Aerobic Digester

Aerobic digester with vapotranspiration system. LARGE SHALLOW LAGOON 0.(M.3m 2-5') DEEP SMALL POLISHING AND I DOSING LAGOON L CLAV OR PLASTIC LINER SEWER RIPE Figure 720-4. Aerobic digester with vapotranspiration system. SMALL POLISHING AND I DOSING LAGOON Figure 720-5. Unaerated lagoon system (schematic section).

Lug

3 000 mm (10 ft) wide for passing, and should be clear of overhanging limbs to a height of 3 600 mm (12 ft). Grades should not exceed 5 percent, although 10 percent for short distances is permissible Washing and grooming areas should be easily accessible, well drained and ventilated and away from the public, (See Figure 520-46.) 1. Pasture 0.8 ha (2 acres) per horse (zoning ordinances vary) 2. Staff office and apartment 21 m (226 ft2) per staff member 3. Treatment stalls 3,5 m X 5 m (12 ft X 17...

System Components

Specific small individual systems include 1 Septic tanks combined with any of a variety of subsurface leaching systems (leaching trenches, leaching beds, leaching pits, etc.) All septic systems are limited to subsurface effluent disposal because of the odor inherent to septic effluent (Figure 720-2). 2. Aerobic digesters with subsurface leaching systems can also be used with a variety of leaching system configurations (Figure 720-2). 3. Aerobic digesters with surface infiltration beds (Figure...

Skateboard Parks

Park designs vary, although they usually range from 0.1 to 2 ha (1 2 to 5 acres) in size. Surfaces should be made of a smooth, fluid, nonjointed material such as shotcrete or fiberglass. Features in a skateboard park include 1. Freestyle areas about 24 m X 12 m (80 ft X 40 ft), with slightly banked walls. 2. Slalom run about 30 m (100 ft) long, dropping 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft), with slightly banked walls. 3. Snake run curved channel, with walls 2 4 to 3.5 m (8 to 12 ft) high. 4. Bowls and...

Drill Seeding

In the long term, legumes are an important factor in sustaining sufficient nitrogen levels and should be considered in the plant mix. Unlike nitrogen deficiencies, phosphorus deficiencies will limit and even prevent seedling establishment. On soil materials which test low in phosphorus, 112 kg ha (100 lb acre) of PiOi. are applied to coarse-textured soil, and 228 kg ha (200 lb acre) are applied on fine-textured soils. Since phosphorus is not mobile in the soil, it is important to mix it...

Info

* Codes are s follows An X Indicates prrsrrncr i SJWUCS in J Eiven ivas, A ' lUs available, L .ndKates limited ,'.v,' II--1 y kA .n - .'tr-, not commericafly .iv.t < iL -in-' W indi- Mtes a wartn-season grass best Adapted 'tv- stat . nr similar .ill. I waters, and to prevent a buildup of toxic trace elements. A USDA Forest Service publication entitled A Guide for Revegetating Coal Mine Soils in the Eastern United States suggests the following rates of application 1. Barnyard manure and...

Economic Considerations

The costs of an Irrigation system are difficult to determine until a design and a set of specifications have been completed. The costs also vary significantly from one geographic area to another On a price-per-square-foot basis, large turf areas cost considerably less to irrigate than do areas consisting of smaller mixed plantings. Installation techniques and maintenance problems also have to be considered. Proper hydraulic engineering will prevent costly problems later In the life of a system....

Runoff Calculations

Velocity (V) Velocity is distance traveled over a given time. It is the critical factor for estimating and understanding runoff movement. Runoff velocities are typically expressed in meters per second (m s) or feet per second (ft sec). Discharge (Q) Discharge is rate of runoff flow, or volume traveling at a particular velocity. Discharge is expressed in cubic meters per second (m5 s) or cubic feet per second (ftVsec) Runoff discharge (Q) for cross-sectional shapes, such as channel and pipe...

Sports Stadiums

Spectator sight lines are the principal design consideration in stadium design. The seating capacity can be increased by making the seating either longer or higher In general, longer, lower seating is less expensive but has fewer seats that are considered prime (Figure 520-56). Seats can be mounted to either the tread or the riser (Figure 520-57). Treads should never be less than 550 mm (22 in) wide 650 mm (26 in) is preferred. A tread width of 750 mm (30 in) should be used for benches with...

Tream

Velocity Is the product of surface friction, surface shape, and slope. These characteristics are determined by the types of surfaces included in design proposals and their relationship to each other. Greater volume must be held on site in order to reduce the speed of water moving through the outlets Detaining water volume also provides the fundamentals for water quality treatment. More than half the contaminants In surface water are from sediments, and high velocity is the cause of erosion that...

Water Table

Passing over these surfaces is heated and delivered to surface water bodies. The replenishment of groundwater by rainfall Infiltration is known as recharge. If groundwater is not recharged, the water table drops. Porous soils, and areas where the ends of tilted porous bedrock layers are exposed to infiltrating stormwater, are zones where groundwater recharge occurs (Figure 330-4). The layers of water bearing soil and rock are aquifers. Impervious surfaces eliminate aquifer recharge capacity...

O

Bring odorous bottom sediments to the surface). Aerated Lagoons Aerated lagoons are deeper and smaller than passive lagoons and use sufficient mechanical aeration to preclude thermal stratification and the resulting Iwice-a-year thermal turnovers. These types of lagoons have been used on sites that are large enough for passive lagoons but are too close to abutting land uses that require positive odor control. The water in these lagoons is mixed and aerated by small streams of air that are...

Cesspools

Cesspools are a very low cost but effective disposal technique for very small systems up to 375 or 575 L (100 or 150 gal) per cesspool per day or for systems with intermittent use They require suitable soils and a water table at least 3 m (10 ft) deep. They combine, at their center, the anaerobic digestion process of the septic tank and, around their vertical perimeter, the filtering process of the leaching pit (Figure 710-10). Their only disadvantage is that, like any other soil infiltration...

