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Fitness standard

The Local Government and Housing Act 1989 prescribes the Housing Fitness Standard in England and Wales. Houses not complying with this are classed as 'unfit for human habitation'. In Scotland the term The current fitness standard for England and Wales was introduced through the Local Government and Housing Act 1989 which inserted a new Section 604 in the Housing Act 1985. According to the DETR (1998) 'a dwelling is unfit if, in the opinion of the authority, it fails to meet one of the requirements set out in paragraphs (a) to (i) of Section 604 (1) and, by reason of that failure, is not reasonably suitable for occupation. The requirements constitute the minimum deemed necessary for a dwelling house (including a house in multiple occupation) to be fit for human habitation'.

From Preliminary Discourse before the University College of London 1842

Styles in Architecture may be compared to languages in literature. There is no style, as there is no language, which has not its peculiar beauties, its individual fitness and power - there is not one that can be safely rejected. A principle reins in each, which the Architect may hap pi ly apply with peculiar propriety on some emergency. And as the traveller, who is master of several languages, finds himself at home and at ease among the people with whose language he is familiar, so the Architect is more fitted for the emergencies of his difficult career, who can command the majesty of the classic styles, the sublimity of the Gothic, the grace of the revival or the brilliant fancies of the Arabic. And to pursue the analogy still further, as no scholar can fully master a language, who is not familiar with the literature and manners and religion of the people, so no Architect can fully appreciate any style, who knows not the history of the country, and the habits of thought, the...

Client American Community School Cobham

American Community School Cobham Pool

The sports complex at the American School in Cobham is designed around two key areas a 25 m pool and a sports hall to contain an international size basketball court. In addition a dance studio, fitness suite, cafe, and administration areas are provided at ground level, with changing rooms, and plant sunk at a lower level.

To The reader of Architecture In Europe

It is true to say that by now the ecological house has 'improved', like everything else. Today, it looks like any quite ordinary one-family house erected by a speculator. But what may look like swimming pools inside and outside are not what they seem -facilities for the fitness and recreation of wealthy clients who might be tempted to buy such houses. As my experienced readers already know, the pools are used to collect rain water from the roof. This water is heated by the sun whose rays enter the house through openings that are regulated electronically. Electronic regulators decide

From Architecture Considered in Relation to Art Morals and Legislation 1804

We will not separate the unity of the thought from the variety of forms, laws of fitness, propriety, or economy. Unity, a type of beauty - omnis porro pulchritudinis est - resides in the relation of the masses to the details or the ornaments, in uninterrupted lines that do not allow the eye to be distracted by harmful accessories. Fitness, which values richness and disguises adversity, will subordinate ideas to the localities, will reassemble the different needs with suitable and inexpensive exteriors.

George Basallas Theory

Constraints, military demands, ideological pressures, political manipulation, and the power of cultural values, fashions, and fads. (139). It can hence be said that artifacts have a differential fitness relative to such constraints. To sum up, Basalla's theory of the evolution of technological artifacts exploits a number of similarities between biological and technological evolution while also admitting to a number of dissimilarities. Basalla appears to claim that analogous versions of the principles of variation, inheritance, and differential fitness apply to technological evolution, while the principles of genetic reproduction, mutation and recombination, and blindness do not apply. In his theory, technological innovation is hence weakly but not strongly analogous to biological evolution. Inheritance in artifacts is construed as the tendency of successive generations of artifacts to resemble previous generations. Variation and selection are not blind but involve conscious human...

NHS Estates Better by Design

In the foreword to Better by Design the then junior minister of state for health, Tom Sackville, quoted Florence Nightingale 'The very first condition to be sought in planning a building is that it shall be fit for its purpose. And the first architectural law is that fitness is the foundation of beauty. The hospital architect may feel assured that, only when he has planned the building which will afford the best chance of speedy recovery to sick and maimed people, will his architecture and the economy he seeks be realised.' Mr Sackville went on to say that 'The new NHS structure will help the procurers of health buildings to meet the challenge. Decision making has been brought closer to the grass roots. Not only do Trusts have a greater responsibility to all the community served, but there is also greater freedom than ever before to influence the quality of their estate.'

