Unrestricted

(e.g., residential uses Including lawn, garden, compost, yard wastes, most stormwater BMPs) Figure 330-11. Urban stream buffer system. cul-de-sac to fit the branched drainage. Keep impervious surfaces small and place at higher elevations to maximize sheet drainage from their edges Utilize the Natural Drainage System The natural drainage paths should be identified as part of the site analysis, along with sufficient buffers to Insure long term integrity. Figure 330-10 shows the use of cluster or...

Tapered Straight

Typical shapes of glue-laminated beams. Soaking refers to dipping for up to 1 day in a preservative bath, while steeping refers to immersion for more than 1 day in a water borne preservative Soaking, and especially steeping, are very effective means of protection. Double-diffusion refers to the steeping of a wood member in one bath for a few days and then a second bath for an additional period of a few days, resulting in considerable penetration of the preservative. Thermal...

Skeet Range Layout

(FOR WALKS AND STRUCTURES OMLYy TRAP ONLY - 30X100 m (IO0X651) SKEET ONLY 40X2* m (130 80) COMBINATION 40 * 35m (130*115') Picnic areas are generally designed in clusters of 10 to 100 units with 10.7 m (35 ft) between units. (A unit consists of a table with benches, a grill, and a trash receptacle.) A maximum density of 50 units ha (20 units acre) is desired, with a buffer strip of 60 m (200 ft) between picnicking and other activities. Comfort stations should be provided and placed at least 15...

Storm water Management

Sykes, ASIA University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Minneapolis. Minnesota Greg Kopischke, ASIA Westwood Professional Services, Inc. Eden Prairie, Minnesota Nicholas T. Dines, FAS LA University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Design Informants 2.3 Watershed Conditions Land Cover Soils and Infiltration Imperviousness Moisture Conditions Slope 3.1 Flood Protection Minor System Major System 3 2 Water Quality Protection Sediment Oxygen Demand Nutrients Heavy...

Info

And water bodies, 740-2. 740-5 and water supply, 710-2, 710-4 Sand, 810 6. 810-9, 810-13 to 810-14 Sand areas, accessible, 240-23 Sandstone. 253-4, 253-9. 254-4 to 254-7, 450-15, 610-12, 840-11, 840-15 Sawing, wood. 850-4, 850-7. 850-9. to 850-12 Schematic grading alternatives, 320 6 Schematic planning design, 330-6, 330-7 Scotland, footbridges in, 470-9. 470-10, 470-24 Scour. 330-40, 470-15, 470-17. 470-18, 640-6 construction, 450-5 to 450-9 design considerations, 450-3 to 450-5 Screws, 450-9...

H 058060 H 065 H 075 H

Ter of 6 1 Is Indicated in the figures, the bin wall could be built with either more batter or with a vertical face. Bin walls are especially suitable for projects of heavy construction where special equipment, such as a crane, can be used to lift the units into place They are also suitable where large scale or massive-ness in the design expression is desired, such as at the edge of a vertical cut or toe of a slope that rises for a considerable distance. A bin wall is useful at the edge of a...

Undisturbed Pool

Ull sheet interrupted sheet -gravity spout broken sheet i smooth waterwall -textured waterwall quiet stream turbulent stream stepped forms waterstairs stepped pool5 vide some of the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Table 530-1 provides a framework for discussion of water effects. These effects are typically grouped into two basic categories (1) still water and (2) moving water (Figures 530-1 through 530-5). The container defines the form assumed by the water. The finish of the underwater...

General Notes

A parabolic turf swale is ideal for achieving low velocity moderate volume runoff capacity. Generally, a swale velocity of a given slope, for a given volume may be reduced by broadening its cross section and reducing its full flowing depth. High velocity swales require durable lining to withstand the scouring potential of moving water. Deposition of fines occur at about .75 m sec (2.5 ft sec), and severe scouring of structural linings can occur at 3-4.5 m sec (10-15 ft sec). Maintain swale...