Properties Related to Site Engineering and Landscape Construction

Elasticity Elasticity refers to the ability of soil to return to its original shape after being deformed by a load. Conversely, it refers to the compatibility of a soil. In landscape construction, the relative elasticity of soils on a site may determine where heavy equipment can be moved to avoid undesirable compaction of soils. Plasticity Plasticity refers to the ability of soil to be deformed under pressure without cracking or crumbling and to maintain a deformed shape after pressure is...

Sb

States of fine-soil consistency. As wafer content increases, soils become increasingly fluid PI refers to the plastic index, PL to the plastic limit, LL to the liquid limit, and SL to the shrinkage limit. Figure 810-4. Areas of expansive soils in the United States. Expansive soils are most widespread in areas labeled regionally abundant, but many locations in these areas will have no expansive soils. In the unshaded portions of the map, some expansive soils may be found, but not...

Water Pumps

Figure 710-3- Private water supply for fire fighting. fighting equipment can get onto the site and the rate at which water can be applied. To minimize damage, it is essential to apply coolant to the fire before any room is fully involved This is usually done either with hand-held chemical extinguishers or with water carried to the site by fire trucks. These trucks typically have 500- to 1000- gal (1900- to 3800-L) water tanks and a booster hose coiled on a spool for immediate use. Once a room...

Size of Reservoir

The size of a reservoir with respect to its watershed size determines both the safe yield of the system and the quality of the water. The minimum size of a reservoir to be used for potable water should be at least equal to 1 year's annual average runoff from its tributary watershed in order to achieve good water quality (without extensive treatment), although a somewhat larger volume (e.g., 1-1 2 year's runoff) would be better. A small reservoir (i.e., one that stored much less than 1 year's...

Cl Q

A4 K> O* THE ''AP < LU3I Figure 710-6. Mean annual precipitation in the United States. A4 K> O* THE ''AP < LU3I Figure 710-6. Mean annual precipitation in the United States. For small projects requiring only a limited water supply, there are several possible sources, including wells, springs, cisterns, and surface Impoundments (or catchments). The choice of system generally depends on regional geohydrotogic conditions, with wells (where they are feasible) usually being the most...

Size of Watershed

Per capita potable water use in the United States varies from under 570 L (150 gal) per day in the northeast to over 1325 L (350 gal) per day in the southwest (where extensive irrigation takes place). In periods of drought in the northeast, with restrictions on lawn irrigation, automobile wash- Figure 710-23. Longitudinal section Figure 710-24. Longitudinal section showing flows passing under well. Q through homogeneous aquifer, show-__ ing laminar flow in ground.

Golf Course Irrigation

Specialized systems for golf course irrigation often provide functions beyond that of satisfying the water requirements of turf-grasses, although that is their primary function. For Instance, there can be provided a syringe cycle, which Is a sprinkle cycle that is operated from the central control for only a few minutes, rather than the full irrigation cycle. Syringe cycles are used to provide earlier play schedules by eliminating dew or frost from tees and greens. During hot afternoons, a...

Effluent Water

Effluent water (also referred to as recycled water, gray water, sewage effluent, wastewater. and recycled sewage) Is basically liquid sewage from a municipal sewage plant or industrial plant which has been treated and is ready for disposal. Effluent water is more than 99 percent pure water and by recent federal legislation is treated in a manner similar to drinking water. In the United States, the vast majority of effluent water is pumped into rivers or streams (eventually to end up in the...

Lakes Ponds Reservoirs Streams and Rivers

Natural bodies of water can be used very effectively, depending on the riparian rights of that water. 1.Pump capabilities and the power (usually electric) required to operate the pump 2. The quality of water at different seasons during usage (filtration must usually be provided). 3. The possibility of having to transport water from one source to a holding pond or reservoir (depending on the water requirements). This is especially common in golf course applications, where even potable city water...

Water sources

Most landscape projects use potable water provided by the local water district. Research necessary at the outset of an irrigation project includes 1.The possibility of an alternative source of water that would be more cost-effective on a long-term basis, 2. A determination of existing static pressure in municipal lines (including high and low times), of the siie of the main line in closest proximity to the project site, and of any local codes that may be pertinent to the installation of an...

General

Irrigation is sometimes necessary to keep landscapes at an optimum functional or aesthetical peak. Although all geographic areas receive rainfall sufficient to sustain indigenous plant materials growing under natural conditions, situations involving introduced species, or species growing under less-than-ideal conditions, often require some form of irrigation to maintain healthy plant growth. This section focuses on various types of irrigation systems and on means for selecting the most...

Special courses and areas

Golf course design is too complex to be fully detailed in this section however, some of the major considerations and variations are summarized below. Gently rolling terrain provides for a course that is both better for play and more visually interesting. Positive drainage is essential. and therefore sandy soils are preferred High-quality water is required for irrigation at rates of approximately 50 mm (2 in) per week for greens and tees, and 25 to 38 mm (1 to 1-1 2 in) per week for fairways,...

Percent Clay

SANO SANDY LOAM SILT CLAY CLAY LOAM LOAM LOAM SANO SANDY LOAM SILT CLAY CLAY LOAM LOAM LOAM Figure 810-11. Water availability in soils (for plant growth). This chart shows the general relationship between soil moisture characteristics and sod texture. Note that the wilting coefficient increases as soil texture becomes coarser. These are representative curves. Individual soils would likely have values different than those shown. Figure 810-10. Soil erodibility factor (K). USD A textural triangle...