From The Architecture of Country Houses 1850

After the volumes I have previously written on this subject, it is needless for me to add more on the purpose of this work. But it is, perhaps, proper that I should say, that it is rather intended to develop the growing taste of the people, than as a scientific work on art. Rural Architecture is, indeed, so much more a sentiment, and so much less a science, than Civil Architecture, that the majority of persons will always build for themselves, and, unconsciously, throw something of their own character into their dwellings. To do this well and gracefully, and not awkwardly and clumsily, is always found more difficult than is supposed. I have, therefore, written this volume, in the hope that it may be of some little assistance to the popular taste. For the same reason, I have endeavored to explain the whole subject in so familiar a manner, as to interest all classes of readers who can find any thing interesting in the beauty, convenience, or fitness of a house in the country.

Rotterdam The Netherlands 1999

The renovation of a concrete grain silo built in the 1930s located on a pier of the Maashaven harbor was the starting point for this project. Residential units ns with a modern modular steel panel wall system are inserted into the existing building, as well as facilities such tennis courts, a running track and a fitness club m a en yard. Aside from this renovation the project calls for the construction of three thirty-story towers that the architect has chosen to dramatically cantilever out over tris p As she says. Their modulation is reactive to the river current and sun position. The concrete base of the towers, together with the infra-structural elements, pro stability. The apartments are split-level with double height rooms, and sliding glass facades. The folded glass skin of the towers reflects the water surface and the I center across the river. Spectacular computer graphics are certainly a part of the appeal of this project in its unbuilt state. Ausgangspunkt f r dieses Projekt...

The Problem Of Liability

Among the more significant areas of exposure are the liability of the architect engineer to third parties unconnected with the contract for claims of negligence or errors in design that lead to alleged injury of persons using the building. The legal bases for the majority of current liability suits include professional negligence, implied warranty or misrepresentation, implied fitness warranty, breach of contract, joint and several liability, and liability without fault for design defects. Often, these legal bases overlap. Thus, a designer who fails to reject defective work by a contractor or supplier may be considered to be professionally negligent and in breach of contract.

From The Book of Suger Abbot of Saint Denis c1144

Thus at great expense, and thanks to so many workers, we applied ourselves for three years, summer and winter, to the completion of this work In the center of the building twelve columns represented the group of twelve Apostles. The second group of the columns represented the same number of prophets in the ambulatory, which suddenly projected the building to another size, according to the Apostle who built spiritually ''Now therefore,'' he said, ''ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God. And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cornerstone in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto a holy temple in the Lord.'' In Him, we too applied ourselves to build an edifice materially as tall and with as much fitness as we could, by us spiritually to become the house of God in the Holy Spirit.

College And University Facilities

Gymnastic Facilities With the recent nationwide surge of interest in physical fitness, there has been a renewed eupport of instruction in gym* nasties. Gymnastics make a unique contribution toward overcoming a lack of development of the upper body, which is often neglected in other sports. Gymnastics contribute to building strength, agility, flexibility, coordination, balance, and posture. They also contribute (o the mental qualities of alertness, daring, and precision the character trait of self-discipline and fun and enjoyment. These values, together with those of preventative and corrective action, place gymnastics in a position of major importance in physical education.

On Ecological Architecture a Memo

It is true to say that by now the ecological house has 'improved', like everything else. Today, it looks like any quite ordinary one family house erected by a speculator. But what may look like swimming pools inside and outside arc not what they seem -facilities for the fitness and recreation of wealthy clients who might be tempted to buy such houses, is my experienced readers already know, the pools are used to collect ram water from the roof. This water is heated by the sun whose rays enter the house through openings that are regulated electronically. Electronic regulators decide

From A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening 1841

Near the end of his largely technical study, Downing adds a chapter on architecture, to which up to this point he had devoted almost no attention. These passages thus form an interesting starting point for his interests. First and foremost among his points is his insistence that the formal styles inherited from Europe, such as classicism, are -because of their adherence to such principles as symmetry - incongruous with the nature of the rural residence, which should be less formal and far more functional in its design. He summarizes his beliefs under the three principles of fitness, expression of purpose, and expression of architectural style - another early functionalist theory. In a city or town, or its immediate vicinity, where space is limited, where buildings stand crowded together, and depend for their attractions entirely upon the style and manner of their construction, mere architectural effect, after convenience and fitness are consulted, is of course the only point to be...

