Ksar Ferich

A fortified storehouse in southern Tunisia The completely unbroken perimeter of the complex The completely unbroken perimeter of the complex The ksour (plural of ksar) of southern Tunisia are fortified living and storage complexes which were preferably built high up on the mountain plateaus or on steep mountain slopes. The centre of the complex is frequently a kalaa (a fortification). Grouped in the rocks below are the houses or caves and these are always accompanied by honeycomblike,...

Cd

As with barrel vaults and arches, in domes we are always faced with the question How is the thrust to be accommodated, reduced and taken down to the foundations At the Pantheon in Rome the designers employed various features to handle this problem. The weight of the dome decreases as it rises, which is achieved not only by reducing the cross-section but also by using lighter materials. The dimensions of the dome are such that the flow of forces starting from the crown remains within the...

The wall

Excerpt from Antonio Averllno Fllarete Treatise on Architecture, Florence, Bibl. Naz., Cod. Magl. II, I, 140 fol. 5v Excerpt from Antonio Averllno Fllarete Treatise on Architecture, Florence, Bibl. Naz., Cod. Magl. II, I, 140 fol. 5v Fig. 2 Brightly painted beam in the Parthenon in Athens After Gottfried Semper plate V from Anwendung der Farben in der Architektur und Plastik, Dresden 1836 Fig. 2 Brightly painted beam in the Parthenon in Athens After Gottfried Semper plate V from Anwendung der...

Elements

Introduction I Building underground The wall_ For and against the The doubling of_ The roof_ Flights of fancy - Surveying work Site preparation_ opening package Position of window, opening rehate_ - frame sections The window as a_ Building performance External wall issues helow ground - Repercussions for the huilding envelope_

Info

A 50 mm gravel B Drainage outlets C Ventilation outlet D 2 layers of bitumen roofing felt, 3 mm E Sheet metal capping on mortar laid to falls F Supporting construction of water-repellent wood-based boarc G Rockwool thermal insulation laid to falls, 100 mm H 3-ply core plywood, 95 mm I Cable duct with removable cover (for electric distribution) J Separating strip, 1.5 mm K Steel beam, IPE 360 L Fluorescent tube with transparent plastic diffuser M Beam 200 x 300 x 8 mm rectangular hollow section...

Seven rules for the design of a lowenergy house

What are the key factors when planning a low-energy house The following seven rules are intended to provide an overview and a guide. The form, location, and interior layout of a building have a major influence on the energy consumption. Strive for clear, simple solutions. If you are not inventive by nature, assemble your house (intelligently) from inexpensive, readily available parts. 2. Plan a high degree of insulation The thermal insulation of a low-energy house is at least 20 cm thick....

Wall opening

Erosion of outer leaf, risk of saturation of outer leaf, frost risk a) Masonry (monolithic, two leaves or with external insulation) render paint b) Fair-face masonry clay hard-fired bricks are water-repellent and frost-resistant, special moilar required (seal joints), possibly a ventilation cavity. c) Lightweight construction (steel, timber) cladding, shingles, planks, boards if the loadbearing construction is positioned externally, it must be protected (paint, cladding, canopy). d) Exposed...

Detail

Fig. 151 Windows in common areas open outwards Fig. 151 Windows in common areas open outwards Fig. 152 Contrast between inward- and outward-opening windows Fig. 152 Contrast between inward- and outward-opening windows Screed with underfloor heating 80 mm Polyethylene sheet Fig. 150 Section through corridor window, 1 20 Concrete, type 5 Thermal i nsulation Concrete, type 5 Sarnafil TU 122 08, fully bonded Thermal i nsulation, 2 layers laid cross-wise Vapour barrier Concrete, type 2

Cutting out sunlight and glare

Protection against sunlight and glare is provided by additional elements around the opening. The task of these elements is to regulate the amount of daylight and solar radiation entering the interior, perhaps even exclude it completely. A secondary function is to provide privacy at night. There are many ways of incorporating sunlight and glare protection measures into the architecture of a building. However, certain building performance aspects must be considered if efficient, functioning...

Uhhuiuh

Fig. 29 Retaining wall with arch form Schematic plans (from top to bottom) - additional ribs provide greater load-carrying capacity - a greater rise also improves the load-carrying capacity more materials and deny the flow of the forces, but are usually easier - and hence cheaper - to construct. Structures with an active cross-section also help to stabilise excavations, an aspect that is always relevant below a certain depth. If the area of the excavation is only small, it can be secured with a...

Flat roof pitched roof

Repercussions for the building envelope a) Waterproofing The waterproofing and water run-off layer must exhibit, depending on the system, a minimum fall of between 1.5 (upside-down roof) and 3 . The waterproofing layer is generally the topmost layer or the seconc layer below any wearing course or protective layer. The exception is the upside-down roof, where the waterproofing layer is beneath the thermal i nsulation. In this case it must be assured that the i nsulating material is...