N

In a seacoast condition, if too high an annua volume is withdrawn, so that the water table falls to mean sea level, brackish water will enter the well, ruining it for water supply purposes. 4.2 Proximity to Organic Deposits Figure 710-14 shows a typical high-yield well installation In the northeastern United States. Both the organic deposits and the unconsolidated aquifer lie along a valley, A specific problem Is that organic deposits tend to be concentrators of metallic sulfides (bog iron) by...

S 1 20 30

12(3,000 60,000 30,000 22,500 15,000 Effect of well drawdown below mean sea level on ground- Effects of well drawdown on metallic sulfides in organic texts of the period recommended that cesspools and leaching pits be dug down into the water table. Furthermore, in many older neighborhoods where the cesspools were not deliberately dug deeply, the advent of public water supplies led to the conversion of the old dug wells to cesspools. The result Is that no well should be developed in an area...

Intermediate

Sinkholes are formed when ground collapses into subsurface cavities. I lustration shows the formation of karst topography from relative youth to maturity. Sinkholes are formed when ground collapses into subsurface cavities. I lustration shows the formation of karst topography from relative youth to maturity. 1.3 Hazard Prevention and Correction Hazard prevention and correction efforts must seek to reduce damage to existing development, and protect future development from the effects of...

Contents

Gilbert White, Susan Tubbesing, Jacquelyn L Monday, and Sarah Nathe Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Goldberg-Zolno and Associates Newton, Massachusetts 1.3 Hazard Prevention and Correct on 2.0 Subsidence Caused by Surface or Internal 3.0 Subsidence Caused by Removal of Subsurface Materials 3,T Subterranean Solution Withdrawal and Volcanic Activity 3 2 Underground Mining 3.3 Solution Mining 3 4 Piping 3.5 Removal of Water,...

References

Consumptive Use of Water & Irrigation Water Requirements, American Society of Civil Engineers. New York, 1973. Pair, Claude (ed.). Irrigation, Sprinkler Association, Kimberly, ID, 1983. Sarsfield. A. C. Chett. ABC of Lawn Sprinkler Systems, Irrigation Technical Services, Lafayette, CA, 1966. Watkins, James A. Turf Irrigation Manual, Telsco Weathermatic, Dallas, TX, 1978. Young, Virgil E Sprinkler Irrigation Systems (3d ed.), Craftsman Press, Tacoma, WA, 1976.

Sate Valve

Typical gate-valve and ball-valve assemblies. Soil around control-valve pit assembly must be compacted to same density as adjacent undisturbed soil. Note that the lever arm will require a larger valve box. Figure 750-12. Typical gate-valve and ball-valve assemblies. Soil around control-valve pit assembly must be compacted to same density as adjacent undisturbed soil. Note that the lever arm will require a larger valve box. Figure 750-13. Typical manual angle-valve assembly....

Quick Coupler Systems

Often referred to as a snap-valve system or manual system, a quick coupler is a valve which is opened when a quick-coupler key is inserted (Figure 750-1). As the key is rotated, an increase in water volume is realized, much as when turning the handle on a hose bibb A hose or sprinkler head can be attached to the key to distribute the water as required. Even on totally automatic system designs, quick couplers are often dispersed throughout the design to provide additional water access for...

Ld

Daylight through skylight. -ij 1 1 ir i' f j 11 ' 1 l I' iLilt.i l -ij 1 1 ir i' f j 11 ' 1 l I' iLilt.i l Figure 620-7. Optimum skylight features. Figure 620-7. Optimum skylight features. MAXIMUM PIMCN5I0N 1 NORTH-SOUTH AXIS FOR 6KYUGHT MAXIMUM PIMCN5I0N 1 NORTH-SOUTH AXIS FOR 6KYUGHT

Climatic Conditions

The amount of annual rainfall in a given area will determine the selection of plant materials as well as the type of irrigation system most appropriate in that area. The U.S. Weather Service keeps annual rainfall data for the entire United States but such data alone will not determine whether or not an irrigation system Is necessary in any particular region. Six major factors determine the need to apply water in quantities greater than annual precipitation. These are (1) the length of the...

Site Development And Layout

After a thorough analysis and assessment, ideal diagrammatic concepts are prepared with the objective of organizing all proposed built elements to achieve an effective fit between the site and the proposed development. The main goal of the concepts should be to minimize energy and resource consumption during construction and after occupation. It should be noted that during reclamation of disturbed sites, initial expenditures may be higher than normal and should be balanced by ongoing landscape...

Lateral

Typical emitter installation for trees with tree grates. Selection of the appropriate irrigation technique is based on the size of the project, site conditions, climate, and local practices. 1, Sprinkler systems are the most widely used type of irrigation. Refer to 7.0 Sprinkler Irrigation System for information on sprinkler head selection and layout. 2, Quick-coupler systems include a valve which is opened when a key is inserted (Figure 750-1). A hose or sprinkler head can be...

La Is

Soil wetting areas based on soil type. In regard to pumps, pressure is usually expressed in terms of foot head (FH). which is multiplied by 0 433 to convert to psi. Designers confronted with large uphill elevation changes or insufficient static pressure often use centrifugal pumps as booster pumps. The pressure at a given flowrate on the pump curve can be added to the existing pressure to arrive at the new boosted pressure. Since a booster pump does not create water, the flowrate...

Location of Buildings Trees and Other Fixed Objects

Fixed objects have to be accounted for in the design of sprinkler systems and should be marked on a plot plan at the outset of the project. Sprinklers should not spray directly Into a tree or shrub at close range because of possible harm to the plant and because a void results on the opposite side of the disrupting object. Buildings located within the sprinkler pattern cause a wasting of water, create saturated areas on the ground, and may cause brick and other types of masonry to effloresce...

