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After the First World War the USA broke new ground with a series of pioneering stadia built particularly for two burgeoning national sports - American football and baseball. To cater for the growing popularity of American football there evolved a new type of single-tier elliptical bowl of vast capacity surrounding a rectangular football pitch. The first was the Yale Bowl at New Haven (1914, capacity 64 000). It was followed by Baseball became the second great popular sport. Because it requires a very differently shaped pitch and seating configuration than football a series of specialized baseball stadia were built, including the famous Yankee Stadium in New York (1924, capacity 57 000). Typically the stadia for these two sports were urban stadia, built in the midst of the populations they served, and typically they were open or only partly roofed. After the Second World War there was a new wave of stadium building, but the typology shifted gradually towards multi-purpose facilities,...
Pitch dimensions for Association Football (more commonly known as football or soccer) are shown in Figure 7.2. Safety margins should be 6 m wide behind the goal line and 3m along the side touch-lines and the grass surface should extend beyond Dimensions from UK football association. Dimensions from UK football association. Figure 7.2 Pitch size and layout for football or soccer.
Football and rugby in Europe are played during the autumn and winter months, in the early afternoon. This means that the sun is low in the sky and moving from south-south-west to west. An ideal orientation for the playing area is to have its longitudinal axis running north-south, or perhaps northwest-southeast. With these orientations the sun will be at the side of the stadium during play, and the early morning sun will fall on the greatest area of the pitch, thus helping any frost in the ground to thaw before play commences. Figure 3.3 summarizes the situation.
We find that the house and its outbuildings take up 50 to 100 square yards and beds, etc. All this involves an absorbing, costly and laborious upkeep. The space left for games or sports. Now it ought to be possible to indulge in games grounds, which are really only suitable for professionals or people of leisure, garden 50 square yards (both garden and house may be on the ground-floor level of flats or maisonnettes large playgrounds for football, tennis, etc., to the tune devoted to agriculture of an industrialized and intensive kind, giving a large produce, etc.). A farmer acts as superintendent and manager of a grouping.
Water themes can also be humorous - for instance football Water themes can also be humorous - for instance football The Atelier Dreiseitl team is working on several pilot projects which will get this enormous undertaking started. One of these projects is the Westfalen Stadium in Dortmund, where numerous games are to take place during the 2006 Football World Cup. Rainwater run-off from the stadium roof and huge parking lots is collected in 'treatment trains', where the water can be cleansed, detained and from there slowly released into the nearby Emscher. The route of the rainwater is made visible and understandable to football fans and passers-by. It becomes an environmental theme, which in addition to football, characterises the stadium.
More than 65,000 square miles of land have been paved in the lower 48 states to accommodate America's 214 million cars there are 3.9 million miles of roads, enough to circle the Earth at the equator 157 times, in that area alone.44 This amounts to 2.5 per cent of the total land surface - an area more than the size of Georgia, far, far more if you consider car parks and other areas. For every five cars added to the US fleet, an area the size of a football field is covered with asphalt. Close to half of the land area in most US cities goes to providing roads, highways and parking lots for automobiles, close to two-thirds in the case of Los Angeles. Not many cities calculate their asphalt, but Munich, one of the more environmental cities in Europe, has only 4 per cent pavement, 15 per cent asphalt and 16 per cent built area, against 59 per cent vegetation and 6 per cent bare soils.45 Of London's 175,000 hectare area, 62 per cent is urban - buildings, asphalt, and pavement - with 30 per...
Calculation of maximum viewing distance is based on the fact that the human eye finds it difficult to perceive anything clearly that subtends an angle of less than about 0.4 degrees - particularly if the object is moving rapidly. In the case of a rugby ball, which is approximately 250 mm in diameter, or a football, the calculation sets the preferred viewing distance at no more than 150 m between the extreme corner of the field and spectator's eye, with an absolute maximum of 190 m. In the case of a tennis ball, which is only 75 mm in diameter, the preferred maximum distance reduces to around 30 m. Some guidance on viewing distances for various sports is given in BS EN 132002003 Spectator facilities - Part 1 Layout criteria for spectator viewing area - specification (see the Bibliography). and their average configuration suggests a circle struck from the centre spot on the field, generally referred to as the 'optimum viewing circle'. This circle in the case of football and rugby would...
Figure 4.1 The Arrowhead and Kauffman Stadia at the Truman Sports complex, in Kansas City, overcome the difficulty of providing good viewing for the contrasting configurations of baseball and football by giving each sport its own dedicated stadium. Figure 4.1 The Arrowhead and Kauffman Stadia at the Truman Sports complex, in Kansas City, overcome the difficulty of providing good viewing for the contrasting configurations of baseball and football by giving each sport its own dedicated stadium.
It is not always self-evident where viewers like to sit for particular sports. In the case of football, conventional wisdom holds that the best seats are on the long sides of the field, which give a good view of the ebb and flow of the game between the two opposing goal posts. But there is also a tradition for highly motivated team supporters to view the game from the short ends, behind the goal posts, where they get a good view of the side movements and line openings which present themselves to the opposing teams. To designers who do not understand these traditions it may seem ludicrous that a football supporter may insist on watching from behind the netting of the goal posts in crowded conditions when Figure 11.1 Relationship between playing field, optimum and maximum viewing distances and a deduced 'optimum viewing circle'. (a) For football and rugby the optimum viewing circle would have a radius of 90 m from the centre spot. (b) Dimensions for lawn tennis viewing. (c) Separate...
American football Association football2 Rugby league football Rugby union football 2 There are specific requirements by FIFA and UEFA for international matches and competitions and many domestic leagues and competitions have specific requirements (such as the FA Cup, FA Trophy, Football League, GMCV, etc.). Refer to the Guide to the Artificial Lighting of Football Pitches (FIFA) and Digest of Stadium Criteria, (FSADC), and Guidelines and Recommendations for Floodlighting for all UEFA Competitions.