Designing through drawing

Architecture Freehand Drawing

The traditional view is that the objective of design is the creation of form and the task of drawing is to give that form some shape or expression (Alexander 1964 p15). Hence, in modernist practice form is grounded in function and meaning - the argument being that the legitimacy of built form is based upon programmatic clarity (Alexander 1964 p15). As a consequence the designer must define the problem in order to determine its functional characteristics using the drawing process to test a variety of form responses. According to this mechanistic perspective the drawing helps achieve fitness between the brief, context and other technical and physical determinants. Being forward-looking 'design' is concerned primarily with the meaningful ordering of things in the environment using sketching, mechanical drawing, models and CAD to map the mental diagram into a physical reality (Lawson 1990 p173). The key question in this chapter concerns the role of freehand drawing and particularly how it...

From Architecture in the United States 1844

Thus the hexastyle portico of Athens is, indeed, reproduced in every locality, and with every variety of material that ingenuity can devise but the fitness of the design to the purpose for which it is intended, if recognized at all in theory, is much oftener honored in the breach than the observance, in practice.

As access to country beyond metropolitan areas gets ever more distant

Urban parks and greenspaces in Whyte's day were traditionally designed to foster sedentary relaxation amid aesthetic surroundings, with active recreation largely confined to playgrounds and athletic fields for the young and fit. In light of today's obesity crisis, urban open spaces must provide opportunities for vigorous outdoor recreation and physical fitness for an aging and culturally diverse public. Anne Lusk, an experienced public health researcher, offers practical advice on the design of urban greenspaces and linear corridors to encourage such activities as running, cycling, skating, tennis, rock climbing, and other energetic outdoor pastimes.

City Form Neighborhoods and Parks

Walk an hour or more each way along muddy thoroughfares. Moreover, the paths in Central Park were designed for carriages, bridle riding, or walking. Because riding in a carriage was sedentary, the only real physical activity in Central Park would have been horseback riding or walking. The walks, especially by women with long skirts, might have been more apt to be taken passively on narrow paths or within the greenswards rather than on the many bridle paths that were dominated by horses. The park was not designed for bicyclists because the basic bicycle was not invented until the 1870s and reinvented in 1890 when pneumatic tires and a chain drive were added. Thus, Central Park, until modified for more fitness-oriented uses in the later twentieth century, was largely a scenic amenity for the higher classes of the city with little contribution to the fitness of the general population.

Design Considerations for the Humane Metropolis

Health enterprise zones could help financially foster the establishment of produce stores, gyms, and other health and fitness-oriented businesses in rundown neighborhood districts or in the vicinity of linear greenways. Created as a healthful form of an economic enterprise zone but with similar objectives of fostering community strengths and building social capital, all businesses encouraged in the health enterprise zone would have to in some way benefit health. Fast-food chains, quick stops, liquor stores, bars, billboards selling unhealthy food, or vending machines with sugar sodas could be banned within the health enterprise zone, whereas special incentives could be offered to attract health-inducing businesses. The creation of the health enterprise zone would change the buying and membership opportunities of neighborhood residents and also raise awareness of the benefits in The more humane metropolis should be responsive to the health crisis and should promote routine physical...

Recycling of plastics

The use of plastics within European countries is approximately 44 million tonnes per year, with products for the construction industry accounting for over a half of the consumption of PVC. Currently most waste disposal is within landfill sites. However, certain thermoplastic products can be recycled into construction products. Expanded polystyrene waste can be recycled by solvent extraction into a material, which has the appearance and many characteristics of wood. PVC bottles can be recycled into plastic pipes by co-extruding new PVC as the inner and outer skins over a recycled PVC core. However, many recycled plastics have a reduced resistance to degradation as stabilisers are lost in reprocessing, and the products would therefore fail to reach the technical standards, which are normally related to the quality achieved by new materials rather than to fitness for purpose.

