House Plans and Home Floor Plans
A floor plan is carefully dimensioned to ensure that items such as walls, columns, doors, windows, openings, stairs, and other particulars are correctly located for construction. Sometimes after a plan is drawn accurately to a scale, its reproduction causes a slight enlargement or reduction of the drawing. In such cases, the floor plan is slightly out of true scale, but this is acceptable because the written dimensions are the controlling factors. In fact, most designers add a note on the drawing that says, do not scale drawing, follow written dimensions. Figure 6-31 A portion of a floor plan can be keyed with a symbol to a larger, more detailed plan that is drawn elsewhere. For example, this part of the plan is referenced as area 6 and enlarged on sheet A4. Figure 6-32 Dimensions on a floor plan generally locate the framework of the building, such as the face of these 2x4 studs. Figure 6-31 A portion of a floor plan can be keyed with a symbol to a larger, more detailed plan that is...
Apart from the urban and architectural design strategy the floor plan layout is a crucial factor for the building. Architects should try to achieve compact buildings with well-considered fa ade areas and floor-to-floor heights as well as acceptable ratios of total floor area to net floor area and total cubic content to net floor area. Floor plan layouts also have to enable supplementary installation of services and equipment and provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate future changes of technical building standards that cannot be foreseen.
Although the building is expressed as a square, it is punctuated by a series of four nine-story-high wedge-shaped winter gardens cut into the northeast corner and two more at the southwest corner (Fig. 8.19a,b). The winter gardens have the effect of dividing the tower, both visually and structurally, into a stack of five modules outlined by the super-braces. At the lowest module, the northeast corner column is eliminated entirely. As a result, the tower has only a single axis of symmetry, which passes at 45 degrees through the corners in addition, nine different floor plans are required within each module. Plan at a representative floor is shown in Fig. 8.19c. Figure 8.18. City Spire, New York floor plans. Figure 8.18. City Spire, New York floor plans. The project consists of a 52-story office tower rising above a base consisting of lobby and retail levels, and six levels of subterranean parking (Fig. 8.25a). A structural steel system consisting of a ductile moment-resisting frame at...
It is easy to see how your plan will look from To flip the floor plan vertically On the Design menu, click Flip Entire Plan, then select Vertical. The floor plan is flipped. To flip the floor plan horizontally On the Design menu, click Flip Entire Plan, then select Horizontal. The floor plan is flipped.
Figure 6-4 A second-level floor plan can also show part of the space below. This helps to visualize what one can see when looking from this upper floor to the lower one. Figure 6-7. Also, a different pattern can be used on the floor plan to denote a change in the floor treatment, such as the grid pattern in the kitchen and utility room in Figure 6-7. Much of the other information given on a floor plan is more general, with the items spelled out in more detail in other drawings or specifications. For example, a water heater or handrail is designated as such on the plan, and its detailed specifications are found elsewhere in the construction drawings or written specifications. Figure 6-6 In this partial floor plan, doors are drawn simply, just showing their size and direction of swing. For example, 3 means a door that is 3 feet in width. Figure 6-7. Also, a different pattern can be used on the floor plan to denote a change in the floor treatment, such as the grid pattern in the kitchen...
The floor plan is perhaps the most significant architectural drawing, as it contains a tremendous amount of information about the design and construction of a building or space (see Figure 6-1). It also serves as the primary drawing to which many of the other specialty drawings can be keyed. A floor plan is an orthographic view of a total building or an area within a building, seen as if a horizontal cutting plane were passed through it at a height of approximately 4 feet (1219 mm) above the floor line (Figure 6-2). In some cases, it may be necessary to assume a higher cutting plane to show an item such as a high window or the space above a tall cabinet. The viewer is looking straight down into the building, as illustrated in Figure 6-3. In multiple-level buildings, a separate floor plan is drawn for each level. In turn, each level is aligned with the one above for bearing walls, stairways, ductwork, and other vertical elements related to both floors. Stairways are labeled up on one...
The different possibilities for arranging floor plans within the row house type are primarily determined by the circulation within the house. The position of the staircase is the factor that defines the different row house types. In combination with the position of the entrance and the proportion of the footprint of the house, it determines the specific of this house type. An energy-conscious arrangement of the floor plan generates additional house types. The single-storey row house type is the simplest form of arrangement. The large depth of the floor plan requires recesses or cut-outs. Generously dimensioned inner courtyards provide sufficient daylight and create light-flooded floor plans. Since the floor plan of the row house type is usually deeper than wide, this is the most common form of arrangement. Depending on the width of the house, the staircase is located either along the party wall or between room axes. The depth of the floor plan usually calls for an east-west...
The floor plan tends to be one of the largest single drawings in a construction set and often is placed on a sheet by itself. However, if space permits, other minor elements might be drawn around it to fill up the sheet. The sheet size a floor plan is drawn on is often the governing factor of the scale of that drawing. Floor plans are drawn at a scale that best presents the information to be conveyed without being too small to read. Residential floor plans are relatively small in overall square footage and are generally drawn at a scale of W 1'-0 (1 50 in metric scale). As commercial spaces can be quite large, a scale of 1 8 1'-0 (1 100 metric) or even 1 i6 1'-0 (1 200 metric) might be more appropriate. In these latter examples, auxiliary enlarged plans can be drawn and keyed to the base floor plan, as shown in Figure 6-8. One should always indicate the scale of the floor plan on the sheet, generally under the title.
Ical and structural properties are detailed out in industrywide steel manuals. Another example is the commonly used term above finished floor, which is abbreviated as A.F.F. and used in floor plans and electrical plans. The most commonly used abbreviations are discussed in Chapter 5 and shown in the Appendix.
A reflected ceiling plan is drawn to scale. This means that the plan is measured proportionally to a size that will fit on a drawing sheet. A reflected ceiling plan will most often be at the same scale as the floor plan. A common scale is one-quarter inch one foot (scale 1 4 inch 1 foot, 0 inches). The reflected ceiling plan will be titled with the scale noted at the bottom.
With some thought in planning, a floor plan that repeats on all floors can often be achieved, and the main crosswalls can be used as loadbearing elements. It is important in this form of construction to see that a sufficient length of walls at right angles to the main crosswalls is provided to resist wind loading normal to the gables. The floors again span
I shall not look at every aspect of this house, nor even at the house as it was built, but at an early version of the floor plan of the house, for a comparison can be made between this and the floor plan of the Schminke House (Case Study Two) which illustrates some crucial differences between nineteenth-century and twentieth-century 'Modern' organisation of space. On the right is part of the ground floor plan of an unbuilt house designed for F.W.Fison. Linking the main entrance with the grand hall of the house there is a structural wall (double-hatched in the drawing) which along its length changes its character a number of times. It starts as a barrier between the entrance passage and the butler's room an interface between the staff quarters and the hallway then it crosses the stair hall, adding to the sculptured quality of that space after becoming an orthodox wall with two mullioned windows, and then an arch-way to a rectangular bay window, it terminates as an external buttress.