This idea evolved in the 1960s from the attempt to house American football, played on a rectangular pitch, and baseball, played on a diamond shaped pitch, in the same building. It was only partially successful - many believe it was an unacceptable compromise for both sports and did not fully satisfy the requirements of either, even though a high standard of venue could be achieved and problems of access could be solved. A reaction against this compromise came in 1972 when the dual stadia complex of Kansas City, Missouri was opened this included two stadia, one of 78 000-seat capacity to be used for American football, the other of 42 000-seat capacity for baseball - see Figure 3.1. A football configuration of up to 54 000 seats. One example is the Pro Player stadium in Miami which accommodates football as the primary sport, and baseball as a secondary use, as noted in Section 8.4.1 above. Another is the Telstra Dome in Melbourne, Australia, which accommodates 50 000 spectators to watch...
Multi-purpose use of a stadium does not necessarily have to be based on two sports, as clubs are sometimes able to find a compatible partner within the same sport. There are many examples around the world of sports clubs sharing facilities while in Australia ground-sharing is supported by the administrators of Australian Rules football. an indoor bowling rink. Extensions to the stadia at Sheffield Wednesday and Arsenal football clubs have accommodated training halls that double up as function rooms. Other ideas which have been explored are the inclusion of television studios, cinemas, health centres, squash courts, swimming pools, hairdressing salons and children's activity spaces.
The MKDONS have enjoyed an excellent season In 2007 8 and recently clinched promotion out of Football League 2.Part of the club's success must be attributed to Its brand new 22,000 capacity stadium, officially opened-last July.The stadium has a truly excellent playing surface and spectator views and facilities that will not be bettered by many Premiership Clubs. When it came to the planning and installation of ticket issuing facilities subcontractor Norking Aluminium called on the expertise of Sonic Windows Ltd. Two windows, each with two ticket sales stations, were agreed upon one for home and the other for away fans. The windows are of clear glass giving uninterrupted eye contact between staff and spectators, yet glazed in 11.5mm laminated security glass that will resist anything short of a bullet for complete security. They are deep, extending down to thigh height on an adult, and have a smoothly finished metal ledge extending out from wall level offering easy wheel chair access....
Arrowhead Stadium for baseball, and the Royals Stadium for football. The Giants Stadium at New Jersey, 1976, which is a dedicated stadium for football only. The Astrodome at Houston, 1964, a dome stadium designed for both football and baseball. The Arrowhead and Royals Stadia at Kansas City (Figure 4.1), 1973, a complex which provides separate dedicated facilities for the two sports - the Figure 4.2 The Toronto Skydome (Rogers Centre), which opened in 1989, can be adapted by movable seating to several auditorium configurations to accommodate hockey, basketball, baseball, football, rock concerts and other entertainments. Architect Rob Robbie. Roof design engineers Michael Allen. Figure 4.2 The Toronto Skydome (Rogers Centre), which opened in 1989, can be adapted by movable seating to several auditorium configurations to accommodate hockey, basketball, baseball, football, rock concerts and other entertainments. Architect Rob Robbie. Roof design engineers Michael Allen.
An important aspect of operational policy relates to the players who use a stadium owned and run by a club. The skill of the players, managers and trainers largely dictates the success of the team, and the success of the team in turn determines the financial strength of the club. A significant factor in this equation is the cost of 'buying' players in professional sport and the cost of training them. The league system is ideal for training as it gives all clubs a chance to find new and promising players who they can train to their financial benefit, but the North American college system is probably even better as it effectively pushes the cost of training on to the educational system. The cost of training players in American football and baseball is therefore relatively low. It also benefits the financial stability of a sport to limit the number of teams who can take part, although this is against the principles of most amateur sports since they believe in as wide an involvement as...
The 'sports priority' spectator group is found in the stands and on the terraces for every game. For them 'live' sport at its highest level has an almost spiritual quality, an attitude aptly expressed in a statement once made by the great Liverpool football manager Bill Shankly 'Football is not a matter of life and death it is more important than that'. These fans are knowledgeable, respond instantly to every nuance of the action, offer advice to the players, and recognize the form, fitness and style of individual players and the effectiveness of strategies and tactics. Such issues form the basic topics of conversation before, during and after the game in the car, pub or train. The motivation and the behaviour of this A third group contains elements of the previous two and tends to be fickle these are the casual supporters who can be persuaded to attend if the conditions are right, but equally easily deterred, as everything depends on their perception of the event. When England was...
Such problems are more pressing in Europe and Britain than in North America, partly because the traditional European games of football, rugby and cricket are based on a vigorous interaction between the ball and the playing surface, so that the latter becomes critical, whereas in American football and baseball the ball is kept off the ground at the critical stages of play thus allowing a more tolerant choice of playing surface. American players tend also to be well padded and less likely to suffer injury when falling on a relatively hard surface, whereas lightly clad European players are more vulnerable and have a preference for natural grass. But it is interesting that a preference for natural grass pitches seems to be returning in American football.
Authority and supported by a football club, which may run its own lottery and plough the profits back into the stadium. Often the stadium accommodates an athletics track around the pitch and thereby provides a multi-purpose facility although one which is heavily weighted towards football financially. In the UK a typical club football ground is designed for soccer only and may never host any events other than a full timetable of matches for the club's season. This is largely explained by the fact that the separation of the spectators from the playing field by a running track, effectively pushing everyone away from the action by 10 or 12 m, has never gained acceptance among British fans. British football clubs pride themselves on providing a close concentrated atmosphere to watch the game and consequently forego the possibility of sharing their grounds with an athletics club. It is possible that by using movable seating tiers and other devices, the close football atmosphere and...