Evolutionary Theories of Technology and Evolutionary Biology

The contemporary theory of evolution adheres to three basic principles and assumes that biological species evolve through natural selection. Evolution is the increasing adaptedness of species to their environment, and natural selection is the process by which natural conditions favor hereditable traits of organisms that confer the greatest fitness to the organisms that carry them. This idea of evolution by natural selection is often claimed to rest on three principles phenotypic variation, heritability, and differential fitness. 3. Differential fitness. This is the idea that some individuals of a particular species are better adapted to their environment than others and therefore have greater chances of survival and reproduction. That is, individuals in a species differ in their fitness, or their propensity to reproduce (leave offspring). For example, wolves with high visual acuity will tend to leave more offspring than wolves with low visual acuity because high visual acuity is a...

Extant London works of Cubitt include Kings Cross Station frontage 18512

Below Kings Cross Station, the simple original plan (the ticket office is at the top) and the splendid frontage. The Victorian London rail termini placed architects in a direct confrontation with engineers who, on the whole, made merely awkward forma junctions between disparate sets of concerns and values. Kings Cross remains one of the better examples. The 30 m arched spans to the rear sit upon brick arcades. The dock tower roof is typically 'Tuscan villa' style. As described in the The Builder magazine ofl85l, Cubitt had depended upon the largeness of some of the features, the fitness of the structure for its purpose, and a characteristic expression of that purpose.

Current requirements 131 The spectator

The 'sports priority' spectator group is found in the stands and on the terraces for every game. For them 'live' sport at its highest level has an almost spiritual quality, an attitude aptly expressed in a statement once made by the great Liverpool football manager Bill Shankly 'Football is not a matter of life and death it is more important than that'. These fans are knowledgeable, respond instantly to every nuance of the action, offer advice to the players, and recognize the form, fitness and style of individual players and the effectiveness of strategies and tactics. Such issues form the basic topics of conversation before, during and after the game in the car, pub or train. The motivation and the behaviour of this

Flooring Materials and Drainage

The importance of good flooring becomes more evident as a horse spends more time in his stall. The fitness of a horse's legs and feet can be greatly affected by the type of stall flooring chosen. The most suitable floor is highly dependent on management style, while personal preferences can have a strong influence. Fortunately, there are many options for suitable floors in a horse facility. The objective of this chapter is to provide information on stall and stable flooring materials, including flooring material attributes and options for overcoming some deficiencies. Subfloor construction and drainage features are presented as these strongly influence floor integrity.

From Hints to Persons about Building in the Country 1847

We conceive it to be true that the same principle should govern us in the choice of a style for a dwelling-house. Although we would reject no foreign style because it is foreign, we would adopt nothing in our domestic architecture which has not some obvious beauty of purpose, or some significance for our country and climate - which has not, in short, that fitness and propriety which a refined and just taste can fully approve. This would lead us to reject at once all styles of building belonging to barbarous and semi-civilized people, as too grotesque in effect, and too much at variance with our habits of life, to be a significant and true expression of our age and social life. It would confine our choice to what may properly be called European styles - such as Gothic, Grecian, Roman, Italian, Swiss or to new and more suitable modifications of these styles. A country of the variety of climate and geographical breadth of ours, indeed demands a like variety of style in its domestic...

Professional Liability

One of the most significant areas of exposure relates to the liability of the space planner-architect-engineer to third parties unconnected with the contract for claims of negligence or errors in design that lead to alleged injury of persons using the building.The legal bases for the majority of current liability suits include professional negligence, implied warranty or misrepresentation, implied fitness warranty, breach of contract, joint and several liability and liability without fault for design defects. Often, these legal bases overlap. Thus, a designer that fails to reject defective work by a contractor or supplier may be considered to be professionally negligent and in breach of contract.

From Supplementary Report on Design 1852

Ornament is thus necessarily limited, for, so defined, it cannot be other than secondary, and must not usurp a principal place if it do so, the object is no longer a work ornamented, but is degraded into a mere ornament. Now the great tendency of the present time is to reverse this rule indeed it is impossible to examine the works of the Great Exhibition, without seeing how often utility and construction are made secondary to decoration. In fact, when commencing a design, designers are too apt to think of ornament before construction, and, as has been said in connexion with the nobler art of architecture, rather to construct ornament than to ornament construction. This, on the slightest examination, will be found to be the leading error in the Exhibition, an error more or less apparent in every department of manufacture connected with ornament, which is apt to sicken us of decoration, and leads us to admire those objects of absolute utility (the machines and utensils of various...