Settlement Line

M Mil M UM SETTLEMENT AT ABOUT LOWER 1 3 H POINT Figure 420-7. Settlement of rockfill material in diaphragm rockfill dams. M Mil M UM SETTLEMENT AT ABOUT LOWER 1 3 H POINT Figure 420-6, Typical diaphragm rockfill embankment dam. Figure 420-7. Settlement of rockfill material in diaphragm rockfill dams. reinforced concrete slab-reinforcing water stop -. E Figure 420-8. Concrete facing and cutoff stab for diaphragm rockfill ' embankment dam.

Storm Pulses

Baseline hydrograph with storm pulses. Figure 330-14. Baseline hydrograph with storm pulses. time line In hours or minutes. Urbanization tends to drastically change the hydro-graphs. Peak discharges and volumes of runoff increase, and time of concentration becomes shorter (Figure 330-13) Base Flows Base flows are the steady flows that continue to occur after the pulse of flow from a storm has subsided. Base flow is the base line upon which the hydro-graphs of storm flows are...

Maximum Height Of Sag In Chain

Chain barriers and guardrails. Chain barriers can be very hazardous and should be used only with a high degree of discretion. Chains that sag below 675 mm (27in) in height are detectable by cane but are often unseen by others, especially the elderly. Guardrails must be high enough to be easily seen, but rail must be detectable within a 675 mm (27in) clear maximum height range. Figure 240-15. Chain barriers and guardrails. Chain barriers can be very hazardous and should be used...

The USOA System

The New Soil Taxonomy lists eleven basic soil orders based primarily on climate, parent material, and vegetation (Table 810-3), This classification system provides a framework for the United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA) system. Also, the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service has developed a classification system that evaluates and classifies soils in terms of their genesis and morphology. Newer surveys are superimposed on aerial photographs...

Tsn

Abbreviations an grading plans. 320-1, 320-2 Abutments for footbridges, 470-1 470-9 Accessibility beaches. 240-2, 240- 1B, 240-20, 240-23, 520-16 tenches, 240-7, 240-10. 240-17, 340-9. 340-12. 510-7, 520-24 camping, 240-2, 240-18, 240-20, 240-23, 240-24, 520-21 fishing, 240-18, 210-20, 240-21, 240-23 gardens, 210-4, 240-2. 240-12. 240-13, 240-14 graduated difficulty of cceM, 240-2, 240-16, 240-22 handralllngs, 240-10, 240-21, 340-10, 340-11, 470-2 and hearing impairments, 240-5 hiking trails,...

Building To Shield Noise

Acoustical site planning (example problem). In this example, the noise-insensitive area (parking lot) is used as a buffer zone between the highway and the recreational areas. Figure 660-18. Acoustical site planning (example problem). In this example, the noise-insensitive area (parking lot) is used as a buffer zone between the highway and the recreational areas.

Cu

And to preserve important visual and ecological features, development activity should be configured to occupy those spaces between critical resources. Climatic conditions, particularly solar access, should guide the placement of building and site features in energy-conserving design. The following practices should be considered 1. Plan site clearing and planting to take advantage of solar access. Solar orientation, cloud cover, and topography are interrelated. A site's latitude determines the...

Light Fixture As Specified

OftAMITE L'GHT BASE ON 25mm (1) UOHIAFT BED - FOUR 15 .W0mm (l J*.12*) S.S. DOWELS finis* CA '- PRE AS' CONC. FOUNDATION ON 25mm ( 1 MOHtAR BED ' J - -Omm V4*1 DIA. P.U-.C. CONDUIT FABRIC SEPARATOR RIGID INSULA riOM DRAIN MAT WATERPROOF MEUBfiANE ON PROTECTION BOARD Figure 922-7. Granite stand area light-on structure. Lightweight concrete or masonry base mortared onto dram mat. fixture doweled to base.

Drilled Pier And Grade Beam Foundation

Four Alternative Designs for Residential Basements, In all cases a floating floor slab may be used otherwise, an air space of several inches is left beneath to permit soil swell. 3.4 Soil Treatments to Reduce Potential Volume Change The compaction of expansive soils may reduce its permeability. Compaction can slow the subsequent expansion of soils which have a low to moderate expansion potential It Is mosl effective on granular, non-cohesive soils. In some cases, compaction at...

