank or potential investor that you are worthy of assistance in funding this new venture. The plan itself may not get you funding, since it is very difficult to find capital for startup businesses. As the business owner, you are expected to have sufficient startup capital from your savings or from a bank loan based on income other than the business.

The Colonial Economy and Agrarian Capitalism

Ment it did not have sufficient cash in reserve to carry out other banking operations. And although the bank was not successful, shortly afterwards, in 1855, another bank, led by a foreign consortium and entrepreneurs, was founded. Like the earlier bank, this one too was little more than a joint-stock commercial enterprise with very limited funds, mostly tied to a single loan for a single member of the royal family, and thus, not unlike the earlier bank, it also foundered. The presence of a steadier and a truly banking environment would thus have to wait for another twenty-five years. I shall return to this point later.

The purpose of this book and its audience

Outdoor recreation is provided by many people and organizations. Some of the major providers are national, federal or local government bodies such as national park services, forest services, states, provinces, counties there is also a vast array of private companies and individuals. Some operate huge areas with recreation as a primary objective some fit recreation alongside utilitarian functions such as timber production or water management. Some are small businesses campground operators, trail guides, horse and bicycle hirers. Some employ skilled recreation professionals, landscape architects and designers. Others do it themselves. Some have distinct corporate styles and long traditions others are newcomers who replicate what they like from others. It is to all these people that I offer this book.

The Quasipublic Role of Property Developers

The entrepreneurs creating large-scale property developments often play a quasi-public role in the development of cities. This observation is particularly true of the 1980s and even more so of the 1990s. Public institutions now rely heavily on private sector investments in developing the public realm. Simultaneously there is demand for regulation on what these private sectors entrepreneurs seek to achieve and how they seek to achieve it.

Disney Model of Customer Service

This formula was established by the famous entrepreneur, Walt Disney, who designed and managed the most profitable and customer friendly theme parks throughout the world. This model presupposes people are hired for attitude and trained for skill. Before a potential employee is interviewed, the expectations and corporate values are explained. Potential employees can then decide if the organization is a good fit for them before progressing to an interview.

Reconstructing Urban Elites in the New Economy

Third, and perhaps most importantly for my purposes, who are the new economy decision-makers that growth coalitions must now address Whether heard by corporate CEOs, vice-presidents, or real estate divisions, traditional pitches for capital investment appealed to corporate rationales for minimizing material cost-factors out of the corporate bottom line. However, although corporate executives still ultimately green light where and how resources flow within and without the firm, they increasingly follow the dictates of human talent further down the corporate hierarchy. The power to control production and thus capital investment in the new economy is shifting from firm executives to what I call elite workers firm executives still, but also would-be entrepreneurs, project-based freelance workers, and other workers with commercial ideas and marketable skills.

Name and Legal Structure

An individual proprietorship is a business owned and operated by one person. It is the simplest form of business organization and the form of entity frequently used by small businesses at start-up. If you need additional capital or expertise, a partnership may be the best entity. You can always incorporate later if practical. The expense to incorporate a small business is nominal, but unless incorporating increases your chances of success or better protects your investment, there is not much benefit in forming a corporation. Even though there is limited liability as to your personal assets when obtaining outside financing or in the event funds are misused, you can still be personally liable. Before deciding consult with an attorney and check with your Secretary of State almost all states now are online look for the corporations division to find the form for either Articles of Incorporation (to form your own corporation) or Articles of Organization (to form a Limited Liability...

Democracy and creativity

Creativity relies on openness and its political counterpart is democracy - that is when it actually works. Yet creativity is also the capacity to squeeze through imagination whatever the circumstances so creativity will also exist in places such as Beijing or Dubai that are undemocratic. Yet it will be circumscribed. A boom town booms. The sheer hype, buzz and activity gives the allure of creativity, but speediness, a building boom and hysteria are no guarantee that it is actually happening. In both the above cities entrepreneurs are seizing opportunities and making money, but again that does not ensure imaginative solutions or products are being created. Inevitably there will be responses reflecting on the feverish development, especially from within the artistic field or environmentalists, and with our global gaze we will take these more seriously. But will they stand the test of time And, more importantly, in Dubai we have no idea what women could contribute to making the city...