From Thoughts on Art 1841

Underlying Emerson's aesthetics is the belief that just as we are a part of nature's divine plan, so should we in our artistic endeavors emulate nature's way of creating. Nature contains a universal and spiritually creative element, and in nature everything works for the greater whole. Saying this another way, everything has fitness to purpose. Thus art and architecture should not strive to exhibit a shallow beauty but must display purpose and at the same time speak to the higher aspirations of the human soul. Emerson refers to this functional underpinning as being ''organically reproductive'' - or simply organic - a notion that he will define a few years later as the ''perfect economy'' of the material with its means. On the one hand, this notion of the organic with its corollary ''fitness'' sets down the future path of American pragmatism - as well as a scorn for all ornamental trappings. On the other hand, architecture in this scheme must also retain something of the ideal, even if...

Robert Aungers Theory

Aunger's theory incorporates an analogue of most principles of biological evolution, and he therefore conceives of technological change as strongly analogous to biological evolution. Auger adopts principles of variation, inheritance, and differential fitness for memes and artifacts that strongly mirror those in biology. He holds that the relation between memes and artifacts sometimes resembles the genotype-phenotype relation, but claims that memes and artifacts may also have a different relation to each other. When this relation occurs, the principle of genetic reproduction seems to apply. Aunger moreover assumes that the invention of new memes and artifacts

Reconsidering Design in the Built Environment

Stand in a mutually informing relationship. It is precisely because a trait functions as an F, despite having been produced by random mutation, and F happens to be a fitness-enhancing characteristic in the organism's environment, that the trait is selected and ultimately given the function of performing F. Likewise, the development of a trait with the selected function of doing F often results in something that also performs other 'unintended' functions. In this counterbalancing process of exchange and mutual influence, perhaps there are lessons for bringing the perceptual order of our working and living spaces closer to that of nature.

Design development The gardens

The second phase of the development aimed to provide a wider range of services for guests. There is a group of buildings for company training and conferences, complemented by open air structures, a swimming pool, areas for intimate garden parties, and an open air oven for bread-baking and traditional cooking. A health and fitness centre with a garden as a core element is also under development. The guests will be able to rejuvenate physically and mentally in the Garden of Harmony, designed by Gabor Szucs.

Vastu Shastra

Vastu Shastra is also concerned with proportion, a key to successful design in nature. Proportion is a key principle in architecture, and nature often mimics the same proportions at different scales, an approach characterized by fractal geometry. As you might suspect in a healthy building, Vastu Shastra also has a focus on using natural and non-toxic materials, filling rooms with daylight and fresh air and using the sun's power for on-site energy generation. As befits a healthy building, 2000 Tower Oaks Boulevard will also have an onsite fitness center, a meditation room (by the way, you can find these in a number of airports now, so why not have them in office buildings ) and a nature preserve, to bring nature closer to

Edmund Burke

Much of the reason for the book's success lies in its simple ambition. If Hume had attempted to salvage judgments of taste by arguing, in essence, that they could be justly displayed only by people of superior or purified imagination, Burke takes a more systematic or scientific approach. He believes that there are indeed ''some invariable and certain laws'' underlying judgments of taste, which he defines as ''that faculty or those faculties of the mind, which are affected with, or which form a judgment of, the works of imagination and the elegant arts.'' His approach is to describe more comprehensively the range of emotions that are evoked by objects as well as to eliminate many of the vestiges of classical theory, such as the connection of fitness or utility with aesthetic judgments cross as that large space between the arms and the ground must be filled with something before it can make anybody think of a square. Thirdly, several buildings are by no means of the form of that...