Figure 8.69 Examples of the villas Stadtvillen an der Rauchstrasse. (a) Floor plans of villas by Francy Valentiny Hubaert Hermann, Hans Holein and Rob Krier and (b) sketches of the villas by Francy Valentiny Hubaert Hermann, Hans Holein and Rob Krier. All the architects have stuck to the cube in their individual building designs. All the buildings have similar floor plans with four apartments per floor being served from a central core. The building with the greatest variation is that designed by Hans Holein (see the central images in Figure 8.70). An angled staircase and walls set at an angle in the centre of the fa ade break the strictly cubical form. The result is a simple, highly unified, internally focused scheme containing 239 apartments.
Door schedules identify each door by a number or other designation that is shown on the floor plan. See Figure 10-5 for an example. Depending on the complexity of a project, door schedules differ in the amount of information required. Door schedules for residential projects usually contain the number of the door, quantity required, size, type of door, material, and remarks (Figure 10-6). More detailed information, such as frame type, hardware, and fire rating, is generally required for large commercial projects (Figure 10-7). Door schedules are generally longer than window schedules, as most projects have many more different types and sizes of doors than windows. Figure 10-5 Doors in a floor plan are numbered or identified by some other designation, which is referenced to a door schedule that includes more detailed information about each door.
Reflected ceiling plans should be drawn at the same scale as the floor plans. Depending on the complexity of the project and ceiling treatment, the most common scale for residential and small commercial projects is i 1'-0 (1 50 metric) and V8 1'-0 (1 100 metric) for large commercial projects. The scale the ceiling plan is drawn at should be noted and placed directly below the drawing, either adjacent to or directly below the title. If an enlarged detail is needed to explain a feature in the ceiling, it is keyed with a note or A reflected ceiling plan must clearly show all walls, partitions, and soffits that intersect with the ceiling. It should also specify changes in ceiling elevations and materials, such as lights, sprinklers, smoke detectors, and HVAC diffusers that attach to or penetrate the ceiling. In drafting reflected ceiling plans, the designer should reproduce the floor plan walls and openings such as doors and windows, but without showing items such as built-in cabinetry,...
Furniture installation plans are drawn at as small a scale as possible to reduce the amount of space they take up on the sheet. The furniture drawn in plan view may be simplistic in form to prevent clutter. For example, a chair could be drawn as a rectangle, with no back or arms depicted. However, most designers prefer to portray the furniture shape in more detail. Today, this is particularly easy as many manufacturers supply furniture templates that can be directly transferred into the designer's CAD program. As there is often not a lot of detailed information that needs to be drawn in the floor-plan view, a scale of Vs l'-O (1 100 metric) is generally used. However, if more detail is needed to clarify the exact configurations or elements of pieces, a scale of V4 l'-O (1 50 metric) or larger can be used. drawing convention that labels furniture based on their generic category. For example, a chair is designated C-l, C-2, C-3, etc. Sofas are called S-l, S-2, S-3, and tables are T-l,...
Generally, there is not a lot of dimensioning on the finish plan. As long as the plan is drawn to scale and the dimensions of the spaces and structure are indicated on the floor plan(s), the finishes can be estimated from these or other drawings. However, in some cases, dimensions are needed to describe limits of finishes or start and stop points occuring in areas that are not easily referenced in the plan view. Alignment and direction of patterns might need to be dimensioned directly on the plan, as illustrated in Figure 11-11. In these instances, references should be given that are easily obtainable in the field. Dimensions should be referenced from the face of a wall, column, or imaginary centerline of a room.
Figure 15-1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ductwork and related ceiling grilles are designed and drawn over the floor plan. Figure 15-1 Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning ductwork and related ceiling grilles are designed and drawn over the floor plan.
The scale at which an interior elevation should be drawn will depend upon the complexity and detail of items, information, and finishes to be shown. Generally, interior elevations are drawn to the same scale as the floor plan(s). If the wall plane and other items are fairly simple, then a scale of 1 4 1'-0 (1 50 metric) is acceptable. This is especially applicable in large public spaces. However, in very large commercial interior spaces a smaller scale of V8 1'-0 (1 100 metric) might be required. In small projects or spaces, elevations might be drawn at a larger scale, such as V2 1'-0 (1 20 metric) or 3 8 1'-0 (1 30 metric) to show small details. Figure 7-7 A curved reception desk looks flat in an elevation. Its curved surface is only apparent in the floor plan.
Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections (labeled A and B) are cut. The arrow shows the direction of the view. Figure 6-28 The floor plan of this small house indicates where two building sections (labeled A and B) are cut. The arrow shows the direction of the view.
Figure 7.20 Pruitt-Igoe, St Louis. (a) Isometric view of the site, (b) diagrammatic cross-section and floor plans, (c) the architect's drawing of the predicted behaviour in a gallery and (d) a gallery in reality. Figure 7.20 Pruitt-Igoe, St Louis. (a) Isometric view of the site, (b) diagrammatic cross-section and floor plans, (c) the architect's drawing of the predicted behaviour in a gallery and (d) a gallery in reality.
Floor plans are laid out on the basis of the program, which drives the seating configuration, volume, sight lines, circulation, and aesthetics. In rooms designed for speech it is good practice to bring the audience close to the talker. A fan-shaped room, particularly one with balconies, allows a larger number of people to be close to the stage, than a rectangular room. For unamplified music, where strong side reflections are important, a narrow rectangular room with a high ceiling has traditionally yielded the best result. For rooms of mixed use a compromise between the speech and music requirements must be crafted. Religious and theatrical facilities are sometimes designed with circular or multifaceted hexagonal or octagonal floor plans. Such shapes should be avoided wherever possible since they focus sound and create localized regions of high level. Churches and theaters in the round, even with diffusive or absorptive walls, are also poor acoustical choices. At best they result in...
Once the seating capacity and floor plan layout have been established, multipurpose auditoria still have a common set of specialized design problems to be solved. These include the shape and structure of the side walls and ceiling surfaces, the configuration of the orchestra shell and how it is stored, the layout of the pit and access to it, the accommodation of variable-acoustic elements including room volume, absorption and diffusion, and the inclusion of audio visual elements.