Division 500 Improvements

Site Furniture and Features 1.0 2.0 Design 3.0 Design Considerations 510-6 Recreational and Athletic Facilities 1.0 Introduction 520-2 2.0 Court Games 520-4 4.0 Track and Field 520-4 5.0 Multipurpose Athletic Field Complexes 520-8 6.0 Water-Based Facilities 520-12 7,0 Winter Sports Activities 520-17 8.0 Special Courses and Areas 520-19 9.0 Camping and Picnicking 520-21 11.0 Spectator Facilities. . . 520-24 12.0 Special Areas 520-24 13.0 Tot Lots and Playgrounds 520-25 Recreation and Sports...

Arrow Connecting Reference Line To Arrow Side Member Of Joint Or Arrow Side Of Joint

Size, weld symbol, length of weld and spacing must read in that order from left to right along the reference line. Neither orientation of reference line nor location of the arrow alters this rule. The perpendicular leg of V. V, V weld symbols must be at left. Arrow and Other Side welds are of the same size unless otherwise shown. Dimensions of the fillet welds must be shown on both the Arrow Side and the Other Side Symbol. Flag of field-weld symbol shall be placed above and at right angle to...

Dam Location

Dams for water supply can be located either on the stream from which they will draw their water or at some other convenient location. Any reservoir site, to be eco- Urbanization-related phosphate enrich-> > ment appears to be a result of atmospheric Q. phosphate dust falling onto dry roofs and pavements and then being washed into drains and streams. (Phosphate dust, which falls onto moist soil, will be absorbed by the O) soil particles and become insoluble. Phosphate fertilizers tend to be...

Subsidence Caused By Removal Of Subsurface Materials

The removal of subsurface materials as a result of natural processes or of human intervention can cause significant subsidence Natural processes that remove subsurface materials Include subterranean solution withdrawal and volcanic activity. Human activities, such as underground mining and solution mining result in similar hazards created by the existence of underground voids and cavities. The removal of water, oil, and gas generally does not create large subsurface voids, but causes widespread...

Key Points Plywood

Construction plywood is used in exterior applications. It is manufactured primarily from softwoods, although hardwoods are sometimes used. 2. The glue used to bond wood veneers is as durable as the wood itseif, enabling the material to be exposed out-of-doors without delaminating. Checking occurs less in plywood than in common lumber. 3 Plywood Is categorized into appearance grades based mainly on visual characteristics and engineered grades based mainly on strength (see Table 850-12),

Guy Wires If Required White Flag On Each To Increase Visibility Avoid Tight Guy Wises As They

TURNBUCKLE (31, GALVANIZED OR DIP-PAINTED SET THEE AT ORIGINAL GRADE mulch SHREDDED BARK OR 7Smm (J) MIN. SOIL SAUCER USE GOOD TOPSOIL 150mm (6) WIN, WOOD DEADMEN (J) ROPES AT TOP OF BALL SHALL BE CUT. REUOVE TOP I 3 OF BURLAP. NON - BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL SHALL BE TOTALLY REMOVED COW3 AC TED SUBSOIL TO FORM PEDESTAL TO PREVENT Settling l (M NOT ALLOW AIB POCKETS TO FORM WHEN BACKFILLING. 1 lEAVL 250mm MO') DF STAKE ABOVE GRADE FOR REMOVAL 3 TREE PIT TO STREET Pit UNDERDRAINAGE CONNECTION WHERE...

Rubber Hose At Bark

WHITE FLAG ON EACH TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AVOID TIGHT GUY WIRES AS THEtf PREVENT NATURAL SWAY TuPNBUCKLE 3), GALVAMZEO OR DIP-PAINTED SET TREE AT ORIGINAL GRADE MLLCH. BINE BARK OR WOOD CHIPS 7Smm (3) MIN. SOIL SAUCER USE PREPARED TOPSOIL 150mm (6) MIN WOOD STAKES (3) ROPES AT TOP OF BALL SHALL BE CU1. REMOVE TOP 1 3 0- BURLAP. NON-BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL SHAl.l BF TOTALLY REMOVED PREPARED ADMIXTURE BACKFILL prepared subsoil to form pedestal to prevent settling Figure 923-3....