This question of seating versus standing accommodation has been so hotly debated, particularly for football matches in the UK as pointed out in Section 1.3.4, that a few paragraphs of comment are merited. As regards the law, most authorities believe that the greater the proportion of seated spectators, the less likely it will be that there will be crowd problems, and this belief is influencing the regulatory trend. British football authorities decreed that existing football stadia in the premier league and the championship must be converted to all-seater stadia over a specified period during the 1990s and that no standing terraces be provided in new stadia for these more senior divisions. FIFA and UEFA regulations allow for no standing places in new stadia for national or international matches. If on balance of all the above factors a decision in favour of standing accommodation seems indicated, it must be remembered that these areas may later need to be converted to seating, for...
When Colchester United Football Club decided to move from its Layer Road ground, Barr Construction was called upon to develop a brand new stadium. And with the help of Hanson Building Products, the new Weston Homes Community Stadium at Cuckoo Farm is now up and running for the 2008 2009 season. The steel framed structure makes extensive use of the cellular version of the Evalite Paint Grade block from Hanson for all of the partitions throughout the stadium. The cellular design of an almost hollowed out cavity within the block, gives it enormous advantages in terms of lightness of weight, without compromising its performance ability and its inherent strength. As well as handling considerations, the extremely light weight of the block reduces the amount of time spent on construction. A medium density block, Evalite is ideal for internal applications where weight is crucial. Manufactured from Class 1 aggregates, it attains the highest levels of fire resistance, essential under the rules...
How many leaders does a city of a million need 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 Indeed, 10,000 still represents only 1 per cent of the population. A city of a million should have a football stadium worth of leaders, as the good and successful city is made up of thousands of acts of tenacity, solidarity and creativity. The challenge is to unlock this potential. It is not enough to demand leadership only from government. Leaders come in many forms and from unusual places communities, business, the cultural arena, the environment people, activists of many colours. Most cities have many undiscovered leaders and those that exist often do not work across boundaries.
The colourful and elegant Aveiro Municipal stadium is located on the outskirts of Aveiro in Portugal. It is one part of the sports park planned for the site, and other facilities include a golf course, Leisure Park and several hotels. The 31 500-seat stadium was designed, initially, for the 2004 European Football Championships, and comprises the football pitch, two tiers of spectator seating, back-up spaces underneath and one level of underground parking. All seating is covered, but the roof is open over the pitch.
The Barn will be used for football, basketball and a wide range of other activities Including cricket, netball, athletics and tennis. Local residents will be able to use It on a casual basis and It will also provide facilities for local clubs, community groups and schools. The Barn will also play host to a wide range of organised coaching sessions for children
Figure 5.5 Sydney Football Stadium in Australia is a well-resolved overall design. The stands are deepest and highest where most people want to sit, and the roof sweeps gracefully round the field. Architects Philip Cox Richardson Taylor & Partners. Figure 5.5 Sydney Football Stadium in Australia is a well-resolved overall design. The stands are deepest and highest where most people want to sit, and the roof sweeps gracefully round the field. Architects Philip Cox Richardson Taylor & Partners.
The City of Manchester Stadium was designed to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games and became the home for Manchester City Football Club in August 2003. Following the Commonwealth Games a long-term future for the stadium was secured by its conversion to a football stadium that can also host rugby matches as well as other performance and community events. This conversion was achieved by the completion of the northern segment of the bowl and by digging down to create the lower seating tier, increasing the seating capacity from 38 000 to 50 000.
Up-to-date guidance on all the above requirements must be obtained from the relevant governing bodies of the individual sports (such as the International Olympic Committee for athletics, or FIFA for international football competitions) and from the professional lighting institutions in various countries. In the UK the CIBSE Lighting Guide Sport LG4 (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, 1990), plus addenda, is the essential reference. See Bibliography.
Cooper Marcus and Sarkissian (1986) also argue that you are most likely to see young children between the ages of 5 and 12 playing outside. These children socialise more. They are drawn to creative play and mastering their developed motor skills, which allow more elaborate types of activities like skipping, cycling or skateboarding. They become interested in rule-based and skill-based team games like football or basketball. They are keen to be creative, manipulate their environment and engage in fantasy, role playing and simple experiments like building a den or damming a stream. The commonly expressed adult thought that these children should play in either gardens or parks represents more a view of where adults think children should play, rather than a view of where children themselves want to go and what they want to do. A good design will try to acknowledge this.
The detailed design of the zone surrounding the playing area must be verified with the governing bodies and safety authorities. Such requirements cannot safely be given here they vary from sport to sport and from country to country, and are subject to change. Purely as an example of the provisions that might be required, the following criteria are laid down by FIFA and UEFA for football pitches
This is not to suggest that reflected sounds from the crowd must be totally eliminated. In Wimbledon's Centre Court the buzz of crowd excitement that is reflected back at key moments by the metal roof above contributes greatly to the sensation of a closely shared experience and in roofed football stadia the reflected aural ambience may add similarly to the excitement.
Braga Municipal Stadium is situated within the Dume Sports Park on the northern slope of Monte Castro in Portugal. The stadium, built for the European Football Championship 2004, has two unusual features. The first is that it has been integrated into its rocky surroundings and the second is that there are only two stands, located along the sides of the pitch.
The project sports an openable roof to shelter spectators from the desert sun. Additionally, as a first for North America, the stadium contains a moveable playing field. The field will reside outdoors most of the time, rolling into the stadium on rails for use during football games and other sporting events. This provides the grass with the sunshine it needs to grow, and also allows the building to function as a venue for tradeshows, concerts or other events on non-game days. In addition to housing the Arizona Cardinals football team, the new stadium has already been selected to host the 2008 Super Bowl.