Elite Discourses in the Qualityoflife District

Software firms from Silicon Valley and other industrial districts are only the latest to participate in this migration, their numbers growing through a patterned course of events. In the 1980s and 1990s, a first generation of software entrepreneurs and CEOs started up or relocated firms in these places, which were then relatively uncharted territory for software. The industry's affinity for telecommunication and telecommuting, and local infrastructure like regional airlinks to Silicon Valley and research universities, were When I talk to Santa Barbara-based entrepreneurs, I think virtually all of them have made a decision that they want to be in a place with a high quality of life for their family. Basically they make the decision for their family, and then subsequent to that, they say Gee whiz, if it appeals to me on this level, it will probably appeal to employees on this level.

Miscellaneous Issues to Consider

You've estimated your startup costs to the best of your ability, but chances are that you've never owned or operated a business before. It would probably be wise to discuss with an established or experienced business owner whether you've made the correct assumptions in projecting your costs. The U.S. Department of Commerce Minority Business Development Agency (www.mbda.gov) has articles that discuss how much money will be needed to start a business, including helpful checklists and referrals to other resources of information. The U.S. Small Business Administration (www.sba.gov) was created specifically to assist and counsel small businesses.

Creating open conditions

The goal of cities which try to be creative is to create conditions which are open enough so that urban decision-makers can rethink potential, for example turning waste into a commercial resource revalue hidden assets, for example discovering historic traditions that can be turned into a new product reconceive and remeasure assets, for example understanding that developing social capital also generates wealth reignite passion for the city by, for example, developing programmes so people can learn to love their city rekindle the desire for learning and entrepreneurship by, for example, creating learning modules much more in tune with young peoples' desires reinvest in your talent by not only importing outside talent but by fostering local talent reassess what creativity for your city actually is by being honest about your obstacles and looking at your cultural resources afresh realign rules and incentives to your new vision, rather than seeing your vision as being determined by...

American Builders Abroad at a Fork in the Road Adjust or Go Home 19181930

Many American designers, builders and entrepreneurs became increasingly confident in their abilities to export their construction expertise because of global macroeconomic shifts associated with World War I. Markets thirsty for American steel, concrete, timber, plasterboard and other desirable building materials provided incentives for entrepreneurs to try their hand at foreign trade. Other lures stemmed from easier banking transactions, domestic material surpluses, more well-developed shipping and, as will be shown below, assistance from professional associations or federations. But as most Americans who responded to these enticing incentives found

Dreamland An Oriental Vision of the Occident

Like Baron Empain, Ahmed Bahgat, the Chairman of the Bahgat Group and the progenitor of the huge real estate project, Dreamland, is an industrialist who, along with many other Egyptian entrepreneurs, jumped on the bandwagon of real estate business during the economic boom of the 1990s.24 The anticipated quick, high profitability of land development in comparison with other manufacturing businesses was the lure to enter the real estate market. According to the Investment Authority, between 1993 and 1999 the numbers of real estate developers have more than tripled to reach ninety-two with a capital of 3.3 billion Egyptian pounds (Mekay, 1999). Although specific numbers are not available, it is certain

The nineteenth century

The stadium as a building type saw a revival after the industrial revolution. There was a growing demand for mass spectator events from the public, there were entrepreneurs who wished to cater for this demand and there were new structural technologies to facilitate the construction of stadia or enclosed halls.

Developing Your Business Plan

Where to begin As noted earlier, a museum should have a business plan, based on its strategic plan, at the ready. If that is not the case and you are considering a building project, the leadership team must make the commitment to undertake the business plan. This is not the time for lengthy discussion of tactics. It is the time for strategic thinking and action, to demonstrate an entrepreneurial nature, to rise above the daily grind and work toward a vision that positions the museum to attract and engage its customers visitors and supporters. Review all of your other plans, particularly your strategic plan, for useful data. If you have been assessed recently in an American Association of Museums (AAM) accrediting process, materials developed for that activity will be useful. Unlike a strategic plan, the business plan is a plan of action to mobilize the resources of others. It must compel them to invest in you. Its focus is entrepreneurial rather than organizational, financial rather...

Conclusion An Elusive Complexity

Private, and nonprofit community actors at diverse levels is currently involved in the crime issue. (The same is true of welfare measures, which still remain abundant in cities, as social programs provide jobs to the middle class.) In the case of France, elected officials at different levels frequently appear as political entrepreneurs setting in motion so-called public interest operations with diversified partners and, thereby, revealing new modes of governance over regulation issues. Territorial problems force them to work together on imagined spaces, a la carte, beyond conventional institutional boundaries. If the problem extends beyond the community level, supra- or extra-institutional mediators will smooth the connections, recreating the capacity for action and the need to reach agreement. These collective actors, at the edge of economic, social, or law and order spheres, construct themselves according to the problems to be solved. The same complexity is revealed in a federal...