Fabric Separator

Crib Retaining Wall Design

3O0 X 460 m m (tZW) CONCREfE GRAD BEAU ZOOmra (BJ SPLIT-FACE STONE WrBUTT JOINTS 100 mm (*) DRAIN PIPE PLACED ENTIRE LENGTH OF EMBANKMENT Figure 410-11. Gabion retaining wall. Face may be > affered or stepped. Refer to manufacturer's literature for special details. FABRIC REINF K Efc1 FfT > ' y 4 L J, FOU WAU5 fYFY LLY EXTENDI 5 0 I MO m-(n r. kvonp et w.L nEU9I CAT5TUME APHf ED T UrtIT AE MEt MANUF 130*300 mm ( -i l2J rtECA l CMC. UNIT IC O mm MAIU HFt FTACEB 1 F T> f IFN TN CF WALL...

Aerobic systems with evapotranspiration systems

- WELL 160 mm (6) PIA ANP 42 m (14C) PEEP THROUGH SAND AND LIMESTONE NEAREST OTHEK WELL 1& D m (200YDS) NORTH 3t-5 1 (105 ) TO GREASE TRAP n l HOm (TI 26 ROOMS 1 29 BATHS I 25 TOILETS 100 mm (4) KITCHEN WASTE -UNE GREASE TRAP SES (ISO gal GARBAGE 0RINDER LINE 100 mm (4) KITCHEN WASTE -UNE GREASE TRAP SES (ISO gal GARBAGE 0RINDER LINE NO, I 25 mm (I) PR0P B.75 MIN NO. 2 25 mm ()) DR0P S.50 MIN. NO. y 25 mm p) DR0F 6.00 MIN. NO, I 25 mm (I) PR0P B.75 MIN NO. 2 25 mm ()) DR0P S.50 MIN. NO. y 25...

Eastwest Aiis For Skylight

Placement of skylights. mens leave too little room for growth and may block too much incoming light to their own Inner foliage or to understory plants beneath them Palms or other species which cannot be pruned should always be given adequate vertical space above them for future growth. The weight of the plants and their planting medium is an important consideration when they are a part of the load calculations for a structural slab or an upper floor planter. The weight of a plant...

Soils and Aggregates

Urban Soil in Landscape Design Senior Lecturer In Landscape Architecture Graduate School of Design. Harvard University Prior Professor of Soil Science. SUNY, Syracuse. NY Douglas S. Way, Professor of LA Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Neil Cavanaugh, RE., Braintree, MA Robert N Pine, P.E., West Acton, MA

Design Elements And Details

General consideration of details in accessible design include dimensioning, materials selection, avoidance of hazards, and maintenance issues. Specific recommendations are provided below and references to guidelines are cited. Accessible outdoor facilities should incorporate the following amenities as close to entryways as possible Vertical height between stairway landings should be minimized to accommodate individuals with limited strength Note that minimum widths do not include the thickness...

Aggregate Base Design

Typical design for walkways, bicycle trails, and golf cart paths. Coif cart paths require a surface course of a sand-asphalt mixture with an asphalt content slightly higher than for normal roadway pavements. Refer to Table 820-6 for information on asphalt-concrete mixtures, Table 820-20. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR PARKING AREAS FOR HEAVY TRUCKS AND SERVICE STATIONS* Table 820-20. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR PARKING AREAS FOR HEAVY TRUCKS AND SERVICE STATIONS*

Pavements And Curbs

This section does not include detailed information on the construction of various pavements and curbs. Specific information on the design and construction of these elements is included in Sections 820 Asphalt and 830 Concrete. Division 900 Details and Devices, includes representative detail drawings of various pavements and curbs. This section includes general information on pavements and curbs, including information on the advantages and disadvantages of various types of pavements 5.1...