Preface

This second edition of Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture Design and Construction Data has been expanded and re-designed to offer easier access to more information on landscape design and construction processes The Editors have striven to create a common technical framework for the professions of landscape architecture, architecture, engineering, and planning, by expanding and emphasizing the core construction content of the profession. Site Construction Operations has been added...

Selection Criteria For Retaining Structures

The selection of appropriate retaining structures is based on a number of factors, including proposed application desired materials, long- and short-term costs, maintenance requirements, and service life. Structural types can be broadly categorized as reinforced embankments, unit and stack wall systems, or rigid retaining walls. Although each structure type requires different methods of construction, all are subject to the laws of soil mechanics and the principles of statics in determining...

Combination Lighting

Foreground spaces should utilize local lighting which produces maximum focus, minimum distractions, and no glare. Objects of interest and activities can be brightly illuminated while the background produces only minimal distraction. Illumination of Objects (Shape Accentuation) The direction of the light source is important for perception of three-dimensional objects. The ability to perceive volumetric form is Influenced by the gradient of light and shadow falling on the object. Uniformly...

Tj

T Rigid pavements require expansion and control joints to allow for contraction and expansion due to temperature fluctuations. Such joints may be butted, doweled, or keyed using pre-molded expansion joint fillers. All such expansion joints should be 3 sealed with a bonding liquid filler to avoid t > moisture penetration and deposition of fine sands and silts during contraction periods. Q Sand accumulation in the joint, may inhibit its expansion capacity, resulting in pavement buckling. Local...

Stone

Commonly used paving patterns for both flexible and rigid paving systems. Figure 440-17. Commonly used paving patterns for both flexible and rigid paving systems. cost Is a function of length of service, annual maintenance requirements, and replacement value Generally, costs are lower for simple one or two layer paving systems which require minimal edging, low cost material, and fewer labor and equipment operations. Conversely, multi-layered pavements constructed of durable...

Inline Skating

Inline skating, sometimes referred to as roller blading, has evolved from roller skating and is popular for both roller hockey and fitness.There are no specific design standards for Inline skating facilities per se since many inllners use conventional roller skating rinks The Inline Skatepark Directory provides information on special inline facilities. The International In-line Skating Association (USA), headquartered In Kennesington, Maryland was formed in 1991 to advance in-fine skating as a...

System Configuration

Regarding the selection of the overall system configuration (i.e., individual systems versus cluster systems), the designer should consider 4. Local governmental regulations and policies Regarding costs, any type of Individual on-site approach (where acceptable) is likely to be much less expensive than a cluster system, often by a ratio of 10 1. The major economy of individual systems is the elimination of pipelines, pumping stations, and manholes between individual buildings and the cluster...

O Harrowing

Methods of surface conditioning. Soil materials low In nutrients can be improved by applying fertilizer. Sufficient nitrogen is usually available in Lopsoil for plant establishment, while subsoils and geologic materials are usually deficient Nitrogen is more of a limiting factor in plant productivity than it is in the establishment of plants. Although nitrogen is needed the first season on some sites, its application is most beneficial during the second growing season. Since...

Other Sewage Disposal Alternatives

Miscellaneous alternatives are usually limited to sites where either the disposal of normal amounts of wastewater or a supply of adequate amounts of water are not feasible. These include composting toilets, high-technology recirculating systems, and holding tanks. At one extreme, such limited sites have been dealt with by a combination of simple action so such as using an old-fashioned pit toilet (or outhouse) or a composting toilet (an inside outhouse), taking laundry out to a commercial...

Minor Constituent Of Bedrock But May Be Locally Abundant In Sukficial Materials

Ty action than coarse-textured soils (Table 810-7). Permeability This refers to the ability of a soil to transmit water downward due to gravity (Table 810-8) Permeability is a function of pore space and varies with void ratio, grain size and distribution, structure, degree of cementation, degree of saturation, and degree of compaction. Coarsegrained soils are typically more permeable than fine-grained soils. Percolation tests measure the permeability of a soil for example when designing...

Rath Of Waste Spill Small Deflection Due To Small Well Path Of Spill Without Wells

Effects of well size on groundwater flow. ing, etc., water use can be reduced by 50 percent. Such drought restrictions on use are normal and widespread in the rural northeast. The annual gross yield of a watershed, assuming a very large, long-term storage volume, could reach the average annual rainfall for the watershed less the watersheds vapotranspiration and the reser-voiris evaporation and leakage (Figure 710-26 shows the average annual runoff per square mile for the United...

Key Points Standards and Criteria

Water supplies are typically used for human consumption, fire fighting, and irrigation. The quality and quantity of water required will vary by region and intended use. 1 The amount of water used in various parts of the world varies with regional climate, legal, and political traditions. Tables 710-1 and 710-2 illustrate the specific water requirements for various land uses and the rates of flow for various plumbing fixtures. 2. Elevated tanks linked to the water supply system, or surface water...

About the Editors

Charles Ward Harris, FASLA, is a professor emeritus of landscape architecture at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design During his teaching career of over 30 years at Harvard, he was Chairman of the Department for ten years, and Director of the LA Research Office for seven years. His teaching and research activities encompass a wide range of topics, including regional landscape planning and design, land development, site engineering, and design education. He has worked in the...

Important Considerations

The quantity of water necessary for healthy plant growth must be determined in order to design an irrigation system of highest efficiency. If growth conditions are less than 7.2 Control Systems Manual Systems Automatic Systems 7.4 Valves Manual Valves Automatic Valves Polyvinyl Chloride (PVO Pipe Polyethylene (PE) Pipo Copper Pipe Galvanized Steel Pipe Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipe Cast-Iron Pipe Concrete Pipe 7.6 Backltow Preventors Antisiphon Devices Back-Pressure Devices ideal, supplemental...