Exporting the American City as a Paradigm for Progress 19201945

Others' influence, over American expatriate architects and planners are difficult to pinpoint because so little empirical research has been done on those expatriates (Cody, 2001). By the end of World War II, when the U.S. government began to play a more proactive role in facilitating the exporting of American architecture, much of the fundamental foundation for this role had been laid by a host of American entrepreneurs, professionals and adventure-seekers.

Business Forms Taxes Licenses Permits And Insurance

As a business owner you are obliged to understand and comply with government laws and regulations that apply to your business and are designed to protect you, your customer, and any employees. Having taken the decision to start a new business, you may now need to obtain a number of licenses and permits from federal, state, and local governments. Since licensing and permit requirements for small businesses can vary from one jurisdiction to another, it is important that you contact your state and local government to determine the specific obligations of your new business. For example, in California you would need to take the contracting license exam before you can become licensed.

Importance Of A Business Plan

Business practices once thought applicable only to the private sector, becoming more entrepreneurial in seeking new sources of income, new partnerships, new offerings, and a new way of thinking about their constituents as cus-tomers.1 A business plan based on the museum's strategic plan is a key tool for entering the world of nonprofit enterprise.2 While not every museum chooses to develop a business plan, in today's competitive environment more and more funders expect them they are becoming not only commonplace but obligatory. Even if a museum does not have a current project requiring funding, it needs to demonstrate a readiness and capacity for action. Rather like having a current r sum at hand, the museum should be able to spring to action with its credentials when opportunities arise. Thus a museum should always have a good business plan, validated on a regular basis by looking back at targets set and milestones reached, and updated annually with new targets to maintain currency...

Influence of the public sector

Programmes in which governments were major participants. For example, in the UK there were extensive programmes for councils to build 'homes fit for heroes' in the 1920s and 1930s. Many a provincial town has its Addison Crescent and Asquith Road built at that time. Addison was the Minister of Health in Asquith's government which in 1919 'decided to open the entrepreneurial coffers of the local authorities' (Pawley, 1971), heralding the birth of 'council housing'.

Is Singapore creative

In the knowledge age, our success will depend on our ability to absorb, process and synthesize knowledge through constant value innovation. Creativity will move into the centre of our economic life Prosperity for advanced, developed nations will depend on creativity, . more on the ability to generate ideas that can then be sold to the world. This means that originality and entrepreneurship will be increasingly prized.

Approach consider GP policy aspirations

Many doctors do not wish to be building owners. Many doctors also wish to be salaried employees, rather than self-employed contractors to the NHS, providing a service where their remuneration is based on the quality of care they provide, rather than accountancy rules using patient lists, and number of visits and consultations as the basis for pay.


Peppers Calstock

More land was added to the Bentley estate by its next owner, entrepreneur Phillip Oakden, who, among other things, introduced blackberries to Tasmania and brought Lincoln sheep to graze his land. A founding member of the Launceston Horticultural Society and the Union Bank in Launceston, Oakden was responsible for planting more than six miles of hawthorn hedge that is such a feature of the property today. The hedges were admired as early as 1870 by a passing traveller

Hoik Spaces

There are many places to look for more advice on how to make your office sustainable. The Energy Star web site, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy, provides a variety of information about reducing your office's energy use, though it is a bit dense. Small businesses can sign up for e-mails from the web site on sustainability issues. Adair recommends looking over the USGBC's guidelines for existing buildings operations and maintenance and


Moonah is a bustling working-class suburb five kilometres north of the Hobart CBD. It's an unlikely location for an old Tasmanian country mansion. But 170 years ago this was rural Tasmania, and it's where one of Hobart's most illustrious early entrepreneurs, Henry Hopkins, took his family for summer holidays. Hopkins came to Tasmania from Kent, England, for the promise of a better life. He amassed huge wealth as a particularly entrepreneurial merchant and was credited with the entire export of wool from the colony in 1822.