Plastic Connectors

Low-voltage lighting system. Low voltage lighting systems offer an alternative to more energy-consumptive 120 volt systems. These systems work particularly well in informal, small-scale, residential settings. In addition to reduced energy usage, low voltage systems offer safe and easy installation, longer lamp life (up to twice as long as 120 volt lamps), small fixtures that can be hidden in the landscape, and very low light levels to achieve a variety of lighting effects. Low...

Fabric Separator If Required

Typical pavement components diagram. Tlle components indicate provisions for clay subgrade conditions. The figure illustrates a variety of paving elements required in severe conditions. washing down into the course material. Such downward migration Is typically prevented by means of asphalt penetrating sealants, the use of dense graded subbase aggregate, or a fabric separator (Refer to Division 900 Details and Devices, for specific examples of paving details). The pavement...

Basic Components

Pavements are layered composite structures designed to bear pedestrian and vehicular circulation loads, while providing an even well-drained surface. The structural layers of pavement commonly consist of a prepared subgrade, an aggregate base, and a wearing or surface layer. Figure 440-10 dia-grammatlcaliy Illustrates the components of a typical light road or heavy path pavement, indicating provisions for day soil construction, including an additional aggregate subbase, a subgrade fabric...

Pavement Design Criteria

Heavy, medium, and light duty applications generally refer to the type of vehicular and pedestrian traffic which a pavement must accommodate. Heavy duty pavements are capable of accommodating vehicles, including trucks and buses typically found in city centers, institutions, large parks, and arterial highways. Medium duty pavements are capable of accommodating heavy pedestrian traffic and associated light service vehicles associated with institutions, private drives, parks, and light commercial...

Permafrost Zones

Subsidence is also a hazard in regions of permafrost or where large masses of underground ice exist. At temperatures below freezing, large blocks of ice provide stable support. When permafrost is disturbed or subjected to warming, thawing decreases its support of overlying soils and causes subsidence. Soil particles formerly held together by ice are freed, resulting in subsidence as free-flowing water accumulates at the surface or drains away, leaving lowered levels of saturated soils....

Sprinkler Water Requirement

Sprinklers are designed by manufacturers to emit a specific amount of water (mlh or gpm) at a specific pressure (kPa or psi). These data will vary by type of head and between manufacturers Most manufacturers will list a range of pressures for a particular head, with the corresponding ml (gallons) and radius of throw at each pressure listed. Velocity is a relevant quotient not In terms of meters per second (fps), but rather in terms of radius of throw. This will determine the spacing of the...

Sizing and Details Septic Tanks Sizing

Septic tanks are ordinarily sized to hold 1 to 2 days average sewage flow, the larger ratio for smaller buildings such as houses, and the smaller ratio for larger systems. Local code requirements vary, bul the specific size is not crucial. In general, larger tanks will likely require less frequent pumping. Table 720-1 shows estimated sewage flows for various generators For specific flows in any locality, check local codes. Regarding the design of the tank, shape and size are relatively...

Toboggan Sledding and Tubing

Careful thought should be given to the design of winter hills. It is best to separate sledding runs for each of the above uses. Exposure is best facing North to NorthEast. The shade from the hill will protect the snow later in the season. Slopes on the hill can follow the same slope recommendations as skiing (7.3 Downhill Sking), Grading of sledding runs should naturally move the participant away from steps, railings, trees, water concentrations and drop-offs. Caution should be used when...

Expansion Joint

Marble Sill Expansion Joints

Granite steps with concrete base and pavement sill. Many different systems available. Seal all joints. Long lasting surface. reinf as required aggregate backfill reinf as required aggregate backfill Figure 916-5. Granite steps with concrete base and pavement sill. Many different systems available. Seal all joints. Long lasting surface. Figure 916-6. Brick veneered steps with footings and pavement sill. Brick patterns change to accommodate tread riser proportions. Many patterns are...

Prepared Sjbgrade

Concrete paving expansion joint with dowel. Used to tie one slab to the next and still allow movement. May corrode in cold zones. Figure 912-4. Keyed expansion joint in brick paving on > g concrete base. Formed with pre-molded expansion joint , filler. Seal ioint from water infiltration. 15mm (1 ' S LESSEE' SEALANT '00LEI ONCAVE ANC TIGHT TO' BACKER ROD BQUNtffp POLYMFR SACRER ROD jilllH ND SO.NC to SEALANT EXPANSION JOINT FILLER lOOmr' COFlC. PAVING vVIFM 150mm 6) THICKENED...