In the ideal world of the structural engineer, diaphragms in buildings are not penetrated by anything larger than say a 300 mm diameter pipe. Diaphragms are also planar and level over the whole floor plan. However, the real world of architecture is quite different, because in most buildings quite large penetrations are required for vertical circulation such as stairways and elevators. Building services, including air ducts and pipes also need to pass through floor slabs and in the process introduce potential weaknesses into diaphragms. The other problem caused by the step is to prevent x direction inertia forces from the right-hand end of the building being transferred into the two shear walls acting in that direction (Fig. 8.20(a)). Two ways to overcome these problems are firstly, to fully separate the building into two structures as discussed previously or secondly, to introduce a shear wall or frame along the line of the step (Fig. 8.20(b)) and provide x direction shear walls at...
After importing a DXF or DWG file containing your home plan you can easily convert the lines, arcs and other shapes to intelligent Punch AS3000 entities. This is where the importing process is most powerful. You can select each item on the floorplan, then click an icon on the Convert2 Bar to automatically change it.
The floor plan below (Ftg. 5) illustrates how a small fellowship hall may be used as a first unit for a congregation expected to eventually number 300-350 persons. The floor plan in Fig. 6 shows a somewhat larger fellowship hall for a congregation eventually ex pected to number 700-750 persons.
(Top and above) North-south section and floor plan of the undercroft La Pista defines itself as a boundary. The three-storey building is flat on the street sides, Its fortress-like surface reflecting the sloping outline of the road. On the inside, it responds to the fragmentation of the sloping, partially excavated site by itself presenting an image of fragmentation in its sharp, unaligned, triangular floor plans. (This page, top to bottom) Third floor plan Second floor plan First floor plan Ground floor plan
Ground floor plan Ground floor plan Typical floor plan laboratories, offices, and the central dark zone are accessed with two corridors The laboratories are embedded into an ordering system of offices, secondary spaces, storage rooms, and service pools. Even though any spot can be serviced, floor plans were strictly zoned. Laboratories are located along the fa ades to provide a maximum of daylight spaces for equipment, measuring, and special use are located in the central zone, and offices are situated at the gable ends. From there, the building affords views of the masts of the schooners and yachts, and the sea, or the skyline of the nearby city. The building consists of a basement, ground floor, three upper floors, and a partially recessed service floor on top, which connects to the shafts. While one wing accommodates the studies for theoretical research, staff offices, and various service and supplementary spaces, the other wing mainly provides laboratories for the different teams,...
Figure 4.9a Shrublands, Chalfont St Giles, 1935, Architects Mendelsohn and Chermayeff First floor plan Figure 4.9a Shrublands, Chalfont St Giles, 1935, Architects Mendelsohn and Chermayeff First floor plan Figure 4.9b Shrublands, Chalfont St Giles Ground floor plan Figure 4.10a St Anne's Hill, Chertsey, 1937, Architect Raymond McGrath Ground floor plan Figure 4.10a St Anne's Hill, Chertsey, 1937, Architect Raymond McGrath Ground floor plan
The largest possible enclosure for the smallest investment in the quickest time. The strong influence of investment policies led the famous Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas to found a second office, in addition to OMA, called AMO. Its main objective is to think about the interaction between architecture, politics, and cultural and economic developments. Apart from economic factors, many other contextual factors affect the final form of a building, as Juriaan van Meel (2000) has shown. Van Meel was struck by the fact that organisations with comparable administrative functions are housed in widely different office buildings, whereas 'form follows function' would lead one to expect much less variation. In his PhD thesis, Van Meel sought to explain international differences in mass, floor plan and layout of the workspace. He therefore studied office designs in Great Britain, Germany, Sweden, Italy and the Netherlands. Typical differences relate to the context in which the designing and...
Floor plans are generally not used to designate specific materials, as finishes might be too small to show in plan and their selections might be changed later. The amount of material information provided on a floor plan depends on the size and complexity of the proposed construction. The plans for a small residential project may contain more detailed information, such as the finished floor materials, because the design may be simpler and very few materials used, as illustrated in Figure 6-38. The few materials that might be designated on the floor plan are the walls, which can be pouched to indicate wood or other wall material designations such as block, brick, or concrete. Floor and wall finish materials are better indicated on the finish plans. See Chapter 11 for further information on drafting finish plans. The preferred area for dimensioning all items on a floor plan is outside the walls where possible, as this tends to keep the interior of the floor plan uncluttered. However, it...
The typical floor plans comprise a core zone with open plan laboratories with work desks allocated behind the fa ades. To the west, a circulation area with lounge qualities fostering communication is located in front of the service area. The workplaces for theoretical research are arranged at the south Ground floor plan Typical laboratory floor plan
Sounds' loudness in all parts of the listening area. fl Its shape should promote directivity, wave coherence, uniform diffusion, and quick initial reflections of the propagated sound throughout the listening area. Particularly helpful are floor plans that are symmetrical from left to right and steep seating areas located close to the performing area. fl Its surfaces should enhance directional realism, optimize the correlation of initial and early reflections, preserve natural tonality, and promote other aspects of optimal acoustic modeling throughout the listening area. Particularly helpful are side walls that have the same size, shape, and sound-absorbing characteristics.
The building takes advantage of its location at the foot of a hill. An S-shaped structure with a mono-pitch roof traces the contour of the hill existing trees on site were retained. The large-span exterior roof structure made of curved steel trusses supported by slender three-point columns clears the floor plans and enables continuous open laboratory zones. The poignant red of the steel structure reflects its importance for the open floor plan arrangement. A fully glazed exterior skin makes the roof seem to float and almost seamlessly links the interior to the surrounding landscape. Two ramps that are required to service the basement storage areas and the accentuated main entrance rhythmically order the long edifice. Fifth floor plan with individual offices Fifth floor plan with individual offices
This monument to the modern movement was declared a national monument in 1984. The complex is characterised by intelligent floor plans and a disciplined, modern exterior. The intention was to strike a balance between tradition and experiment. Oud, 1924. This monument to the modern movement was declared a national monument in 1984. The complex is characterised by intelligent floor plans and a disciplined, modern exterior. The intention was to strike a balance between tradition and experiment.
The locations and dimensions of piping and ductwork will determine where chases must be located for clusters of piping and ductwork running vertically between floors. Ductwork, and especially areas where ducts connect, requires regular access for maintenance. Suspended ceiling grids allow easy duct access. Gypsum wallboard ceilings may require access doors at specific locations, including at all fire dampers within ducts. With proper early planning, only minor changes in the floor plan will be needed to fit in the final mechanical design.