Hl Edmund Burke

As the title of Burke's book shows, the primary intention of his investigation is to elevate the notion of the ''sublime'' to an aesthetic category equal to the idea of the ''beautiful.'' This is, once again, an anticlassical approach to aesthetics from the start, in the sense that beauty is central to all classical conceptions of art. In Vitruvian theory, for instance, it was named as one of the three essential principles of good design. It is also an anticlassical approach in that in divorcing beauty from such traditional concepts as proportion, fitness, perfection, and virtue, Burke must define it anew on the basis of sensations alone. Thus he comes to define beauty as arising from the object's qualities smallness, smoothness, gradual variation, delicacy, clean and fair but not especially strong colors. Beauty is therefore inherent in things and is not, as Berkeley argued, a construct of the mind. These qualities or attributes of beauty are visual sensations therefore the idea of...

George Berkeley

The first sustained criticism of Hutcheson's position came from the pen of the Irishman George Berkeley, a Bishop in the Anglican Church of Ireland. Berkeley was a native of Kilkenny, a Fellow of Trinity College in Dublin, who first laid the ground for his idealist philosophical system (we know not the world but only our ideas of it) in Towards a New Theory of Vision (1709) and Principles of Human Knowledge (1710). While fully accepting Lockean empiricism, he in fact strengthened it by discounting Locke's belief in abstract ideas and thereby placing even greater emphasis on the perceptual side of experience on the one hand, and human reasoning (the mental operations of sifting through perceptual data) on the other. In his late dialogue Alciphron - actually written in Rhode Island - Berkeley criticizes the innate or internal sense'' of Hutcheson (Alciphron's argument in the dialogue), and counters with his contention (articulated by Euphranor) that since utility or fitness is a...

What is life

How could a designer be sure that a building could be expected to last 60 years The first national Building Regulations (1965) had controls over 'short life' and deleterious materials, now encapsulated within a wider 'fitness for purpose' requirement, but firm figures for life expectancy of a particular material or component were, and continue to be, hard to find. NBA Construction Consultants (1985) produced a set of data of limited value assembled from various sources. It is difficult to plan on the basis of a quoted life expectancy for a slate roof covering of between 60 and 600 years, although it could perhaps be held to be sufficiently 'authoritative' to support a 'design life' of 60 years.

From Contrasts 1836

It will be readily admitted, that the great test of Architectural beauty is the fitness of the design to the purpose for which it is intended, and that the style of a building should so correspond with its use that the spectator may at once perceive the purpose for which it was erected.

Firehouses

The improvements in firehouse planning have created a total upgrading of human comforts with great emphasis on physical fitness. These include well planned kitchens, air conditioning, better lighting, well-planned toilet-shower facilities and dormitory spaces, acoustical improvements, safety features in building plonning and the integration of a small gymnasium like area, for physical Fitness purposes in firefighting needs, into the firehouse plan.

Value for money

In today's commercial world with its conflicting issues of scarce resources and increasing expectations there is greater pressure to obtain value for money (VFM) in construction projects. This applies to adaptation schemes as well as new build. Best VFM is defined simply as 'the optimal combination of quality (fitness for purpose) and lowest whole life costs to meet the customer's requirements' (Central Unit on Procurement (CUP), 1996).

Tolerable standard

According to the Scottish Executive (2003) 'The Tolerable Standard (which is equivalent to the Fitness Standard in England) as amended by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001 was introduced in the 1969 Housing (Scotland) Act following recommendations made in the 1967 Cullingworth Report. Other than the incorporation of the basic standard amenities (listed above) by the Housing (Scotland) Act 2001, it has remained largely unchanged.'

Procurement

Interestingly, during a hot spell in 2005 complaints were received that the fitness suite, which was designed with culvert ventilation to avoid the need for air-conditioning, was too hot. The client phoned a number of other fitness suites with air-conditioning and found that all of them were also overheating - a reminder not to blame the innovative technology.

Floor Vibrations

The vibration of floors due to motions induced by walking or mechanical equipment can be a source of complaints in modern building structures, particularly where lightweight construction such as concrete on steel deck, steel joists, or concrete on wood joist construction is used. Usually the vibration is a transient flexural motion of the floor system in response to impact loading from human activity (Allen and Swallow, 1975), which can be walking, jumping, or continuous mechanical excitation. The induced amplitudes are seldom enough to be of structural consequence however, in extreme cases they may cause movement in light fixtures or other suspended items. The effects of floor vibrations are not limited to receivers located immediately below. With the advent of fitness centers, which feature aerobics, induced vibrations can be felt laterally 100 feet away on the same slab as well as up to 10 stories below (Allen, 1997).