Aesthetic Factors

A designer usually incorporates water into a space as a visual element. The aesthetic qualities of water, however, reach far beyond the visual aspect due to the documented psychological effects of water as a metaphor and as a physical factor providing sound, and climatic modification. The sound of water and the coolness associated with being near or touching water are equally a part of our emotional response to water in the environment. Water can function as a focal point within a space or as a...

Table 4603 Strength Groupings Of Common Softwood Species

Douglas fir Hemlock, western Larch, western Pine Loblollvt Longleaff Pitch Slash Short lea I Virginia Spruce Canadian cnaslal Coast Sil ka Cedar, western ri il Cypress Douglas fir (south) Fir Subalpine While Hernliit.lt Eastern Western Pint- Eastern white Lodgepole Po nderni.ii Red Sugar Western white Redwood, California Spruce. Eastern Enyelmann Sitka Tamarack Sourrc Adapted imm U.S D& parlmenlol Agrnul lure Construction C,uides i' i Fxposrd Wood i' Vi It.

Basic Structure Of Pedestrian Circulation

Pedestrian circulation is not easily discussed in specific terms because of the large differences In purpose between various types of systems Most urban pedestrian circulation systems are typically perceived and utilized as a functional device more than as media for aesthetic experiences, a characteristic representative of park systems and other recreational open spaces. Moreover, because pedestrian circulation is an integral part of any particular design scheme, it is difficult to discuss the...

Wwf 6 X 12 W16 X W26

WWF 6 in longitudinal wire spacing 12 in transverse wire spacing W16 longitudinal wire size W26 transverse wire size 2 Welded mesh comes in rolls 150-, 200-, and 300-ft lengths. 1 Widths vary from 56 to 72 inches in 2-inch increments and from 84 to 96 inches In 3- and 4-inch increments. 4 Tensile strength 70,000-80,000 psl. s Most commonly used sizes. b Exact W-number size for 8 gauge is W2.I. 1 No. 2 gauge and larger comes only in sheets. 8 Exact W-number size for 2 gauge is W5.4. Source...

Attached Panels With Nails

Typical joining techniques for wood fences and screens. Details that trap moisture should not be used in humid climates sapwood, but is usually more expensive Any part of the fence which will be within 150 mm (6 in) of soil or embedded in concrete should be constructed from heart-wood of naturally decay resistant woods such as redwood, cedar or cypress, or of pressure treated lumber. (Refer to Section 850 Wood, for a comprehensive explana tion of wood and wood products suitable...

Downhill Alpine Skiing

Precise design criteria and standards for downhill ski areas cannot be established because each development is influenced by the opportunities afforded by (1) the site and Its topography and (2) the characteristics of the targeted market area. Ski slopes are usually designated as novice, intermediate and advanced. Computer simulations are often used to model the proposed development of ski areas and to blend the ski trails with the pre-existing visual elements of the terrain. The following...

Special Types of Flat Glass

Patterned Glass This is a glass that has a linear or geometric pattern pressed onto one or both sides of the glass to obscure vision. Acid etching or sandblasting will also create greater obscurity. Patterned glass is available in a wide range of textures and patterns, primarily in thicknesses of 3 mm (1 8 In) and 5 mm (7 32 in). Table 870-9 provides information on types and sizes. Wired Glass is glass is made with wire mesh or parallel wires rolled into the center of the glass to hold the...

Micro Climate

Design Strategies For Moderate Climate

Existing water sources and landforms can be used to create winter heat sinks in cold climates, and temperature differentials for cooling air move ment in hot climates Existing streams or other water sources can contribute to radiant cooling for the site. Color and surface orientation may also be used to favorably absorb or reflect solar energy. 2. Existing vegetation may be used to moderate weather conditions and provide protection for native wildlife. Vegetation can be used to provide shade...