PARTIAL FLOOR PLAN Dimension standards discussed here primarily apply to the floor plan. Different drawings, such as elevations, ceiling plans, details, etc., have their own unique dimension standards, but are similar to the floor-plan font size, style, and units. These other drawing types might be dimensioned to the frame member or the finished face of a material. In the field of kitchen design, specialized cabinetry is almost exclusively dimensioned only in inches (or millimeters) instead of feet and inches, to the finish faces (Figure 5-29). A modular grid (based on common building material sizes) can be used in the design process to conform the floor plan (or section when working vertically) to a standard module. For example, if a small building is 28 feet (8.53 m) by 40 feet (12.19 m), its dimensions correspond to the 2-foot (.6 m) module. However, if the building is 27 feet (8.22 m) by 39 feet (11.88 m), it falls short of the module. In this situation, approximately one foot (.3...
The Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) accessibility standards list access requirements, as do model codes. These requirements include minimal clearances, location requirements, and controls that are easy to use. Generally, washroom accessories must be mounted so that the part that the user operates is between 97 and 122 cm (38-48 in.) from the floor. The bottom of the reflective surface of a mirror must not be more than 102 cm (40 in.) above the floor. Grab bars must be 84 to 91 cm (33-36 in.) above the floor. Wheelchair access (Figs. 14-1, 14-2, 14-3) generally requires a 152-cm (5-ft) diameter turn circle. The turn circle should be drawn on the floor plan to show compliance. When this is not possible, a T-shaped space is usually permitted. Special requirements pertain to toilet rooms serving children aged three to twelve. States may have different or additional requirements, so be sure to check for...
The couple, who were no novices at the design-build process, had definite ideas. The husband, a self proclaimed frustrated architect and his wife wanted all the central rooms to face the lake and instead of an open floor plan, she wanted separate spaces. Wright didn't flinch. When you design a home, you go on a journey with the clients, he says. The architect is just the tour guide.
This housing complex is located in the Haunwdrh district of Ingolstadt, to the south of the Danube's reservoir. The site is surrounded on three of its sides by well-communicated roads to the city center. The complex is divided into three buildings with floor plans of different sizes. The parallel disposition of the buildings creates large interior courtyards to be used by all the inhabitants.
Figure 1.4 Horniman Circle, Mumbai in 2003. (a) Bird's eye view and (b) cut-away ground floor plan. Figure 1.4 Horniman Circle, Mumbai in 2003. (a) Bird's eye view and (b) cut-away ground floor plan. Figure 1.5 Double Bay, Sydney in 2001. (a) Bird's eye view and (b) cut-away ground floor plan. Figure 1.5 Double Bay, Sydney in 2001. (a) Bird's eye view and (b) cut-away ground floor plan.
WIDEOPEN MEDICAL CENTRE Figure 4.8 Wideopen Medical Centre ground floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.10 Gosforth Memorial Health Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne ground floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.10 Gosforth Memorial Health Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne ground floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.13 West Road Surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne ground floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.13 West Road Surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne ground floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.14 West Road Surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne first floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership Figure 4.14 West Road Surgery, Newcastle upon Tyne first floor plan. Architect Geoffrey Purves Partnership
This two-story building was one of a pair that were almost identical, both having hipped roofs, and similar floor plans and window articulation. The main distinguishing feature was the porch treatment. The house at 208 13th Avenue South has two porches, one on each floor. The main-level porch has gingerbreading, while the second-floor porch has columns and arch decorations. The house at 210 13th Avenue South (destroyed by fire) had a covered entry porch with an ornate column. These buildings were originally single-family houses, but were subdivided into apartments. The residence at 208 13th Avenue South was later moved to 1414 South Washington Street for the construction of the Bailey Gatzert Elementary School.
The stamp of a structural engineer for straw bale home plans is a must in many jurisdictions. Structural engineers can work from completed plans or can often do the design and drafting work as well. They ensure that the plans, as drawn, are feasible, structurally sound, and meet code and safety requirements. The stamp of a structural engineer can help circumvent the concerns of a building official and allow you to get approval for your straw bale building plans. If you have drawn your own plans or purchased plans that require adaptations or minor changes, it may be better to take them to an engineer rather than to an architect.
Many of the building forms in use are visually badly proportioned, look domestic or resemble weather-houses or cuckoo clocks. They have small floor plans that need to accommodate an upright adult, and this emphasizes the vertical proportion, which stands out in open landscapes. Where two buildings occur together the result is exacerbated. The scale of such buildings also tends to be too small for the size of standard materials such as shakes (shingles), board-on-board cladding, or pitched roofs.
Figure 11.34 The Cornerstone Centre, Manchester ground floor plan. Architect Fairhurst design Group. Notes provided by Tropus Project Solutions Figure 11.34 The Cornerstone Centre, Manchester ground floor plan. Architect Fairhurst design Group. Notes provided by Tropus Project Solutions
Typical floor plan of a composite building using shear wall-frame interaction. Figure 5.11. Typical floor plan of a composite building using shear wall-frame interaction. Figure 5.12. Composite tube with concrete spandrels (a) typical floor plan (b) typical cross section through spandrel (c) detail at perimeter column and spandrel intersection. Figure 5.12. Composite tube with concrete spandrels (a) typical floor plan (b) typical cross section through spandrel (c) detail at perimeter column and spandrel intersection. Figure 5.13. Composite tube with steel spandrels (a) typical floor plan (b) typical cross section through spandrel (c) detail at perimeter column and spandrel intersection. Figure 5.13. Composite tube with steel spandrels (a) typical floor plan (b) typical cross section through spandrel (c) detail at perimeter column and spandrel intersection.
Side wall designs in legitimate theaters are less critical than ceiling designs, particularly when the floor plan incorporates fan-shaped, black-box, or arena seating. In proscenium theaters, the lower side walls are left reflective, and the rear wall is treated with absorption. Upper side walls can also be treated, depending on the overall reverberation time requirements. It is useful to provide reflecting surfaces on the side walls close to the proscenium so
Put a large site plan up on the wall, with individual unit locations clearly marked and numbered. The unit type (two-bedroom, etc.) should be indicated for each location on the site plan. Also have floor plans of each individual unit type up on the wall. Post a list of the site location variables to aid later discussion. Write the bottom line number for your project budget up on the wall, in large clear print. 1. Imagine that all your units have two bedrooms with exactly the same floor plan. at their unit pricing structure. Compare units of similar size and floor plan which are located in different places on the site. Ask the marketing agents about pricing and see what they have to say.