A stadium may share parking space with adjacent offices or industrial buildings as at Utrecht, or even (as is the case with Aston Villa Football Club in Birmingham, UK) with superstores or shopping complexes. But problems will arise if both facilities need the parking space at the same time. This is quite likely in the case of shops and supermarkets which stay open in the evenings and at weekends. In the case of Aston Villa there is a condition in the agreement that the store cannot open during first team home matches. Therefore careful planning is required.
Nikolas Davies and Erkki Jokiniemi are practising architects located in Helsinki. Together they have more than 50 year's experience in the private and public sector, and have been involved in the design of buildings of all shapes and sizes in places as diverse as Australia, Japan, Germany, Scandinavia and the UK. They teamed up in 1987 whilst working in the offices of Gullichsen Kairamo Vormala Architects in Helsinki, and as well sharing a fondness for buildings and books, soon discovered other common interests and pastimes of tennis, football, good beer and the music of a certain Mr Zimmerman.
One of the limiting factors in the use of sand-filled, or indeed non-filled surfaces, is the limitation on footwear on such a surface. Football and rugby studs are unsuitable both from the comfort of the player and the potential damage to the surface. This problem has led to the development of synthetic turf surfaces that are particularly suited to football and rugby.
In the case of football stadia FIFA and UEFA's recommendations for new stadia state that 'every stadium should be equipped with a first aid room or rooms to care for spectators in need of medical assistance. The number, size and location of these rooms should be agreed in consultation with the local health authority'.
Each event type generates its own particular pattern of demand for parking. Some spectators will come by public transport, some by private car and some by specially hired fleets of coaches the ratios between them will vary from one type of event to another (in the UK, for instance, national football club finals are likely to draw a higher proportion of coach travellers). The amount of parking space required will therefore be based upon
How is this promoted Leaving aside the wealth of educational opportunities one would expect from a learning city, there is a need to find ways of using the city itself as a learning field. Urban learning resources are everywhere, from the obvious to the less obvious to the surprising. Pre-school groups, schools, colleges, universities, adult learning centres, libraries, television and the internet are obvious. Businesses, community centres, arts centres, museums and attractions, health centres, post offices, citizens' advice bureaux, the urban streetscape, nature reserves, the outdoors and bookshops are less obvious. Old peoples' homes, homeless shelters, refuges, prisons, shopping malls, hospitals, churches, trains, stations, football stadia, service stations, restaurants, hotels, caf s, nightclubs and local parks are surprising. The challenge is to create more self-conscious communication devices that allow the city fabric to become a learning experience. Learning messages must...
Figure 11.2 Preferred viewing positions for some principal sports. (a) Football (b) American football (c) rugby league (d) lawn tennis (e) baseball (f) Australian Rules football. Figure 11.3 Wembley Stadium, London (see also Appendix 3). The new stadium with 90 000 capacity for football or rugby, and the ability to include an athletics track, has a few seats outside the maximum viewing distance line. Figure 11.3 Wembley Stadium, London (see also Appendix 3). The new stadium with 90 000 capacity for football or rugby, and the ability to include an athletics track, has a few seats outside the maximum viewing distance line. Figure 11.4 Aztec Stadium, Mexico City, built in 1966 exclusively for football. The layout is of the type shown in Figure 10.1d but far too large for satisfactory viewing most of the 105 000 seats on the single-tier terrace are outside the optimum viewing circle and very many are beyond the maximum viewing distance.
Designing a system that will meet the performance criteria noted in Section 20.3.1 above is a matter for specialists and detailed advice would be out of place in this book. In the UK the Sports Council has published an excellent guide by the Football Stadia Advisory Design Council, which should be studied. But one aspect with which stadium designers will get directly involved is the pattern of sound distribution.
One response to the problems outlined above is the concept of 'pitch replacement' on an organized and systematic basis. The principle is to remove the grass when not needed, to allow other events to take place on an artificial surface underneath. There are many removal techniques (i) a Canadian method of growing the turf in large boxes which can then be moved out of the stadium on rails (ii) a German method of growing the turf on pallets 4m square which are then moved on the hovercraft principle and (iii) a Dutch concept of leaving the natural grass in place and constructing above it a new platform supported on remote-controlled hydraulic legs. In the UK, Odsal Stadium in Bradford has used a simple system of restoring the corners of a football pitch which had been cut off by a speedway track around the pitch grass was grown on wooden pallets with a reinforced plastic mesh sub-base, and these were moved away to storage by forklift truck before speedway events. Further notes on this...
The primary locations for concession kiosks are as close as possible to the access vomitories and concourses, planned so that queues do not obstruct circulation. A total allowance of 1.5 m of counter length per 300 spectators is a figure used in some football stadia, but it may need to be increased where intervals are shorter and the crush for service greater. The principal factors involved are match quality, weather and how easy it is to get service, all of which have an impact on spectator demand.
Achieving safety and security in public areas is of paramount importance to Wolverhampton Wanderers Football Club. The Jack Harris and Billy Wright stands at the ground house a total of six concourses. Wolves' facilities management team requested Impact Flooring to specify and install a new flooring system to cover the existing concrete surface. Impact recommended an epoxy two tier coating system from Resdev Ltd. The system combines Pumacoat, an epoxy resin floor seal yielding a seamless, hygienic and cleanable finish, with a protective topcoat of Pumashield, a medium viscosity epoxy coating with abrasion resistant fillers. This combination achieves a flooring with excellent resistance to foot traffic and light wheeled vehicles, providing an attractive yet tough and durable solution.
On any typical winter weekend in the UK when football is being played around 5000 police will be on duty around the country. Individual events can have as few as 10 to 50 in attendance at the grounds while major football matches can have as many as 300 to 400 on site. This will be a decision taken by the police themselves in consultation with the stadium management and the club concerned. The decision will have to take into account the following factors. As a guide to the number of police inside a ground for football matches in the UK we have listed the numbers suggested in the 1990 Home Office publication Policing Football Hooliganism. Category 1 Smaller clubs (e.g. lower divisions of the Football League), policing may require as few as 30 to 40 officers.