Drainage Classes

Effected by the permeability of the soil on the surface and below. The depth and fluctuation of water penetration, coupled with the rate of aeration and oxidation of the minerals in the soli, causes distinctive color patterns in the soil horizon called mottling The USDA-Natural Resource Conservation Service has recognized seven drainage classes. These are shown in Table 810-11 Erodibility This refers to the extent to which a soil mass can withstand the forces of wind or water erosion. Figure...

Key Points Constraints on Well Development

The development of high-yield wells can lower water tables significantly and draw water from considerable distances. The planning of a high-yield well should include consideration of the following development constraints 1. Wells In seacoast environments must maintain adequate water table levels If the water table falls to mean sea level, brackish water enters the well, and ruins it for water supply purposes 2. In areas where wells are adjacent to organic deposits, withdraw of significant...

Utility Services

Monitoring Wells Recharge Wells Test Wells Water Supply Welts Well Abandonment -530 Sanitary Sewerage Gauging Stations Packaged Pumping Stations Packaged Lift Stations Sanitary Cleafiouts Sanitary Sewage Systems Sanitary Sewer Manholes, Frames, and Covers Sewage Collection Lines Sewage Force Mains Site Sanitary Sewage Lines -540 Septic Tank Systems Drainage Field Grease Interceptor Sand Filter Septic Tank Siphon Tank -550 Piped Energy Distribution Chilled Water Distribution Hot Water...

General Considerations

Land subsidence is defined as any displacement of a generally level ground surface resulting from surface or subsurface causes. This section addresses subsidence resulting from the alteration of surface or internal loading, the removal of subsurface materials, and other subsurface failures. Tectonic activity, landslides, and expansive soils are not addressed in this section (Refer to Sections 252-Natural Hazards Earthquakes,253-Natural Hazards Landslides and Snow Avalanches, and 255-Natural...

Design Procedure

The following procedure can be used to design and lay out drip irrigation systems for small commercial and residential projects. This procedure and the guidelines listed below are based upon the warmest part of the season, with irrigation occurring every day. Depending on the soil conditions, the exposure, and seasonal change, the frequency of irrigation may have to be altered. 1. Make an accurate map of the area. 2. Locate ail plant materials and indicate their plant classifications and canopy...

Sprinkler Head Selection and Layout

Sprinkler head selection and layout is the most difficult aspect of sprinkler Irrigation system design, Seldom will an area lend itself perfectly to a particular grid spacing, whether triangular or square, and seldom is an area free of objects such as trees, walkways, and buildings. The first step in the selection and layout of sprinkler heads is to divide the area to be irrigated Into zones that have similar water requirements, e.g., lawn areas, shrub areas, and different exposures to the sun....

Drip Trickle Systems

Although drip systems are most applicable to types of agriculture in which the plant material is of the same variety, with uniform size and spacing, they are increasingly being designed into landscape projects because of their efficiency. The orifices of a drip system are small, however, and can sometimes become clogged if the system is improperly designed for the purpose intended. The primary element of a drip system is the emitter, of which several types are available (Figure 750-2). Some...

Site Analysis And Assessment

The process of calculating the degree of resource use and the degree of disturbance of existing natural systems required to support a development begins with site selection The most environmentally sound development is one thai disturbs as little of the existing site as possible. Building projects also require connections to mass transit, vehicular infrastructure, and utility and telecommunication networks. Sound site planning and design should consider siting a building to take advantage of...

Soil Characteristics

The percolation rate is an important characteristic influencing the design of conventional irrigation systems, and capillary action becomes important when lateral movement of water Is required as in drip systems and furrow flooding). In drip irrigation. the area of soil wetness Is commonly referred to as the onion since a soil profile In a loam soil will produce a wet area shaped like an onion. A sandy soil will produce a shape similar to a carrot. With a conventional sprinkler system, the main...

Calculations

In drip irrigation, it is important to determine the amount of water that each plant will use and then to select the number and flow sizes of the emitters that will apply the water within a specified period of time. An important rule of thumb regarding drip irrigation design is to always design water applications so that at least 50 percent of the plant root zone will be wet. A formula for determining the daily water requirement of a plant in liters (gallons) per day (mlh or gpd) is Canopy area...

Preface to the first edition

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture Design and Construction Data is a book about building on the land, a comprehensive process that involves several elements (1) interaction with existing natural and cultural systems, (2) dependence upon both site-specitic and equipment-specific design and construction techniques, and (3) the use of a wide range of materials and devices The book covers some 50 topics, each comprising a separate sectlno and grouped into nine divisions. They are...

Available Watering Time

Available watering time is usually a concern only when designing large projects, such as golf courses. After the water requirements and the number of hours available to water 96 3 is a constant based on the fact that 1 gal 231 in' and there are 144 inVft3 thus. 231 144 1 604 in Iff) gjjmi.and 1.604 x 60 minutes 96 3 ln ft )(hour) Climate, soils, plant materials, site layout and economic concerns all Influence Irrigation strategies. 1 The climatic factor of greatest importance is the water...

O Ip

Modified from John f Valentine, Range Development and Improvements, Brlgham Young University Press. Provo, Utah. 1982 Figure 660-2. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa. Canada. 1979 Figure 710-3. G. M Fair. J. C. Ceyer, and D A Okun Water and Wastewater Engineering, Wiley. New York, vol 1, 1966 vol. 2, 1968 Copynght and used with permission of publisher). Figure 710-4. Reproduced with permission from G E Memzer, Physics ot the Earth, vol 9. Hydrology. McGraw Hill. New...