2 Draw the foundation of the part of your home plan that will be different from the rest of the home. If you need help drawing a foundation, please refer to Defining the Foundation Perimeter on page 42. 5 Draw the Foundation of the rest of the home and proceed with designing your home plan.
According to the brief, modular work benches and worktops are standardised and can be easily rearranged with regard to their technical equipment and spatial layout. Horizontal service lines support flexibility since they enable a number of defined spots of the floor plan to connect to the technical infrastructure. Transparency enhances the open plan character of the laboratories.
Dictated by the length of the timber, its weight - which makes handling onerous (Perrin 1967, 22 & 28) - and the difficulty of joining timbers to accommodate larger floor plans. Michael Ann Williams (1984, 36) notes that the late 19th-century log houses in Cherokee County, North Carolina are smaller than pre-Civil War ones. The explanation is that as sawn lumber became cheaper and more available, the family desiring a larger house would have preferred frame construction. One of the major reasons for the popularity in Texas of the dogtrot cabin was that it permitted use of shorter lengths of timber in the construction of its two separated enclosed parts. The drier climate of Texas supported only trees of modest growth (Collier 1979, 30).
Figure 1-3 Quick freehand sketches such as this floor plan can be used as a first step in turning designers' creative ideas into reality. Figure 1-3 Quick freehand sketches such as this floor plan can be used as a first step in turning designers' creative ideas into reality.
One of many such examples that could be cited is what happened with the log cabins built early on by the Scots-Irish in eastern North America (Evans 1965, 34). In Ireland, the Scots-Irish had built partly excavated sod huts, or much less often, stone huts, but in North America they rapidly shifted to the widespread construction of log houses. However, in the process they retained the floor-plan dimensions of the old-country huts (Figure 1-3), which made it easier and more acceptable culturally for them to use the new material (Noble 1984, 1 44). Certainly, other factors also played their part the abundance of timber, the easier construction with logs versus stone, and the successful example of the neighboring Germans, Finns, and Swedes, who came to North America with long traditions of log building. Again, the example of the Scots-Irish in North America differentiates them from both the Germans and the Finns. The Scots-Irish log house is immediately identifiable as different from that...
Row houses were a common urban housing type during the late nineteenth century. They provided individual family homes, but their smaller floor plan, shared wall construction, and small yards made them more affordable than large, free-standing houses. This particularly fine example epitomized the style, with irregular massing, a steeply pitched roof, and a decorative ridge crest with finials. The walls were articulated through a variety of materials, including shingles, vertical siding, and horizontal siding. Windows were predominantly one over one, double hung.
Schedule A document prepared by the contractor prior to start of the work showing the detailed steps and milestone dates necessary to complete the contract for construction within the contract time. Schedule of values A statement provided by the contractor that allots the contract value for specific portions of the work, usually following the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) format. A schedule of values usually accompanies each application for payment, showing the percentage of work completed for the period in question. Schematic design phase After programming, the phase of architectural services in which the architect prepares general design studies, often in the form of elevations and floor plans, to assess the most desirable means of achieving the owner's goals for the project. Scope of work All the building systems comprising the work to be constructed by the contractor. The entirety of the project represented in the contract for construction, or other more limited...
Figure 5.2 Result of a post-occupancy evaluation. Annotated floor plan of a health centre a summary of complaints and bottlenecks as established by an evaluative investigation of users and visitors. Source Van Hoogdalem etal., (1981). Figure 5.2 Result of a post-occupancy evaluation. Annotated floor plan of a health centre a summary of complaints and bottlenecks as established by an evaluative investigation of users and visitors. Source Van Hoogdalem etal., (1981).
What made Baderre's article particularly significant, however, was the simultaneous publication of the first sketches - floor plans and general views - of the small villa in Corseaux on the banks of Lake Geneva, which Le Corbusier and Jeanneret designed for the architect's parents.6 The plan for this little house was a real challenge for Perret. Only one side of the house has a real window, but this window occupies the whole width of the facade. Despite its being the only one, Baderre continued, the window sufficiently illuminates the whole living space because not only its dimensions admit enough light, but at both ends it meets the adjoining side walls at a right-angle. These white walls direct the view straight towards the scenery outside, unobstructed by window reveals. They are truly flooded with light. 7 Perret had hardly uttered his verdict - and through him as a mouthpiece the institution ( a true authority in the field of architecture , Baderre had written in deferential...
Sambo worked a long, long time to achieve all that he did. He decided that he wanted to be an architect when he was six years old. He would sit with his mother at her dining room table and draw floor plans and design buildings. There is still an imprint of a church on his mother's mahogany table. She loved it. At the age of twenty-nine, fresh out of Auburn, Sambo made another conscious decision that would guide his career for the next twenty-eight years. He promised himself that he would make great architecture.
Schematic floor plan showing haunch girders. Figure 7.58. Schematic floor plan showing haunch girders. Composite haunch girders, although not often used as a floor framing system, merit mention because they help minimize the floor-to-floor height without requiring complicated fabrication. Fig. 7.58 shows a schematic floor plan in which composite haunch girders frame between exterior columns and interior core framing. The haunch girder typically consists of a shallow steel beam, 10- to 12-in. (254- to 305-mm) deep for spans in the 35- to 40-ft (10.6- to 12.19-m)-range. At each end of the beam a triangular haunch is formed by welding a diagonally cut wide-flange beam usually 24- to 27-in. (610- or 686-mm) deep (Fig. 7.59). The haunch is welded to the shallow beam and to the columns at each end of the girder. In this manner the last 8 or 9 ft (2.4 or 2.7 m) of the haunch girder at either end flares out toward the column with a depth varying from about 10 or 12 in. (254 or...
Ornamental pattern of first-floor plan. A convoluted meandering route is choreographed around the eight elements of the traditional Japanese garden (water, sand, flowers, waterfalls, bridges, trees, stones and islands), presenting a process of discovery, a metaphorical life journey of the painter Tomihiro himself. As one passes through and between, numerous and varying exhibition vessels, the experience is one of incidences of confluence and activity interspersed with moments of contemplation and intimacy volution in motion.