Simple

As individuals rather than populations, we may take a different perspective. In an increasingly complex world, we value simplicity in many forms functional, visual, and interactive. Fitness for purpose not only implies that something does what it needs to well but also that it is not compromised by doing more than it has to a design pared down to the minimum can be quiet, yet iconic and the simplest of interactions can

Joel Mokyrs Theory

Mokyr's theory, like Basalla's, holds that the basic three ideas of Darwinism apply in some form to technological change. There is phenotypic variation between techniques, techniques have differential fitness, and there is some form of heritability in that subsequent generations of techniques tend to resemble their predecessors. Unlike Basalla, Mokyr upholds the genotype-phenotype distinction by putting what-knowledge and how-knowledge in those two roles and assuming there is a mapping-relation from what-knowledge to techniques. He is therefore able to adhere to some principle of genetic reproduction, according to which most techniques depend on underlying knowledge, and their reproduction often depends on the presence of this knowledge. Mokyr is also able, better than Basalla, to adhere to a principle of mutation and recombination. Mutations occur to Q, through new discoveries, and knowledge in Q may be combined in new ways to yield new techniques. This analogy breaks down, to some...

Alexander Gerard

Proportion consists not so much in relations of the parts precisely measurable, as in a general aptitude of the structure to the end proposed which experience enables us instantaneously to perceive, better than any artificial methods can determine it. Its influence on beauty is therefore derived from fitness, a principle which will be illustrated presently.

Design Review

The Battery Park City Planning Authority received 27 proposals from property developers for the building of Rector Place in Battery Park City, New York (see Chapter 8). The question was 'How should each possibility be evaluated ' Some variables such as financial return to the city in terms of tax revenue can be assessed with reasonable accuracy. Other dimensions of design such as 'fitness to

Inline Skating

Inline skating, sometimes referred to as roller blading, has evolved from roller skating and is popular for both roller hockey and fitness.There are no specific design standards for Inline skating facilities per se since many inllners use conventional roller skating rinks The Inline Skatepark Directory provides information on special inline facilities. The International In-line Skating Association (USA), headquartered In Kennesington, Maryland was formed in 1991 to advance in-fine skating as a recreational activity and competitive sport. The association provides technical information for the inline skating community.

Feeling

But whereas prototyping an object and assessing its fitness for purpose is relatively straightforward, prototyping an experience is more challenging. A range of techniques, collectively known as experience prototyping, has emerged to explore these new interactions with users. This chapter happens to be illustrated by pioneering work from IDEO and the Royal College of Art, but similar methods were also developed by other design groups in industry and academia, and are now employed worldwide.

Recreation

Recreation has been recognized us an integral part of o good correctional treatment program. It alleviates the dull monotony of prison life, acts as a safety valve for the release of pent-up energies that otherwise might lead to disturbances, and can be directed toward helping inmates confront some of their personal problems. A well-rounded recreation program should embraco active, competitive sports and strenuous activities for all inmatea who are physically fit and interested. For those inmates who cannot take part in active sports, corrective physical fitness programs and other forms of recreation ought to be made available,

Conclusion

Although I have not demonstrated the validity of evolutionary approaches to technology, I hope to have convinced the reader that such approaches are worth taking seriously. Evolutionary approaches to technology present us with a vision of design in which the intentions and beliefs of designers and others are at best only part of the explanation of processes of technological innovation and change. They yield a conception of designers as initiators of new variants that then undergo selection in society. Designers are agents of mutation and recombination in the production of new variants. They have partial, but no complete, control over this production process. The success of the variants they produce in the subsequent selection process, or their fitness, can only be predicted or controlled by designers to a very limited extent. This perspective on design and innovation is worth developing further, as it may help us better understand the role of designers in technological innovation and...

Fitness The Guide To Staying Healthy

Fitness The Guide To Staying Healthy

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