Each changing room should contain a locker, bench seat and hanging space for each individual player (including reserves), each such space being between 600mm and 900mm wide and at least 1200mm deep. In the case of football FIFA requires twenty of these positions, and the requirements for rugby will be very similar. The benches should be designed so that clothes can be kept dry and in good order. American football teams often prefer individual cabinets or open hanging units with side panels, to the open benching that is common for football and rugby. In the case of new football stadia catering for major matches FIFA UEFA recommend four separate team dressing rooms.
The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG) is 153 years old and one of the largest capacity sporting venues of the world. It has great historic and spiritual significance as the home of Australian cricket and Australian Rules Football. It was the main venue for the 1956 Olympic Games and in March 2006 hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and the athletics for the Commonwealth Games.
Although not often a consideration in the USA, the conversion of standing terraces to seating is a major factor in the UK and to a lesser extent in the rest of Europe. The interest in this change from standing to seating is due not only to a sudden desire to provide comfortable viewing but a result of the Taylor Report into the Sheffield Hillsborough disaster in the UK, published in 1990, which recommended that within a set period of time most football grounds should become all-seated (see Hillsborough stadium disaster in the Bibliography). This policy is consistent with FIFA recommendations, but the move to all-seater stadia through all the divisions of the football league has since been modified.
Every stadium, however small, must provide facilities for the participants in the events held at the venue, but the amount and type of accommodation that is needed varies enormously a football or rugby match may need facilities for only two teams (including reserves) plus officials, whereas a major international athletics event may attract up to a thousand participants.
Require a capacity of (say) 30 000 for certain football matches an analysis of the potential catchment area and, in the case of an existing site, an investigation of past attendances there, may show such a number of spectators to be highly unlikely. Realism must prevail.
The Chelsea Club provides private sports facilities for its members, including a 25 m level deck swimming pool, 200 m running track at high level around the perimeter, sports injury clinic, cardiovascular and aerobic studios, jacuzzi, steam room and sauna this is associated with the Chelsea football ground at Stamford Bridge. The top floor of the building houses the Chelsea World of Sport, an interactive exhibition explaining the relationship between physiological performance and sporting achievement. This is linked by a bridge to the adjacent stadium.
The multi-functional 80 000-seat stadium, built originally for the 1998 final of the Football World Cup, is designed for both football and rugby, because of the elliptical shape of the tiered seating. It naturally provides a convergence of the spectators' view towards the pitch, and more particularly, towards the goals. But it is also adaptable to a wide range of athletic events. The 25 000 seats of the first ring terraces are mobile, and can be mechanically pulled back 15 metres, rolling on a cushion of air, steel and Teflon rollers.
The 58 000-seat Auf Schalke arena, in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, was completed in 2001, and is designed primarily for football, but its key is its multifunction-ality. The arena hosts a wide variety of non-sporting events including concerts, opera, festivals, trade fairs and conferences, which can all be held irrespective of the weather. The arena is in the shape of a rectangle, with steeply banked stands that are very close to the pitch on all four sides, a sliding roof and an adjustable playing field. One of the main reasons for the arena's versatility is the mobile pitch, which can be moved in or out in six hours and is only used when a football match is being played. During the week the pitch is stored outside the arena, enabling it to recover after the game, with proper exposure to light, air and water. It is laid on a mobile, reinforced concrete trough (118 by 79 metres) which is about one metre high and weighs 11 000 tonnes. It is filled with a layer of sand into which the under...
The Allianz Arena, in Munich, Germany, completed in 2005, was designed by Herzog & De Meuron to host the Opening Game of the FIFA World Cup 2006. It is home to two local football clubs, FC Bayern and TSV 1860. The architecture of the 60 000-seat stadium is distinguished, above all, by its unique skin. This is a translucent luminous body consisting of large shimmering white, diamond-shaped ETFE cushions, each of which can be illuminated separately in white, red or light blue, the colours of the two clubs. The colours of the cushions can be controlled digitally so that the home team playing in the stadium can be identified from the outside. The outer enclosures of the stadium are multilayer, pneumatic structures. At every corner a pumping station maintains the internal air pressure within the pneumatic elements. The changing appearance of the stadium enhances its attraction as an urban monument even for people who are not interested in football. The car parks are laid out between the...
The design for Heinz Field is inspired by elements integral to Pittsburgh and its people. The Steelers football team takes their name from Pittsburgh's history in the steel industry. Reflecting that legacy, steel is a primary building material in Heinz Field. While respecting the heritage of the city, the stadium's design conveys a contemporary image that looks to the future.
Department stores are an example where you might be affected. In colder climates they first hit you with a waft of warm, stale air and in warmer climes, a draught of cold. Yet from Dubai to Tokyo, from London to Buenos Aires, the first impression is of a powerful, heady blast of perfumes and cosmetics. With profit margins high, the ground floors provide an oversaturated smell environment. The perfumery hall is full of sales women who have put on body lotion, piles of foundation, powder, scent and deodorant. The smells are different and are fighting against each other. Every perfume company is fighting the fragrance battle, luring and seducing customers into their smell zones. Chanel, Guerlain, Issy Miyake, Dior, YSL. The list grows yearly as fashion designers, pop stars and the odd football player branch into fragrances. The continuous squirting from tester bottles replenishes this heavy petrochemical cocktail. Modern perfumes are constructed chemical smells with a substantial benzene...
The 63 000 seat Arizona Cardinals football stadium - see Case study 3. The Reliant football stadium in Houston (see Figure 8.1 and Case study 19). The Rod Laver Arena in Melbourne (see Figure 1.15). The Amsterdam ArenA (see Figure 8.1 and Case study 2) which opened in 1996 and seats up to 51 000 spectators. It is primarily a football stadium but is also extensively used for pop concerts and other entertainments.