The following passages from the first and second chapters of Book 1 illustrate this problem. After an initial discussion of the areas of education that the aspiring architect should master, Vitruvius identifies the six principles composing the art and science of architecture. But only the last two principles - propriety and economy - are relatively straightforward in their meaning. Order (Greek taxis) is the ordering of parts alone and as a whole, and thus implies the concepts of a module and symmetry. Arrangement (Greek diathesis), which has also been rendered in English as ''design,'' is similar to order but also adds the idea of aptness of placement. It is also familiar to architects through his discussion of the floor plan, elevation, and perspective. Eurythmy (Latin eurythmia is a transliteration of Greek eurythmos) and symmetry (Greek symmetros no Latin equivalent) are more elusive. Symmetry, which for Vitruvius is a key concept, is a proper harmony of the parts to each other...
Atrium is today often annexed to existing light wells and used as a lobby, exhibition space or cafeteria. With the growing dematerialisation of the wall, glass courtyards emerge in less introverted forms in which one or several directions are singled out. The opening can be additionally emphasised through a rectangular plan or the incline of the roof area. In the case of an inserted glass courtyard , only three sides are enclosed by solid building components, and the orientation towards the open, often fully-glazed front assumes a prime importance for the organisation of the floor plan. A corner glass courtyard has two adjacent open sides, reinforcing the diagonal flow in the interior space. The glass courtyard annex , finally, is open on three sides. The tranquil character of the glass courtyard can be preserved even in the case of shed and saddle-roof constructions with the help of interior dust or luminous ceilings suspended from the primary structure. A double-skin construction of...
The arrangement of shear walls, diagonal braces, or rigid joints in a structure is crucial to their effectiveness in resisting lateral forces acting on the building. As illustrated in the adjacent schematic floor plans, these elements may be placed within the interior of the building or at the perimeter, and they may be combined in a variety of ways. However, they must be arranged so as to resist lateral forces acting from all directions. This is usually accomplished by aligning one set of stabilizing elements along each of the two perpendicular plan axes of a building. Stabilizing elements must also be arranged in as balanced a fashion as possible in relation to the mass of the building. Unbalanced arrangements of these elements result in the displacement of the center of resistance of the building away from its center of mass. Such a condition causes unusual building movements under lateral loads that may be difficult to control.
Above section (note the basement and tiny figures on the ground floor see the photo on the opposite page) and ground floor plan of the Banqueting Hall. This is worth comparing with the great dining rooms at Greenwich Palace and Chelsea, by Wren. Opposite page the hall itself, and the Whitehall elevation, as renewed by Soane. It was here, ironically, that Charles I stepped out from the window onto the rude wooden platform where he was to meet his death.
Dashed or hidden lines serve more than one purpose in construction drawings. They are comprised of medium- or light-weight, uniformly sized broken lines consisting of evenly spaced short dashes and are generally intended to represent hidden surfaces or intersections of an object. On floor plans they may be used to represent features that lie above the plane of the drawing, such as high wall cabinets in a kitchen. You may vary the lengths of the dashes slightly in relation to the size of the drawing.
Report 2 gives recommendations for the role of buildings and maintenance teams during an emergency. This report should include copies of such documents as floor plans and electrical and mechanical installation schematics location of emergency exits, shut-off valves, evacuation routes, and shelters lists of emergency tools and materials contact lists of emergency organizations, such as fire marshal, police, and city engineers recommended procedures for assessing safe reentry job descriptions for the response team and recommended recovery procedures.
When braced frames or shear walls are used for lateral stability, columns and beams may be joined with simpler, hinged connections, such as the bolted connections normally used in steel and timber structures or the flexible welded connections used in precast concrete. The stabilizing braces or walls may be located within the interior of the building or at the perimeter, but they must be placed so as to resist lateral forces in all directions. Building cores or stair towers housing vertical circulation or other systems often can be easily designed to incorporate such elements, thus eliminating their intrusion from the remainder of the building floor plan. When located at the perimeter of the structure, these elements may influence the design of the building facade.
The positioning and type of the staircase is of great significance when looking at the floor plan typology of a row house. A central position within the floor plan is important to provide minimal circulation areas on the upper storeys. Widened access spaces can serve to eliminate mono-functional access areas. Spaces that can manage a certain degree of publicity within the house would be the best choice office and workspaces, kitchens or rooms with multi-functional uses. Split-level staircases with landings opening up towards adjoining rooms can also aid in eliminating mono-functional circulation areas and can simultaneously create a spatial continuum across several storeys. Functionally unspecified rooms will become increasingly important for modern floor plans since they provide the occupant with the highest degree of flexibility. In these rooms the position of doors and windows and the size of the room are particularly important. A room with between twelve and 16 square metres floor...
The completion of the preparatory work can provide a matrix in establishing the repetitive upper floor plans whether hotel, office or retail. It is common practice to set out the main elements of the upper storeys in order to develop the 'footprint' of the buildings at ground level. The dichotomy that plagues core design rests with the attractions needed at entry level by comparison with the minimal qualities where immersed within lettable space at the upper floors.
With the text tools you can add either straight or angled text to any area of your drawing. This feature is useful if you'd like to name your home plan or add your address to the final drawing, for instance. You can select from any font installed on your computer, as well as select style and size.
Punch AS3000 can automatically calculate square footage of each floor of your home plan. This feature makes it easy to figure how much carpet you'll need to cover the first floor, for instance, or simply estimate your overall home size. If square footage is incorrect, check to make sure the exterior perimeter is intact. For more information, see Defining the Foundation Perimeter , which begins on page 42.
The Virtual Ruler is a handy feature for measuring items in your home plan that are not automatically dimensioned. You can undock the ruler at any time, leaving it active, or hide it from view with one mouse click. The Virtual Ruler is an easy way to measure at an angle, too.
The emphasis on beauty, experiential value and the creation of meaning recurs constantly throughout the history of architecture e.g. in Greek and Roman architecture, Romance architecture, Gothic architecture, Renaissance architecture, classicism, and different neo-styles until the present days (Smith, 1956 Pevsner, 1960 Van Heuvel and Verbrugge, 1996 Barrie, 1996). Although utility value and technology always play some part in design, the main emphasis is on composition. Building is above all an art. Symmetry, dimensional ratios (e.g. the application of the golden mean) and decoration are all used to evoke a sense of beauty. Principles of form are laid down in manuals of 'good' design. Form, more particularly in public sector buildings like churches, theatres, museums, town halls and other government buildings, often also expresses some underlying meaning or, put differently, has a secondary functionality or symbolic function. Thus, church buildings have always been characterised by...