Soane Nash

But the notion of professionalism arose more or less in parallel with forms of aesthetic differentiation elevating the artist to a peculiar status of professed and idealised vocational commitment which, ironically, gave the professional ideal within an architectural tradition all the appearances of an expert and tradesmanlike attitude of mind at odds with the more elevated stance of the artist. From the latter's perspective architectural practice was associated with society's highest cultural endeavours, i.e. art, rather than contrasting entrepreneurial activities despoiling the land and people's values. But the reality was, and still is, that the practice of architecture is not an


In general sociologists were more skeptical than economists about the direction and speed of change and emphasized the multiplicity of possible destinations. They used the transition concept but rejected the image of a vacuum and instead stressed the role of legacies from the old system in the construction of new systems. These legacies could take various forms patterns of distribution of economic and social capital (e.g., economic resources and social network links), patterns of values, and patterns of behavior (e.g., lack of entrepreneurialism). This thinking was elaborated into the grandiosely named path dependency theory, whose advocates strenuously denied that it meant no more than that the past influenced the present or that timing mattered. For Nee (1989), in an economy in which market rather than state coordination is dominant, bureaucrats have less power to allocate resources, and industrial and agricultural workers have more power. This results in workers' wage levels rising...

Branch Circuits

The layout of the branch circuits, feeders, and panels is designed for flexibility in accommodating all probable patterns, arrangements, and locations of electrical loads. Laboratories, research facilities, and small educational buildings require much more flexibility than residential, office, and fixed-purpose industrial installations. However, with the rapid expansion of computers and other electronic equipment in home offices and small businesses, flexibility and expansion should be built into most electrical designs. It can be difficult to anticipate future uses and requirements, but an overly specific design wastes money and resources, both during initial installation and in operation.

Learning from Katha

It is called Katha and it works largely in Delhi's largest slum, Govindpuri, where 150,000 people live. Katha is now at the epicentre of activities that are transforming the Govindpuri slum cluster. Katha supports people's movements in over 54 communities with the aim of turning 'the slums into the gold mines they are - the powerhouses of creativity, entrepreneurship and drive'. Its slogan is 'uncommon creativities for a common good' based on an 'uncommon education' (visit www.katha.org for more information). Since the Katha schools started in the early 1990s, over 6000 children have benefited and over 1000 have gone on to higher education, this in an area when illiteracy runs very high. But in order to get parents interested in sending their children to school, Katha started a women's entrepreneurship programme, which in 1995 evolved into the Katha School of Entrepreneurship, to develop leadership, mentoring and work. The idea of ' SHE 2' is at its core, meaning that any investment...

Paints LowVOC

Another approach is to choose an entirely new way to make paint. Green Planet Paints is headed by Meredith Aronson, an entrepreneur in southern Arizona with a Ph.D. in chemistry. She is beginning to hit the market with paints made from clay, marble, mineral pigments and a soy-based resin that makes the surfaces washable, all based on ancient Mayan techniques and ingredients. These paints have no VOCs at all. Of her more natural paints, Aronson says, The environmental footprint of even 'zero-


The most notable millennium landscape project in Dublin was the redevelopment of Smithfield in the northern area of the city. The site is located north of the River Liffey, in the heart of the community of Smithfield. It is a major public gathering and market space, holding up to 12,000 people, which is used for a monthly horse fair and also for concerts and civic ceremonies, such as bestowing the Freedom of the City. It is also the starting point for the St Patrick's Day parade. Formerly a fruit and vegetable market, it has a strongly rectilinear overall form, creating an uncluttered, well-detailed and dramatic space. There is an existing residential development bordering the square on its north-eastern and northern boundaries. Additionally, a locally important public house stands adjacent to the site on the northern boundary. At the time the scheme was developed, the western boundary was occupied by single-storey small businesses which have now been replaced by a major seven-storey...

Parting Thoughts

Depended on the production of fantasy and entertainment for promoting their commodity, which is no less than space itself. I concede that to some people Heliopolis may seem more authentic because of the use of Arab architectural style. But let us not forget that both developments reflected the underlying economic and social processes of their respective eras. It may be the case that whereas foreign consortiums were the spearhead of the early adventures, a mix of Egyptian and Arab entrepreneurs are the progenitors of today's expansion inside and out across the fields and deserts surrounding the Greater Cairo Region. However, if anything, Heliopolis and Dreamland are deliberately formulaic and fabricated illusions of the Orient and the Occident, respectively. If the figure of the fl neur, the nineteenth-century idle stroller, fitted the image of a promenading European in Heliopolis, who combined urban voyeurism with a desire to consume oriental culture, today, the figure fits the image...