Qj

Edward MazHa, The Passive Solar Energy Book. Rodale Press. Em maus. PA, 1979 Figure 220-11, Edward Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Book, Rodale Press. Em maus. PA, 1979. Figure 220-12. Edward Mazria, The Passive Solar Energy Boo*, Rodale Press. Emmaus, PA, 1979 Figure 220-13. Edward Mazna, The Passive Solar Tnergy Book, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, 1979 Figure 220-14. Edward Mairia. The Passive Solar Tnergy Book, Rodale Press, Emmaus. PA, 1979 Figure 220-15. Edward Mazria, The...

Filtration Techniques

Filter strips treat water accepted as sheet flow from surfaces through combined filtering and ponding (Figure 330-53). The ponding portion is designed to hold the WQV Filter strip length must be equal to the edge of the surface sheeting runoff to it. Drainage area is limited by overland sheet flow limits of 25 meters (75 ft) for pavements and 45 meters (150 ft) for pervious surfaces. Table 330-25 gives sizing criteria Storms exceeding WQV are bypassed through berm overflow spillways. Sand...

New Cattail Marsh

> LANT CATTAIL 450mm Q.C trt STAGGERED ROWS MAX, depth of 450mm (Tfl'l and place Omni 12) prepared organic soil on marsh bottom POND EDGE SECURED WIIH FIBER MAT ON 1 2 MAX SLOPE OVER SEEDED soil. AS PER MANBf > LANT CATTAIL 450mm Q.C trt STAGGERED ROWS MAX, depth of 450mm (Tfl'l and place Omni 12) prepared organic soil on marsh bottom

J2

The methods by which plants are chosen and the functions that they are intended to serve in designed landscapes have been expanding While serving as sources of aesthetic pleasure, plants also reinforce the existing native ecosystem and work as bioengineering agents for soil retention and restoration This section provides information on planting design and plant-related technology. It is assumed that the reader has a working knowledge of plant materials and their uses or has sought such...

Key Points Site Layout and Construction

Site layout and construction should focus on eliminating unnecessary site disruption (e.g excessive grading, blasting, clearing) and resource degradation e.g., stream sil- tatlon, groundwater contamination, air-quality loss). 1. Design should seek to minimize the amount of impervious surface that is constructed. In addition, efficient site layout that utilizes existing transportation infrastructure, and alternative transportation strategies (e.g. mass-transit, carpooling, telecommuting) should...

Unrestricted

(e.g., residential uses Including lawn, garden, compost, yard wastes, most stormwater BMPs) Figure 330-11. Urban stream buffer system. cul-de-sac to fit the branched drainage. Keep impervious surfaces small and place at higher elevations to maximize sheet drainage from their edges Utilize the Natural Drainage System The natural drainage paths should be identified as part of the site analysis, along with sufficient buffers to Insure long term integrity. Figure 330-10 shows the use of cluster or...

Tapered Straight

Typical shapes of glue-laminated beams. Soaking refers to dipping for up to 1 day in a preservative bath, while steeping refers to immersion for more than 1 day in a water borne preservative Soaking, and especially steeping, are very effective means of protection. Double-diffusion refers to the steeping of a wood member in one bath for a few days and then a second bath for an additional period of a few days, resulting in considerable penetration of the preservative. Thermal...

Skeet Range Layout

(FOR WALKS AND STRUCTURES OMLYy TRAP ONLY - 30X100 m (IO0X651) SKEET ONLY 40X2* m (130 80) COMBINATION 40 * 35m (130*115') Picnic areas are generally designed in clusters of 10 to 100 units with 10.7 m (35 ft) between units. (A unit consists of a table with benches, a grill, and a trash receptacle.) A maximum density of 50 units ha (20 units acre) is desired, with a buffer strip of 60 m (200 ft) between picnicking and other activities. Comfort stations should be provided and placed at least 15...

Storm water Management

Sykes, ASIA University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Minneapolis. Minnesota Greg Kopischke, ASIA Westwood Professional Services, Inc. Eden Prairie, Minnesota Nicholas T. Dines, FAS LA University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Design Informants 2.3 Watershed Conditions Land Cover Soils and Infiltration Imperviousness Moisture Conditions Slope 3.1 Flood Protection Minor System Major System 3 2 Water Quality Protection Sediment Oxygen Demand Nutrients Heavy...

H 058060 H 065 H 075 H

Ter of 6 1 Is Indicated in the figures, the bin wall could be built with either more batter or with a vertical face. Bin walls are especially suitable for projects of heavy construction where special equipment, such as a crane, can be used to lift the units into place They are also suitable where large scale or massive-ness in the design expression is desired, such as at the edge of a vertical cut or toe of a slope that rises for a considerable distance. A bin wall is useful at the edge of a...

Undisturbed Pool

Ull sheet interrupted sheet -gravity spout broken sheet i smooth waterwall -textured waterwall quiet stream turbulent stream stepped forms waterstairs stepped pool5 vide some of the carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Table 530-1 provides a framework for discussion of water effects. These effects are typically grouped into two basic categories (1) still water and (2) moving water (Figures 530-1 through 530-5). The container defines the form assumed by the water. The finish of the underwater...

General Notes

A parabolic turf swale is ideal for achieving low velocity moderate volume runoff capacity. Generally, a swale velocity of a given slope, for a given volume may be reduced by broadening its cross section and reducing its full flowing depth. High velocity swales require durable lining to withstand the scouring potential of moving water. Deposition of fines occur at about .75 m sec (2.5 ft sec), and severe scouring of structural linings can occur at 3-4.5 m sec (10-15 ft sec). Maintain swale...

Settlement Line

M Mil M UM SETTLEMENT AT ABOUT LOWER 1 3 H POINT Figure 420-7. Settlement of rockfill material in diaphragm rockfill dams. M Mil M UM SETTLEMENT AT ABOUT LOWER 1 3 H POINT Figure 420-6, Typical diaphragm rockfill embankment dam. Figure 420-7. Settlement of rockfill material in diaphragm rockfill dams. reinforced concrete slab-reinforcing water stop -. E Figure 420-8. Concrete facing and cutoff stab for diaphragm rockfill ' embankment dam.