The core locations depend upon the floor configuration adopted. For high rise, slab block versus tower has to be considered. For medium rise, further comparisons need to be made with atrium and courtyard forms as well as geometries involving irregular-shaped buildings. Figures 3.5 and 3.6 provide a diagrammatic guide with references to typical designs. The obvious criteria from the economic viewpoint are core sizes that can be expressed as the smallest proportion of the rental and usable floors. For users there is another critical factor, namely the largest areas that can be accommodated at any single floor despite breaks incurred through lift and stair locations. The present interest with atria-based forms has produced deep floor plans of extended 'racetrack' layout with cores distributed along the edges, as at No. 1 Finsbury Avenue (Figures 3.7 a c). Triple-bay depths have the advantage of layering plans so that the central zone can accommodate cores and servant spaces with the...
You will now complete the floor plan with the outline of the slab over the columns, the carports and furniture. This can all be accomplished using the 2D drafting tools. It is a good idea to keep 2D information and architectural components in separate places. Consequently, you will use the layer 'DE_GEN01' for 2D designs.
Design possibilities foreign to most modern home plans. Curved and rounded walls lend a remarkable feeling to a space and are worth considering. Keep in mind that your round or curved bale wall will still have to blend with your foundation and roof, both of which are likely to use straight materials (see sidebar on round roofs in Chapter 9).
Punch AS3000 makes it simple to add electrical components to your home plan. Using the convenient tabbed utility tools, simply select the components you want to place and click. Dimension lines automatically appear, making it easy to place components a specific distance from a neighboring electrical component or wall segment. You'll notice that when placing certain outlets and switches, the object is automatically tracked to the wall segment, making accurate placement simple. Floor and ceiling outlets are not tracked to walls. If the outlet is to be placed within 6 of a water source, for example, in a kitchen, bath or outdoors, always use a GFI outlet. Ground Fault Interrupters are designed to shut themselves off if they get wet.
The task of an isometric drawing is primarily to show a three-dimensional picture in one drawing. It is like a picture that lacks artistic details. Many utilities workers have difficulty in clearly visualizing a piping or ducting installation when they are working from a floor plan and an elevation drawing. The isometric drawing facilitates understanding by combining the floor plan and the elevation. It clearly communicates the details and clarifies the relationship of the pipes in an installation. Although isometric drawings are not normally drawn to scale on blueprints, some architects and engineers prefer drawing them to scale. Isometric drawings, like other types of drawings, follow certain rules and conventions to show three dimensions on a flat surface.
Arrangement of floor plans, elevations and roofs. Performance requirements and drawings do not prescribe materials, products or constructional elements. The demand specification also contains general project information, such as information about soundings, start and delivery dates, payment instalments and application procedure. The package of requirements, written and drawn, is put out to tender to a number of building firms, each of which then works out a plan, in conjunction with a designer, often its own, to produce a complete tender (Figure 3.5). The client then makes his choice based on a comparison of the different price quality ratios. One advantage claimed for this method is that it encourages the contractor to come up with creative and innovative solutions. The best possible use can be made of his expertise and knowledge of suitable materials, products and constructional elements. One disadvantage is that the client has little influence on the choice of architects or the...
In construction drawings as much information as possible is presented graphically, or by means of pictures. Most construction drawings consist of orthographic views. General drawings consist of plans and elevations drawn at a relatively small scale. Detail drawings (discussed later in this chapter) consist of sections and details drawn at a relatively large scale. A plan view is a view of an object or area as it would appear if projected onto a horizontal plane passed through or held above the object area. The most common construction plans are plot plans (also called site plans), foundation plans, floor plans, and framing plans. A plot plan shows the contours, boundaries, roads, utilities, trees, structures, and other significant physical features on their sites. The locations of the proposed structures are indicated by appropriate outlines or floor plans. As an example, a plot may locate the corners of a proposed structure at a given distance from a reference or base line. Since the...
'I had 8 hours left before the review began and all I had to do was finish my drawings. I began on the ground floor plan, and there seemed to be lots of decisions still left to make, so I began drawing the floor tiles in (supposedly while I thought about the other decisions). Of course, once I'd started, I felt I had to finish, which meant that by the time I got to the review, I had nothing to show except some beautifully drawn squares.' RS
Frames are often architecturally preferred because they are least objectionable from the interior space planning considerations. When used on the building exterior, deep spandrels and closely spaced columns may be permissible because columns usually will not interfere with the space planning, and the depth of spandrels need not be shallow as for interior beams, for the passage of air conditioning and other utility ducts. A schematic floor plan of a building using this concept is shown in Fig. 3.15a.
Architectural drawings contain required information on the size, material, and makeup of all main members of the structure, as well as their relative position and method of connection. In essence, they consist of all the drawings that describe the structural members of the building and their relationship to each other, including foundation plans, floor plans, framing plans, elevations, sections, millwork, details, schedules, and bills of materials. Architectural drawings are generally numbered sequentially with the prefix A for architectural.
The most commonly encountered shapes in concert hall design are summarized in Fig. 19.1. The most consistent performer is the rectangular or shoebox floor plan. In Beranek's (1996) review of concert halls, the three halls rated A+, and six of the top eight have this basic form. A rectangular room provides the strong lateral reflections necessary for envelopment as a natural consequence of its shape. Narrow halls also yield low delay times for early reflected sound.
Fan rooms may be located anywhere in the building they are supplied with hot and chilled water through insulated pipes from the boiler room and chilled water plant. A floor plan of a typical fan room is shown on the facing page. If only a single fan room is used, it may be placed in the basement, on the ground floor, on the roof, or on any intermediate floor, as close to the vertical distribution shafts as possible. It is convenient to locate this room near an outside wall, but if an outside wall location is not possible, ducts to the outdoors are used to convey fresh air and exhaust air to and from the fan. These ducts may run horizontally, above a ceiling, or vertically, in a shaft.
The buildings are oriented on an east-west axis, with the upper levels oriented north-south. There are three kinds of dwellings with three, four and five rooms as well as a kitchen and bathroom, with two bathrooms for the five-room units. All the buildings of a particular type have the same layout. The living room on the lower floor faces the garden on one side and the courtyard on the other. The floor plan is based on the idea of flexible space.
Electrical, telephone and communication outlets can be shown on one of several plans. With residential construction, they can be drawn on the construction floor plan because installation is fairly simple. On commercial projects on the other hand, the floor plan may be crowded with other unrelated information, and so a separate power plan is usually needed. In addition to showing the outlets themselves, exact dimensions are given when their location is critical. Outlets can also be shown on furniture plans as the outlets most often directly relate to the placement of desks, seating groups, and other furniture.