Building underground

Fig. 2 From outside there is no hint of the existence of a subterranean space - the vault as a structurally ideal form Fig. 2 From outside there is no hint of the existence of a subterranean space - the vault as a structurally ideal form Fig. 1 A secret underground alternative world Film set in James Bond 007 - You Only Live Twice, 1967 Fig. 1 A secret underground alternative world Film set in James Bond 007 - You Only Live Twice, 1967 Subterranean structures are all around us yet we hardly...

Box frame construction

Atelier 5 Flamatt 1 residential development The apartment block shown here, designed by the Atelier 5 team, illustrates a typical use of parallel shear walls (or cross walls). They separate the individual apartments and on the standard f loor determine the dimensions of the living room. The south facade reflects this loadbearing structure, which limits the openings on all sides (structural opening). The inclusion of loggias further emphasises the principle of the box frame construction. The...

Why steel

Once upon a time the product made from ore pointed the way to forms of architecture that had been inconceivable in the past, and during the 1920s it enjoyed the rank of a material preferred by the avantgarde. But the importance of steel in current architectural accomplishments leaves behind conflicting impressions. On the one hand, modern construction would hardly be conceivable without steel on the other, the reasons for Fig. 1 Probably half of all the...

The doubling of the sky

Bernadette Banlay

Fig. 1 Flared-head columns in reinforced concrete (diameter varies with storey, or rather load) Robert Maillart grain warehouse, Altdorf (CH), 1912 Fig. 1 Flared-head columns in reinforced concrete (diameter varies with storey, or rather load) Robert Maillart grain warehouse, Altdorf (CH), 1912 Only when we stare at the ceiling at night do we really first appreciate it. The dream of the insomniac is that the ceiling above will finally disappear. A whole genre of 20th-century literature was...

Tectonics

Ledigenheim Fischer Detail

- amorphous, without form - non-directional - directional Movement Permanence Scale effect (feeling) 1.1 Textile floor coverings (needle felt + carpeting) Price category 1, medium quality, laid, Price category 2, hard-wearing quality, Natural fibre carpet (sisal-coconut), laid, Plastic floor coverings (inlaid, PVC) 25 2. Plastering, painting and wallpapering Plastic grit, Chloster-style plaster 10 Dispersion paint, matt paint 10 Blanc fixe, whitened 10 Woodwork (windows, doors) painted with...

For and against the long window

Corseaux Lake Geneva

The Perret - Le Corbusier controversy Mr Auguste Perret reports on the architectural section of the Salon d'Automne. That was the headline used by the Paris Journaif1 for an interview with Auguste Perret on the section dedicated to Architecture and Town Planning at the Salon d'Automne (1 Nov to 16 Dec 1923). According to journalist Guillaume Baderre, this section in particular evoked great curiosity among the visitors Some people greeted our young architects' bold designs with great enthusiasm,...

The roof

Flat or pitched roof We are not interested in pedantically reconstructing the position of this or that person, and we certainly do not intend to play the game of those who, taking the form of the roof as their starting point, distinguish between good and bad, progress and tradition, vernacular architecture and I nternational Style. If we had been alive in the early 1930s, we would have been forced to take sides in favour of one tendency or a tendency of a tendency. We would have chosen...

The threads of the net

Northern Architect

Shin Takasuga Railway Sleeper House, house formerly belonging to the Seitogakushi School, Miyakejima (J), 198C Shin Takasuga Railway Sleeper House, house formerly belonging to the Seitogakushi School, Miyakejima (J), 198C In the 1970s Japanese architects were searching for independence. One example of this search between centuries-old tradition and rigid, unbridled Modernism is Shin Takasuga's Railway Sleeper House, which has a contemporary look but in many respects is linked with Japanese...

So

Fig. 8 Comlongan Castle, Dumfries (Scotland, GB), 15th century monolithic-synthetic. Not because I wish to praise this technology (but a corresponding minimum expertise is important for architects), but because unforeseen possibilities for the plastic modulation of building mass and spatial inclusions, of massiveness and solid walls, of layering and opening are waiting for us all extraordinarily rich and elementary architectural themes. Again and again I am amazed by the spatially clear...

Lowtech high tectonics

One example for energy-saving construction within the costs framework of conventional building methods What was originally intended as a conventional school design at the tender stage changed during the planning phase to a concept complying with the Swiss Minergie Standard. In doing so it was possible to avoid delegating the energy problem to the building services and instead to achieve a synthesis with the tectonics of the structure. A visitor to the school in Vella would be unable to discover...

Consultations On The Construction Of A Plant For The Production Of Facing Bricks

Eladio Dieste Church in Atlantida (Uruguay), 1960 Eladio Dieste Church in Atlantida (Uruguay), 1960 of and never-ending change among organically growing forms. This is the very same path that architectural standardisation must follow.22 How can a brick possibly have the same elastic soul as an amoeba Aalto's decision to use distorted, scorched bricks is rather a metaphorical statement of the problem than a solution. He uses this as a reference to ancient forms of brick architecture, to massive...