Amsterdam ArenA, completed in 1996, was the first European stadium to be built with a retractable roof. It opens and closes within 25 minutes. The state-of-the-art 52 000-seat stadium, which can be increased to 68000 seats for concerts, is the home of the Ajax Football Club, as well as host to a range of very successful entertainment events. The stadium hosts more than seventy major events each year, and more than half are concerts, dance parties, religious meetings, product presentations and other sporting events such as international games of the Dutch national team, and American football. The Amsterdam Arena has a wide range of corporate facilities including a Royal Suite, VIP lounges and suites and 16 hospitality rooms, which can seat 2500 as well as 2000 business seats. The state-of-the-art 52 000 seat stadium, which can be increased to 68 000 seats for concerts, is the home of the Ajax Football Club, as well as host to a range of very successful entertainment events
A technology called 'regenesys' converts electrical energy to chemical energy and is potentially capable of storing massive amounts of electricity. Energy is stored in two concentrated aqueous electrolyte solutions, sodium bromide and sodium polysulphide. On charging the bromide ions are oxidized to bromine while sulphur in the polysulphide anions is converted to sulphide ions. On discharging, the sulphide ions act as the reducing agent and the tribro-mide ion as the oxidizing agent. The system can be switched from fully charging to discharging in about 20 milliseconds. The city of Toronto is investigating the feasibility of using the advance RGN flow battery as back-up for its grid during periods of peak demand to prevent outages and 'brown-outs' on such occasions. An appropriate 600 MWh urban scale storage system would need 30 million litres of electrolyte stored in 6 m high tanks covering the area of a football pitch. It is still considered more cost-effective than providing the...
A hybrid of both is emerging with developments in plastic mesh root reinforcement, plastic turf support, and plastic granular growing mediums with computer-controlled nutrient injection. New hybrid grass types require less light, grow faster, and are far more robust and the quality of synthetic grass is now such that it has been accepted under certain conditions for first class football. These advances allow a greater number of different types of events to take place on the same pitch, making the venue more financially viable and able to justify greater capital cost.
Where the anticipated spectators are known to be 'game-orientated' rather that 'team-orientated', and to behave peacefully, there is no need for special provisions. Spectators at tennis, rugby or athletic events tend to fall into this class. So, perhaps for different reasons, do American football and baseball crowds because distances between competing clubs in the USA are so great, there are seldom large numbers of 'away' fans present at matches. The case is generally different with football crowds in Britain and Europe (principally the Netherlands, Italy and Germany) and in South America. These fans tend to be strongly partisan and attend matches primarily to support their home teams. Supporters of competing sides may be hostile and aggressive, in which case they cannot be allowed to mix freely and must be separated all the way from their arrival in Zone 5 to their seats.
For 1,600 children the space in the schoolyard provides an average of 89 square feet per pupil, which is a fair allowance considering that all the pupils will seldom be in the yard at the same time. The athletic field is large enough for baseball in the spring and summer, and football in the fall. By flooding it with a hose in the winter time it can be made available for skating.
As markets mature, new technology being developed for the leisure industry in general, and for theme parks in particular, is likely to provide the main vehicle that will allow stadia to be fully exploited as venues for a wide range of leisure activities and as significant entertainment venues. In the USA the phenomenon of pre-match entertainment and the associated 'Fan-Fests' have been a prominent feature of pro-football and major-league baseball games. Pre-match and half-time shows at major football events have given this concept a new dimension. Inventive multimedia shows combine the best of theme park technology with live entertainment, pyrotechnics, and lasers, turning the stadium into theatre, stage and film set at the same time.
The Oita Stadium, in South West Japan, was built for the 2002 Football World Cup. It was designed by Kisho Kurokawa and the Takenaka Corporation and is affectionately known as the 'Big Eye' because the stadium is shaped like a big eye looking upwards that can open and close its eyelid.
Reds and the football Cincinnati Bengals since 1971. The 42,263-seat ballpark is on the Ohio River, immediately adjacent to the site of Cinergy Field, which has been demolished. A nearby riverfront stadium for the Bengals Paul Brown Stadium has been in operation for three seasons. Great American Ball Park is an open-air ballpark with views of the river and the Kentucky shore. It is the only new major league park to open this year ballparks in San Diego and Philadelphia will open in 2004. J.E.C.
For certain other sports the playing areas are so different that they cannot easily be accommodated in the same building. Examples include American football and baseball. Figure 4.1 shows the Truman Sports Complex in the USA, where it was decided to provide separate venues for the two sports. But the problem is not insoluble, as demonstrated by the Pro Player stadium in Miami, which despite the difficulties accommodates both. In such situations one sport has to be the primary game for which the building is designed, and the secondary sport has to accept arrangements that are, to whatever degree, a compromise. Thus in the Pro Player stadium the seating tiers are a rectangle in the normal set-out for American football, and when a baseball game is to be played one side of the lower tier retracts to create a large enough field for the baseball triangle.
Ownership issues over co-habitation of these buildings, thus spreading the burden of construction and maintenance costs across more than one sport or more than one club, have to some extent been addressed - sometimes very successfully, as in Huddersfield where football and rugby combine happily in the Galpharm Stadium (see Figures 5.8, 11.9, 19.2 and 21.1). Even the new Wembley Stadium (see Case Study, page 292) has been designed to be used for football, rugby and athletics as well as the ever-popular concert. The economics of huge stadia like Wembley with their extensive private suites, corporate boxes and large restaurants make the prospect of financially lucrative events more realistic. Football stadia for different sports. How else could a developer justify building a stadium for gridiron football that features only eight home games per season
Home of the Houston Texans NFL franchise, Reliant Stadium offers an intimacy and compactness similar to a large indoor arena. All seating levels are designed to be as close to the field as possible. A palletized natural grass field provides the optimum playing surface for football and soccer, while allowing flexibility for rodeos and other events.