Storm Pulses

Baseline hydrograph with storm pulses. Figure 330-14. Baseline hydrograph with storm pulses. time line In hours or minutes. Urbanization tends to drastically change the hydro-graphs. Peak discharges and volumes of runoff increase, and time of concentration becomes shorter (Figure 330-13) Base Flows Base flows are the steady flows that continue to occur after the pulse of flow from a storm has subsided. Base flow is the base line upon which the hydro-graphs of storm flows are...

Maximum Height Of Sag In Chain

Chain barriers and guardrails. Chain barriers can be very hazardous and should be used only with a high degree of discretion. Chains that sag below 675 mm (27in) in height are detectable by cane but are often unseen by others, especially the elderly. Guardrails must be high enough to be easily seen, but rail must be detectable within a 675 mm (27in) clear maximum height range. Figure 240-15. Chain barriers and guardrails. Chain barriers can be very hazardous and should be used...

The USOA System

The New Soil Taxonomy lists eleven basic soil orders based primarily on climate, parent material, and vegetation (Table 810-3), This classification system provides a framework for the United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service (USDA) system. Also, the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service has developed a classification system that evaluates and classifies soils in terms of their genesis and morphology. Newer surveys are superimposed on aerial photographs...

Tsn

Abbreviations an grading plans. 320-1, 320-2 Abutments for footbridges, 470-1 470-9 Accessibility beaches. 240-2, 240- 1B, 240-20, 240-23, 520-16 tenches, 240-7, 240-10. 240-17, 340-9. 340-12. 510-7, 520-24 camping, 240-2, 240-18, 240-20, 240-23, 240-24, 520-21 fishing, 240-18, 210-20, 240-21, 240-23 gardens, 210-4, 240-2. 240-12. 240-13, 240-14 graduated difficulty of cceM, 240-2, 240-16, 240-22 handralllngs, 240-10, 240-21, 340-10, 340-11, 470-2 and hearing impairments, 240-5 hiking trails,...

Building To Shield Noise

Acoustical site planning (example problem). In this example, the noise-insensitive area (parking lot) is used as a buffer zone between the highway and the recreational areas. Figure 660-18. Acoustical site planning (example problem). In this example, the noise-insensitive area (parking lot) is used as a buffer zone between the highway and the recreational areas.

Cu

And to preserve important visual and ecological features, development activity should be configured to occupy those spaces between critical resources. Climatic conditions, particularly solar access, should guide the placement of building and site features in energy-conserving design. The following practices should be considered 1. Plan site clearing and planting to take advantage of solar access. Solar orientation, cloud cover, and topography are interrelated. A site's latitude determines the...

Light Fixture As Specified

OftAMITE L'GHT BASE ON 25mm (1) UOHIAFT BED - FOUR 15 .W0mm (l J*.12*) S.S. DOWELS finis* CA '- PRE AS' CONC. FOUNDATION ON 25mm ( 1 MOHtAR BED ' J - -Omm V4*1 DIA. P.U-.C. CONDUIT FABRIC SEPARATOR RIGID INSULA riOM DRAIN MAT WATERPROOF MEUBfiANE ON PROTECTION BOARD Figure 922-7. Granite stand area light-on structure. Lightweight concrete or masonry base mortared onto dram mat. fixture doweled to base.

Drilled Pier And Grade Beam Foundation

Four Alternative Designs for Residential Basements, In all cases a floating floor slab may be used otherwise, an air space of several inches is left beneath to permit soil swell. 3.4 Soil Treatments to Reduce Potential Volume Change The compaction of expansive soils may reduce its permeability. Compaction can slow the subsequent expansion of soils which have a low to moderate expansion potential It Is mosl effective on granular, non-cohesive soils. In some cases, compaction at...

Division 500 Improvements

Site Furniture and Features 1.0 2.0 Design 3.0 Design Considerations 510-6 Recreational and Athletic Facilities 1.0 Introduction 520-2 2.0 Court Games 520-4 4.0 Track and Field 520-4 5.0 Multipurpose Athletic Field Complexes 520-8 6.0 Water-Based Facilities 520-12 7,0 Winter Sports Activities 520-17 8.0 Special Courses and Areas 520-19 9.0 Camping and Picnicking 520-21 11.0 Spectator Facilities. . . 520-24 12.0 Special Areas 520-24 13.0 Tot Lots and Playgrounds 520-25 Recreation and Sports...

Arrow Connecting Reference Line To Arrow Side Member Of Joint Or Arrow Side Of Joint

Size, weld symbol, length of weld and spacing must read in that order from left to right along the reference line. Neither orientation of reference line nor location of the arrow alters this rule. The perpendicular leg of V. V, V weld symbols must be at left. Arrow and Other Side welds are of the same size unless otherwise shown. Dimensions of the fillet welds must be shown on both the Arrow Side and the Other Side Symbol. Flag of field-weld symbol shall be placed above and at right angle to...

Dam Location

Dams for water supply can be located either on the stream from which they will draw their water or at some other convenient location. Any reservoir site, to be eco- Urbanization-related phosphate enrich-> > ment appears to be a result of atmospheric Q. phosphate dust falling onto dry roofs and pavements and then being washed into drains and streams. (Phosphate dust, which falls onto moist soil, will be absorbed by the O) soil particles and become insoluble. Phosphate fertilizers tend to be...

Subsidence Caused By Removal Of Subsurface Materials

The removal of subsurface materials as a result of natural processes or of human intervention can cause significant subsidence Natural processes that remove subsurface materials Include subterranean solution withdrawal and volcanic activity. Human activities, such as underground mining and solution mining result in similar hazards created by the existence of underground voids and cavities. The removal of water, oil, and gas generally does not create large subsurface voids, but causes widespread...