All Backfill Small He Water Jctted For Firm Compaction

SGCmm 121 WIN PREPARED BACKFILL MIX SAUDI 100mm 4J AGGREGATE DRAIN COURSE TOO 150mm a' 6 DIA . 1300mm K 0 . DCJTF DRAINAGE SJMP ' B.' '.- - '- I AT H DRAINAGE ROCK OR GRAVEL PERFORATE DRAIN PIPE S OPTIONAL, Figure 923-9. Palm tree planting in paving. Amended backfill Is hydro-slurned into pit Pedestal supports tree prior fo backfilling thin branches by 1 3 retaining norma p ant shape create saucer with tops oil isoiyim 6 min. ropes at top of ball shall be cut, remove top 1 3 of bup.ap. n...

Ac40 Ac30 Ac20 Ac10 Ac5 Ac25

Older system that measures needle penetration. Asphalt is sampled at 77 F 25 Cl- Still in use in Canada and in some states. Newer system introduced in 1972. Scientifically measures viscosity of the asphalt t 140F 60 C . Most states use this system. A variation of I he more standard viscosity graded system. Measures asphalt after simulated aging. Used in several western states. Consult local highway departments for criteria of local grading systems. Local criteria are oflen slight modifications...

Cascading Waterfall

Extreme tenture forms or irregular steps sloping more than 1 1. Moderate to high unit flow rate WATER-STAIRS Regular steps sloping more than 1 1 Moderate unit flow rale STEPPED POOLS Random or regularly stepped pools. Moderate to high unit flow rate. Table 530-2. WATER EFFECTS CHARACTERISTICS continued Table 530-2. WATER EFFECTS CHARACTERISTICS continued

Butt Type Construction Joint W1h Dowels

PREVENT BOND MTU OIL, PAINT. OR CURING USED FOR SLABS OF 105 mm 5 GREATER THICKNESS TONGUE AN0 GROOVE KEYED CONSTRUCTION JOINT HMD FOR SLABS OF 5' AND GREATER THICKNE55. FREE END Of DOWELS TO BE COATED WITH NON PIN DING AGENT 1 6 RADIUS BEFORE REMOVING FORM . PREVENT BOND MTU OIL, PAINT. OR CURING USED FOR SLABS OF 105 mm 5 GREATER THICKNESS TONGUE AN0 GROOVE KEYED CONSTRUCTION JOINT

Key Points Landslide Estimation Prevention and Correction

1 Detailed information on landslide hazard Is not available in many areas. A preliminary investigation by a geological engineer can determine if more comprehensive geotechnical studies are required. 2. Certain combinations of surface disturbances can signify former landslides or areas of high landslide potential Table 253-5 . Large-scale aerial photographs greats than 1 9600 can be used to reveal crescent-shaped scarps and hummocky topogra phy that is characteristic of previous sliding. 3. The...

Types Of Dams And Selection Criteria

Table 420-2 lists general selection criteria for small earth, rock, masonry and cnb dams Earthfill embankment dams do not rely upon impervious internal cores or walls of concrete, timber, steel, or masonry as part of their construction Figure 420-1 They depend upon carefully rolled and compacted earth fill to ensure retention of water. Homogeneous Earthfill Embankment Dams Homogeneous earthfill dams consists of a single kind of material exclusive of the slope protection that is sufficiently...

Reinforcement

Geotexllles can be used to prevent cracks In old pavements from being reflected in new pavement overlays. Fabrics are installed Figure 880-6. Fabric used in roof garden planter. The geotextite keeps the drainage material separate from the planting soil. Figure 880-7. Fabric Formwork for structures on irregular surfaces. Figure 880-7. Fabric Formwork for structures on irregular surfaces. Figure 880-4. Fabric used in roadway or railroad bed. The geotextile prevents the subgrade from pumping into...

Filter Blanket

Roof drains for flat planted surfaces. On flat planted surfaces, both surface and subsurface drainage is accomplished with perforated roof drain flush with planting medium. Filter blanket prevents seepage of planting medium into the draining layer. Figure 610-4, Drains for low areas. When low places occur on the surface not near a major subsurface drain, a lateral pipe and drain can carry water quickly to the main dram.