If the pitch is to be of variable size to cater for very different activities then the design capacity should be stated as two figures the number of seats around the maximum pitch size (perhaps football or athletics) and the maximum capacity around the smallest space user (perhaps the performers in a pop concert, or a boxing ring). The stadium owners will have very strong views on seating capacities as these form the basis of their profitability calculations.
In Foxborough, Massachusetts, the Neponset River is being liberated from under the grounds of Foxborough Stadium. The Neponset was partially buried in culverts in the late 1940s, and weeds and debris choked the remaining exposed portion. Plastic fencing and hay bales appeared to imprison the stream in an attempt to halt erosion. The river is now being freed into a 20-meter (65-ft) wide channel and wetlands corridor on the edge of the new stadium complex, creating a 915-meter (3000-ft) riverfront consisting of an acre of open water, four acres of vegetated wetland, and three acres of vegetated upland. The new 68,000-seat Gillette Stadium will use graywater to flush the toilets that football fans use on game days. Storm basins that drain into retention ponds filter out the oil, salt, and antifreeze that collect in parking areas. The project also includes a 946,000-liter (250,000-gallon) per day wastewater treatment facility and extensive use of recycled construction materials.
This is the nerve centre from which the entire venue is controlled, both in normal times and in emergencies, and its correct location, design, and fitting-out are of great importance. Comprehensive advice for football stadia is given in Control Rooms (see Bibliography), and the following brief notes are no substitute for the full data given in this essential reference.
Will have a seating bowl plan area one and a half times larger than the old stadium. Obviously such comfort costs considerably more money to build, however this can encourage spectators to stay at the stadium for longer which in turn means they are likely to spend more money there. In addition, the extra area afforded to each spectator will mean the viewing areas will be better suited for events that run longer than the traditional 90 minutes of a football match, such as all-day concerts or festivals.
Provision must be made for camera platforms of at least 2 m by 2 m surface area, in positions agreed with the relevant television companies. Even in small sports grounds television camera positions will be a consideration as these platforms can also be used by the clubs for internal video recording for training or for historic records, or to cater for the increasing sale of video recordings of matches to supporters (the Arsenal football club in London sells about 30 000 of its match recordings). There is also the possibility of local television broadcasting, including closed circuit broadcasts to local hospitals and other community outlets.
Stadium management in the UK is generally not as commercialized as in the USA, but all the trends outlined above are at work in the UK. The new Wembley Stadium in London (see Case studies) will be a leading example. The Galpharm football and rugby stadium in Huddersfield, Yorkshire, designed by HOK Sport, contains a range of facilities and may also serve as an example Football and rugby museums.
The Salzburg Stadium, in Austria, opened in 2003. The 16 500-seat stadium, designed mainly for football, has been integrated into its surroundings in the immediate vicinity of Klessheim Castle designed by Fischer von Erlach in 1694. This has had a significant impact on the design of the stadium.
Synthetic sports surfaces have since been developed into more sophisticated constructions, all with the enormous advantage to a stadium manager that he can hold different events on the same playing surface, one after the other. Although players and team coaches tended to prefer a natural grass surface for its playability, artificial surfaces were approved for American football and spread quickly through the USA. They are now officially accepted by FIFA for soccer matches and are beginning to be installed by clubs around the world, though they have not yet been accepted by national federations for major matches.
At stadia there is normally a regular schedule of events through the year, and sometimes on top of this there are more infrequent, bigger events that are hosted there. For example a club football ground will hold the annual list of matches of the club, and then it might bid to hold an international cup final that will come to the stadium once every few years. Such a match will attract more spectators, more media and more sponsors for whom it is not worth constructing permanent accommodation, so temporary arrangements can be made, called an 'overlay' (see also Section 3.4).
There must also be direct, protected access between players' changing rooms and the pitch. At events where players and referees may be subject to attack (such as the hurling of missiles) by the crowd, safety requirements are stringent. Football matches in countries with strong traditions of team loyalty fall into this category, and recommendations are outlined below.
In all cases the efficacy of a roof in shading its occupants from the sun, and the extent of shadow it casts upon the pitch at different times of the day and year, must be studied by careful computer modelling. Such modelling should proceed in parallel with wind tunnel testing, especially if the playing surface is to be natural grass, because 'it is now generally accepted that a combination of shading from sunlight and reduced airflow at pitch level has an adverse effect on the durability and quality of grass', to quote Britain's Football Stadia Advisory Design Council.
After years of political wrangling, the Chicago Bears, the fans and visitors are finally enjoying their brand new state of the art 63 000 seat stadium. Named the 'Best Damn New Stadium, Period' by GQ magazine, this stadium and its 17 new acres of parkland, is changing the face of sports architecture. W+Z working in close collaboration with the team's owners, developed a scheme that saves the classic colonnades of Soldier Field, while providing one of the most exciting luxury skybox configurations in football,
Rigidal's Ziplok standing seam profile in mill finish aluminium was chosen for the roof of the new Millenium Madejski Hotel at the Madejski Stadium home of Reading Football Club. The hotel also utilises Rigidal's sinusoidal profile in metallic silver on the distinctive, high level radius end which bears the hotel's name. Roofing contractor Kovara Projects of Reading also fitted Ziplok to the roof of a new press facility for the football stadium. Ziplok is a BBA approved, advanced zip-up standing seam system that offers exceptional weather resistance and durability. The unique halter design complements the design of the liner (20 100 1000) in a way which leaves almost no possibility of error in setting out the roof and so allows for fast and trouble free laying of the profiles.