The Fuji Pavilion housed an exhibit and light show of the Fuji corporation in a unique, organic form. Over a circular floor plan of 164 feet (50 meter) diameter, the pavilion featured a vaulted fabric structure composed of 16 pneumatic arched tubes. The tubes of 13 feet (4 meter) diameter were tied together by horizontal belts at 13 feet (4 meter) intervals. The tubes consisted of two vinyl fabric layers that were glued together for improved tear resistance. Given the circular floor plane, the arching tubes of equal length form cross sections that vary from semi-circular at the center to semi-elliptical at the entries on both opposite ends. To adjust the structure's stiffness in response to various wind pressures, the tubes were connected by pipes to a multi-stage turbo blower, that provided 1,000 to 2,500 mm water pressure.
Stevenson's life and work parallels that of Shaw, but on a more quiet note. He was born in Glasgow, was a pupil of David Bryce in 1856, went to London and to Gilbert Scott's office in 1858, travelled in France and returned to Glasgow and a partnership with Campbell Douglas (1860). This ended in 1868 when Stevenson moved spent two years writing and travelling before moving to London and partnership, in 1871, with E.R. Robson (formerly Chief Architect at Liverpool), whom he had met at Scott's and who was now the Architect to the new London School Board. This partnership lasted until 1876, but it was during this period that Stevenson and Robson developed the mannerisms of the Queen Anne style. This was particularly evident at the Red House of 1871 (demolished) - intended to be a demonstration urban version of Webb's Red House and paid for by Stevenson (his family firm had a chemical works in Jarrow, on Tyneside). He termed the style 'Free Classic' and it was to be widely imitated. (It...
Open University Business School, Walton Drive, Milton Keynes Ground Floor Plan JESTICO + WHILES Open University Business School, Walton Drive, Milton Keynes Ground Floor Plan JESTICO + WHILES Open University Business School, Walton Drive, Milton Keynes First Floor Plan JESTICO + WHILES
There are a number of components, assemblies, and other specialized items in buildings and interiors that do not fall neatly into commonly recognized groupings such as floor plans, elevations, sections, and finish plans. These elements often require a more detailed drawing and even specialized graphic techniques to fully explain them. These pieces of construction and their details often require a series of views that may be done in plan, elevation, section, and even isometric drawings. In most cases, the designer draws the basic sizes, arrangements, materials, and overall details of these components. Then, many elements are redrawn in more detail and submitted back to the designer as shop drawings done by one of the subcontractors, such as the cabinetmaker or glazing subcontractor. These shop drawings are highly detailed with expanded views and descriptions of the designer's original design intent and construction drawings. An example is shown in Figure 9-1.
The 38-story CBS tower Is a stark vertical extrusion of the rectangular floor plan. Columns forming a framed tube are expressed as triangular extrusions on the upper floors and diamond shaped on the ground floor. The triangular columns Include niches for mechanical ducts and pipes. The niches decrease from top to bottom with the decreasing duct sizes that run down from the mechanical room on the top floor. The decreasing niches result In increasing net column size that coincides with increasing load as It accumulates from top down. Concrete floors span between the walls of a central core and the framed tube, providing a column-free donut-shape floor space for flexible use. The four sides facing the core feature one-way rib slabs, but the fo ji corners have two-way waffle slabs, designed to make the transition nom ore drect'on to 'he other. Glad In black granite the closely spaced triangular columns expier a stark vertlcallty, perforated with regular windows m i all but the top and...
In contrast to the conventional and critical renderings, the explanatory rendering pictured something more akin to an open-ended process than an artifact. Where Pelli and Hadid idealized the site context through stylized rendering techniques, Behnisch placed his building proposal in the messy context of a photograph. Where Pelli and Hadid sought to mobilize populist or elite tastes, Behnisch appealed to intelligence. And rather than seeking to close down conversation by satisfying aesthetic desires, the Behnisch illustrations sought to open up new conversations about topics unfamiliar to decision makers. These renderings are certainly concrete in the sense that they portray volumes of space and rather conventionally drawn floor plans, but for every element of certainty represented there are elements in the composition that ask decision makers to consider alternative possibilities or that explain unconventional technologies. In this sense the Behnisch renderings are challenging in a...
The same is true of standardized floor plans for patient care units. Business centers, decentralized work areas, imaging viewing stations, meeting rooms, offices, supply and equipment storage areas, and soiled utility and housekeeping rooms are all placed in the same location on all floors. This standardized design makes it easier and more efficient for physicians and staff to move about in the facility. Supply and dietary staff who deliver goods to each unit can do their job more
Your title block should be drawn at 1 1 as well. It must also be large enough to contain the floor plan. In this example it is set up for a 24 x3 6 sheet. In order to have this visible at the correct scale on the layout, you can insert the title block at a scale of 48. Then, when plotting the model, use a plot scale of 1 48 or 1 4 l'-0 .
In this series of books, the variety of house types is sorted into different categories. The first two volumes cover the courtyard and row house types. Typologies of houses are presented that can be joined on at least two, sometimes three sides, and therefore can grow into relatively dense urban structures. Volumes featuring townhouses and detached houses will follow. Each volume is structured in such a way that the complexity of the types presented - which originate partly from research projects and partly from built examples - increases within the course of the book. The illustrations are largely limited to floor plans, with complementary sections where needed. We abstained from including elevation drawings because in most cases they are typologically irrelevant. The project descriptions are intended to call attention to particularities also, they point out potential problems (e.g. through a change of orientation). Built examples are therefore illustrated only with regard to their...
In the New Farmhouse RF building designed by Yoichi Kan (see Chapter 8), the inner opening of the roof is very small and the roof slope is quite significant. Although the shear forces are considerably higher than if a design with a larger opening and flatter roof had been used, because the designer avoided the notched connection, which would have weakened the beams, he was able to produce a design with very slender beams with a depth span ratio of 33. This was also possible due to the way the roof was configured. Normally, over a square floor plan, one would use a four-RF-beam design. However, in this particular design, where eight RF members are used to form the main roof structure, the overall roof load is shared between eight beams instead of four, which also made it possible to use very slender beams.
Due to the fast development of information, computer, communication, security and media technology, central facilities and floor plans should contain buffer zones that can accommodate additional or changed equipment. Installation of supplementary gear, maintenance work or even a replacement of the entire system should be possible without interrupting research operations and without affecting existing systems.
The terms design and plans are often used interchangeably. They refer to two different kinds of drawings, however, and understanding the distinction can be important. Design is a spatial concept. It can refer to a floor plan, an elevation, or a model. In the design stage, dimensions and proportions only define the building's appearance and attributes. Materials choices, the sizes and dimensions of rooms and windows, the location of kitchen and bathroom elements,entrances, staircases all of these are components of a design.
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