Community facilities

They are a test of the British Government's policies to achieve high standards of design while seeking to introduce private funding including the use of PFI contracts. This has led to differences of opinion within the architectural profession. On the one-hand academics such as Susan Francis, at the Medical Architecture Research Unit says 'Over the past 10 years some of the most successful designs have come through primary and community settings.' However she is concerned that NHS LIFT will mean the batching of smaller buildings within a given area to form larger contracts that will be procured through framework agreements. This, she believes, will lead to a lack of site-specific work and will attract consortia which might not otherwise be interested in jobs of this scale. Mike Nightingale of Nightingale Associates does not share such a pessimistic view. He says, 'We do both building and interior design in the health sector so are well set up. It is a good time to be specialising...

Design for Spirit

But should ecological designers work to improve the efficiency of companies such as Wal-Mart that stride the world like behemoths On one side of the argument is the obvious leverage that such companies have. Any improvements translate into large reductions of environmental damage. The company operates the largest commercial truck fleet in the world and, by one estimate, could save 40 percent of its fuel use with a short payback time using readily available efficiency improvements. Further, at its scale, Wal-Mart could drive improvements in technology, like photovoltaics, to the next stage of efficiency and cost reduction. On the other hand, Wal-Mart is deeply entrenched with regressive political forces, and has a well-deserved reputation for exploiting its workers, its suppliers, and the communities in which it does business. It receives large public subsidies in part to compensate for the low wages and minimal benefits paid to workers while driving out small businesses. I presented...


Thus many 'private' organisations have come into being from 'public' origins, with 'inherited' staff and inherited procedures. Hence a public sector mentality and associated processes, characterised as 'bureaucracy', 'red tape' and 'restrictive practices', are often held to prevail. A 'culture change' with more entrepreneurial attitudes and outlook may take time to pervade, especially as people are generally suspicious of, and resistant to, change. More about 'change' is discussed in Chapter 9.

Weird of strange

Keep Louisville Weird is a grassroots public awareness campaign, recently and quietly begun by a small but growing coalition of independent Louisville business owners who are concerned with the spreading homoge-nization of our hometown. We're concerned that the proliferation of chain stores and restaurants in Louisville is not only driving the independent business owner out of business, but is also robbing the city of much of its unique charm. While we don't discount the need for the Wal-Marts of the world, we're troubled by the current civic notion that excitement for our town should come from the courting, establishment and promotion of chain stores and restaurants that can be found in many other cities across America.89


In the last decade, daylighting has been linked to increased productivity. The promise of even a modest 1 percent increase in productivity is likely to appeal to a business owner more than a building that is 20 percent more energy efficient. The potential for a good day-lighting design to improve productivity, even by a small increment, and thus to increase corporate profits, is a strong justification for a daylighting design.

Civic creativity

In all great cities public-spirited generosity to the city is evident. Yet the question now for acknowledged creative cities such as New York, Paris, London and many others is whether they are creative enough or could they be more creative. There are many smaller cities coming up and challenging the formerly great centres, from Hong Kong to Singapore, from Vancouver to Zurich, from San Francisco to Melbourne and smaller still. And let's not forget the newly fashionable cities like Shanghai, where there is immense energy (although is it really creative, given the constraints citizens operate under ). When businesses can be run from anywhere, they should make no assumption that their position is indelible. Just remember that of the great cities from 1000 years ago only Canton Guangzhou is again in the primary league. Furthermore, is their imagination focused on a 'just for me' creativity or is it contributing to making the city a better place. I call this type of creativity civic...


Like Barcelona, Bilbao draws on its sense of history and a self-understanding of having a unique and unusual culture to give it strength and motivation. Added to which it is entrepreneurial. It fears the danger of being trampled upon. It is thus fiercely independent. Just in case we forget, it reminds us of its famous people Elkano, who completed the first circumnavigation of the globe after Magellan was killed in the Philippines, Ignatius of Loyola, who founded the Jesuits, Maurice Ravel, whose mother was Basque, the cyclist Miguel Indurain, the golfer Jos Maria Olazabal, the tennisplayers Jean Borotra and Nathalie Tauziat, the politician Dolores Ibarruri, and many more. Guggenheim is merely one initiative in a much longer-term process of Bilbao's renewal, whose history is far longer. I highlight this trajectory to show that at its core the changes in the city are concerned with changing mindsets, developing leadership, governance and entrepreneurial capacity, aspiration, will and...