Stadia have a role in helping to create a vibrant image for a town or city, and at their best can be used as part of the tourism infrastructure and appeal of a city. The actual events in the stadium attract tourists but also these landmark buildings themselves can act as magnets and draw visitors to them. In addition the emergence of the sports visitor attractions, museums and halls of fame in the stadium are increasing its market appeal. A good example is Barcelona's Noucamp Stadium which attracts a huge number of visitors each year. The success of the Galpharm Stadium in Huddersfield, with its blue roof and exciting shapes, had a major impact on the city itself. Similarly the Toronto Skydome has clearly become part of the image of that city. Images of these venues appear in tourist brochures as an attraction of the city or town. Television coverage of major events such as the World Cup in football or rugby and the Olympic Games have brought images of dramatic and often aesthetically...
The school play area is finished in macadam with coloured patterns and games painted on the surface. Timber shade structures provide protection from excessive exposure to sunshine. To the south lies a floodlit all weather pitch for football and other games for people of all ages.
In the UK and Australia part of the problem lies in changing strong existing traditions whereby spectators attend a local pub before a sporting event, particularly football and rugby, the pub acting both as a meeting point and a suitable beverage outlet. This results in late arrival at the stadium and an unnecessary crush, creating crowd control problems. Indeed, pre-match drinking was one of the suggested con-tributary factors to the Sheffield Hillsborough disaster in the UK in 1989. In addition, having fans spend their money off the premises does nothing for stadium profitability.
The USA has led the way in maximizing the number of events a stadium may accommodate in one year. New covered venues in Europe are aiming for up to 250 event days per year where only 5 to 10 per cent of these events are football, usually the primary use of European stadia. Major football matches Minor football matches American football
For football grounds in the UK, diagrams 2 and 3 in Control Rooms show a range of options. In order not to look into the sun the ideal location will be on the north, northwest, or west stand and for a clear view Diagram 6 in Control Rooms shows the spatial relationships of the control room and surrounding facilities. This diagram applies specifically to football stadia, but it will be generally helpful for other situations.
In Britain a recent example of a stadium finished durably but elegantly is Richard Horden's 5000-capacity Queen's Stand at Epsom Downs racecourse, Surrey. This building, opened in 1992, is not so much a stand as a private box viewing area and therefore exceptional - but it shows what can be achieved. Another example in the UK is the mid tier at Arsenal Football Club, north London, completed in 2006. All seats are padded and with arms and circulation, toilets and amenity features are finished to cinema standard.
Typically football-only facilities will include accommodation behind the bowl that equate to approximately 1 m2 of area for every spectator. However this varies considerably from facility to facility, and is probably the single largest variable in cost comparisons for stadia of equal capacity. For instance the Stade de France provides a total accommodation area equal to just under 1 m2 per person, but the new Wembley stadium will afford an area equal to nearly 2m2 per person.
British roofed stadia which have been constructed in a phased manner, and which might be studied if such a development is envisaged, include those at Twickenham Rugby Football Ground in west London Murrayfield rugby stadium in Edinburgh the Galpharm stadium in Huddersfield, Yorkshire and the old Arsenal football stadium in north London.
As above the supporting structure is separated from the roof covering. The structure consists of a three-dimensional net of steel cables, and the covering probably of plastics (acrylic, PVC or polycarbonate). Glass reinforced plastic has been used but it tends to become brittle and less translucent with age. Suitable plastics for coverings are listed in Table 5.1, published by kind permission of the Football Stadia Advisory Design Council and the Sports Council.
Following this a Medical Working Party of England's Football League made a number of specific recommendations. These are in no sense obligatory but are quoted here as useful guidelines. They state that first aid posts should be sited around the stadium, so that no spectator is too far from one, that they
The majority of seating will almost certainly be in the form of individual seats with backs - very probably the tip-up kind (Figure 12.3). They are the most comfortable type, giving the greatest width of seat-way (see next section) thus providing greater convenience and safety than backless seats. In the case of football stadia FIFA is clear in its recommendation that in major stadia all seats should have backs.
For stadiums near mass transportation, such as New York City's Yankee Stadium, or for stadiums on university campuses where students, faculty, and many guests are within walking distance, there may be very little need for on-site parking. As a rule of thumb, if people do come by car they come at a rate of three passengers per car. For peak crowds, such as at football games, many people will normally come by chartered or special buses. A stadium with a seating capacity of 50,000 people should have spaces for about 100 buses.
(The Lord Justice Taylor Report followed, with a subsequent new edition of the Safety at Sports Grounds Act 1990 and additional tightening of the certification system under the Football Supporters Act 1989 which established the Football Licensing Authority. The football administrators also reacted by setting up the Football Stadia Advisory Design Council in 1991.)
Air inflated structures are hermetically ei'dosed voiumat 'hat ere nflated under high pressure much like a football i,o provide Utility. Thev car have various tubular or cushion forms with higli air pressure etv een two layers of fabric that provide usable space unc.er normal air pressure. The ai pressure ranges from 2 to 70 meters of water, yielding It vo 'i00 ooundr. per square inch pressure, enough to resist gravity and lateral locio. Without pressure they would have no stability. Air inflated structures also requiPi some continuous air supply to make up for pressure loss due to membrane leaks.
An increasing number of football clubs in the UK are finding this method to be suitable to their situation where they lack the funding to improve their grounds but own the land on which it sits. Provided their land is of sufficient value they can often pay for a new facility on less valuable land by the sale of their existing site. Land swap can also include the local authority where an area of land surplus to the local authority's requirements can be sold to the club so that they move from their original location.
The most precise recommendations are those laid down for football stadia by FIFA and UEFA a minimum width of 2.5m and a minimum depth of 3.0m sufficiently high barriers on both sides to prevent people falling into the moat and the provision of safety escape routes across the moat in those stadia where the playing area is a means of escape in an emergency. Moats should not contain water but