Key Points Plywood

Construction plywood is used in exterior applications. It is manufactured primarily from softwoods, although hardwoods are sometimes used. 2. The glue used to bond wood veneers is as durable as the wood itseif, enabling the material to be exposed out-of-doors without delaminating. Checking occurs less in plywood than in common lumber. 3 Plywood Is categorized into appearance grades based mainly on visual characteristics and engineered grades based mainly on strength (see Table 850-12),

Guy Wires If Required White Flag On Each To Increase Visibility Avoid Tight Guy Wises As They

TURNBUCKLE (31, GALVANIZED OR DIP-PAINTED SET THEE AT ORIGINAL GRADE mulch SHREDDED BARK OR 7Smm (J) MIN. SOIL SAUCER USE GOOD TOPSOIL 150mm (6) WIN, WOOD DEADMEN (J) ROPES AT TOP OF BALL SHALL BE CUT. REUOVE TOP I 3 OF BURLAP. NON - BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL SHALL BE TOTALLY REMOVED COW3 AC TED SUBSOIL TO FORM PEDESTAL TO PREVENT Settling l (M NOT ALLOW AIB POCKETS TO FORM WHEN BACKFILLING. 1 lEAVL 250mm MO') DF STAKE ABOVE GRADE FOR REMOVAL 3 TREE PIT TO STREET Pit UNDERDRAINAGE CONNECTION WHERE...

Rubber Hose At Bark

WHITE FLAG ON EACH TO INCREASE VISIBILITY AVOID TIGHT GUY WIRES AS THEtf PREVENT NATURAL SWAY TuPNBUCKLE 3), GALVAMZEO OR DIP-PAINTED SET TREE AT ORIGINAL GRADE MLLCH. BINE BARK OR WOOD CHIPS 7Smm (3) MIN. SOIL SAUCER USE PREPARED TOPSOIL 150mm (6) MIN WOOD STAKES (3) ROPES AT TOP OF BALL SHALL BE CU1. REMOVE TOP 1 3 0- BURLAP. NON-BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL SHAl.l BF TOTALLY REMOVED PREPARED ADMIXTURE BACKFILL prepared subsoil to form pedestal to prevent settling Figure 923-3....

Fabric Separator

Gabion Analysis For Tall Embankment

3O0 X 460 m m (tZW) CONCREfE GRAD BEAU ZOOmra (BJ SPLIT-FACE STONE WrBUTT JOINTS 100 mm (*) DRAIN PIPE PLACED ENTIRE LENGTH OF EMBANKMENT Figure 410-11. Gabion retaining wall. Face may be > affered or stepped. Refer to manufacturer's literature for special details. FABRIC REINF K Efc1 FfT > ' y 4 L J, FOU WAU5 fYFY LLY EXTENDI 5 0 I MO m-(n r. kvonp et w.L nEU9I CAT5TUME APHf ED T UrtIT AE MEt MANUF 130*300 mm ( -i l2J rtECA l CMC. UNIT IC O mm MAIU HFt FTACEB 1 F T> f IFN TN CF WALL...

Aerobic systems with evapotranspiration systems

- WELL 160 mm (6) PIA ANP 42 m (14C) PEEP THROUGH SAND AND LIMESTONE NEAREST OTHEK WELL 1& D m (200YDS) NORTH 3t-5 1 (105 ) TO GREASE TRAP n l HOm (TI 26 ROOMS 1 29 BATHS I 25 TOILETS 100 mm (4) KITCHEN WASTE -UNE GREASE TRAP SES (ISO gal GARBAGE 0RINDER LINE 100 mm (4) KITCHEN WASTE -UNE GREASE TRAP SES (ISO gal GARBAGE 0RINDER LINE NO, I 25 mm (I) PR0P B.75 MIN NO. 2 25 mm ()) DR0P S.50 MIN. NO. y 25 mm p) DR0F 6.00 MIN. NO, I 25 mm (I) PR0P B.75 MIN NO. 2 25 mm ()) DR0P S.50 MIN. NO. y 25...

Eastwest Aiis For Skylight

Placement of skylights. mens leave too little room for growth and may block too much incoming light to their own Inner foliage or to understory plants beneath them Palms or other species which cannot be pruned should always be given adequate vertical space above them for future growth. The weight of the plants and their planting medium is an important consideration when they are a part of the load calculations for a structural slab or an upper floor planter. The weight of a plant...

Soils and Aggregates

Urban Soil in Landscape Design Senior Lecturer In Landscape Architecture Graduate School of Design. Harvard University Prior Professor of Soil Science. SUNY, Syracuse. NY Douglas S. Way, Professor of LA Ohio State University, Columbus, OH Neil Cavanaugh, RE., Braintree, MA Robert N Pine, P.E., West Acton, MA

Design Elements And Details

General consideration of details in accessible design include dimensioning, materials selection, avoidance of hazards, and maintenance issues. Specific recommendations are provided below and references to guidelines are cited. Accessible outdoor facilities should incorporate the following amenities as close to entryways as possible Vertical height between stairway landings should be minimized to accommodate individuals with limited strength Note that minimum widths do not include the thickness...

Aggregate Base Design

Typical design for walkways, bicycle trails, and golf cart paths. Coif cart paths require a surface course of a sand-asphalt mixture with an asphalt content slightly higher than for normal roadway pavements. Refer to Table 820-6 for information on asphalt-concrete mixtures, Table 820-20. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR PARKING AREAS FOR HEAVY TRUCKS AND SERVICE STATIONS* Table 820-20. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR PARKING AREAS FOR HEAVY TRUCKS AND SERVICE STATIONS*