No effort was made in the Anglo settler societies to set aside the field paths and rural byways of Arcadian Britain and some other parts of Europe. It was a case of geometry beating topography, described in an Australian context (Lines 1991) as identifying surveyors as the principle agents of change, who 'opened the land to invasion, enabling the history of conquest to begin, and transformed the amorphous face (of what was considered to be an unhumanised landscape) into an imperial possession'. The land surveys and the follow-up registration of title facilitated land transaction, but in so doing imposed an unyielding privatization and passed to freeholders the right to exploit landscapes without any further contribution to the public domain. The general public retained no constitutional privilege of general access over the fully 'enclosed' lands. In settler societies, there was an abandonment of the Old World situation where much of the privately owned landscape is a publicly...

Licenses and Permits

Local county (if the business will be operated outside of any city's limits). Most cities or counties require you to obtain a business license, even if you operate a home-based business. If you are planning to run your business from home, you should carefully investigate zoning ordinances. Residential neighborhoods tend to have strict zoning regulations preventing business use of the home. Even so, it's possible to get a variance or conditional-use permit and in many areas attitudes toward home-based businesses are becoming more supportive, making it easier to obtain a variance.

Tobacco Smoke

Interior designers are often involved in creating segregated smoking areas. In some parts of the United States, smoking is banned from entire buildings. In other communities, smoking is allowed only in certain types of businesses, such as bars. Yet other localities require restaurants and other establishments to create separate smoking and nonsmoking sections. Often, the choice of a smoke-free environment rests with the business owner, and the interior designer is likely to have a considerable say in whether to go smoke-free. Offering customers a truly smokeless environment will often attract more people than it will drive away. Second-hand smoke is also a very real health threat to the employees of businesses where smoking is allowed.

A private army

That's where architecture enters the picture. Architects are frequently the advance guard, the first emissaries, called forth by clients around the world, not for their power, but for their skills. International governments and private entrepreneurs seek American expertise in organizational man

Mixed Use Ambitions

Compared to older residential areas, many new areas like Pontprennau in Cardiff, tend to have far fewer smaller businesses planned into their form. Developers in such situations tend to, rather lazily, just provide commercial space for national chain stores rather than create opportunities for local entrepreneurs. The plan for New Islington in Manchester is an interesting contrast. Extracts from the project's website (http www. newislington.co.uk ) illustrate the positive ambition for promoting a diverse range of smaller uses as well


Recently I visited the largest green home development in the country, Civano, in Tucson, Arizona. Started in the late 1990s, it consists now of some 600 homes developers expect to eventually construct 1,500 homes. The Civano development operates by a strict energy and water conservation code that cuts annual bills for electricity (think hot, dry, desert-climate air conditioning) by 50 and annual water use by 60 , compared with similar suburban developments in the area.40 Civano is also denser than most suburban developments. It has a community feel to it, resulting from two public swimming pools, a community center, several small businesses (including a wonderful nursery) and narrow streets that keep down the heat in summer and serve as traffic-calming devices. Density as a sustainable design virtue reduces energy use from automobiles and allows for a more walkable community.

General Overview

Present trends strongly suggest that strategic alliances will form the cornerstone of the future for businesses, whether self-employed individuals or large corporations. However, for virtual teams to be really effective, accurate communication is essential. To achieve this, more firms are looking to centralize communications, and are moving towards the use of Web sites as project archives where colleagues and clients can send e-mail, post status reports, and view drawings and documents.


The idea of introducing live work units provides another opportunity for the creation of mixed uses within a scheme. The idea is not new as Europe, in particular, has a long tradition of people 'living above the shop' but it certainly appears to have been reinvented and its image transformed. The concept is relatively straightforward that people live and work in their accommodation. The idea emerged following observation of how artists live in or next to their studio space, usually in low cost buildings. The form has subsequently emerged as a building type that is thought to be attractive to self-employed people who run small studio or office-based businesses-such as artists, craftspeople, designers or even lawyers. Live work units could also be in the form of shops.


Insurance is an important prerequisite of any business. The premiums are usually expensive, especially business liability, but you cannot operate with peace of mind without full coverage. There are many types of insurance for businesses, but they are usually packaged as general business insurance or business owner's policy. If you plan to offer your employees health insurance, talk to your agent about the upfront fee. Record the premium payment you will need to make before opening your business.

Key Principles For Entrepreneurs

Key Principles For Entrepreneurs

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