Peter Markli

Peter Markli

Grabs, the kind of scattered settlement, that is typical in Switzerland, lies in the flat land of the St Galler Rhine valley. Peter Markli's house stands in a gentle depression between farms and other detached houses. It faces south and access is from the north side, via a narrow asphalt road. At the start the design work was marked by an intensive analysis of the location and the interior layout, always keeping in mind the needs of the occupants. In the course of the design process the aim was...

Planar structural members

Ribbed Slab Construction

Fig. 59 One-way-spanning continuous slab simply-supported slab h l 1 25 Fig. 59 One-way-spanning continuous slab simply-supported slab h l 1 25 continuous slab end span h l 1 30 continuous slab other spans h l 1 35 simply-supported slab h l 1 30 continuous slab corner span h l 1 40 continuous slab other spans h l 1 45 min. slab thickness h 180 to 200 mm fire protection and sound insulation one-way-span slabs two-way-span slabs overall depth h h l 20 to l 35 clear spacing of ribs s s lt 2h slab...

Conversion of a trunk in traditional Japanese timber building culture

The workshops at the Grand Shrine of Ise Thanks to the ritual of completely rebuilding the shrine every 20 years, a centuries-old tradition of conversion has been handed down to the present day in the workshops of the Grand Shrine of Ise. This bears witness to a profound knowledge of wood, and the procedures for cutting the wood illustrate the rules that must be observed when obtaining high-quality sawn timber sections from mature tree trunks in order to do justice to the individual...

Of heavy mass and apparent heaviness

Opera House Jean Nouvel

Mass is a fundamental property of material which expresses itself in the mutual attraction of bodies and in their inertias. The former results in the heavyweight, age-old problem of architecture, the latter allows mass to generate resistance. Both of these aspects are illustrated in the pier of the Wipkinger viaduct in Zurich. Its heaviness enables it to stand securely on the edge of the river bed, also resisting the highest floodwaters. However, the builders of this pier were not satisfied...

Sculpted architecture

Craigievar Castle Floor Plan

Fig. 72 Neidpath Castle, Peebles Scotland, GB , 14th century Fig. 72 Neidpath Castle, Peebles Scotland, GB , 14th century Fig. 73 Montebello Castle, Bellinzona CH , 14th century Fig. 73 Montebello Castle, Bellinzona CH , 14th century Typical of Scottish architecture is the tower house of the Middle Ages, a combination of castle and residence in a compact, vertically organised space. Early examples of this typically Scottish form were plain, the reflection of a poor land characterised by...

Diamonds and diagonals

Fig. 72a The four corner columns with intersecting linear members function in a similar way to Suchov's mast. Toyo Ito Mediothek, Sendai J , 2001 Fig. 72a The four corner columns with intersecting linear members function in a similar way to Suchov's mast. Toyo Ito Mediothek, Sendai J , 2001 Fig. 73 Rhombus-shaped loadbearing structure to facade Herzog amp de Meuron Prada store, Tokyo J , 2003 Fig. 73 Rhombus-shaped loadbearing structure to facade Herzog amp de Meuron Prada store, Tokyo J , 2003...

The opening as a hole

Villa Malaparte Drawings Inner

Fig. 31 Embedded in the steep coastal cliffs Adalberto Libera Casa Malaparte, Capri I , 194 Fig. 31 Embedded in the steep coastal cliffs Adalberto Libera Casa Malaparte, Capri I , 194 Besides the numerous small openings in the facade, Casa Malaparte has four large, carefully positioned openings. From inside, whether sitting or standing, these permit an unrestricted view of the steep, rocky coastline of the island of Capri. The inside of each opening has an elaborately carved chestnut frame,...

Gallery for Contemporary Art Marktoberdorf

Positioned between the town hall and private villas that date from the 1920s, the art gallery of the Dr Geiger Foundation stands in the centre of Marktoberdorf in Germany's Allg u region. Its multifunctional qualities make it equally ideal for special exhibitions, the presentation of the Foundation's own collection or for use as a studio. This detached building nicely integrates into the environment of individual buildings so typical of Marktoberdorf. However, its stark cubic form also...

Miller Maranta

Jurg Conzett Building

The St Johann district of Basel is a tense clash of different scales. Residential blocks, the Novartis industrial area, the northern ring road and the St Johann inland port on the Rhine are all found in close proximity. And between these two extremes lies a perimeter block development stretching mercilessly without interruption, plus the massive volume of a former coal warehouse, which has housed oil tanks for the nearby district heating power station since the 1960s. The reform of the Basel...

Chur Teacher Training College science wing

Chur Teacher Training College Basement

Valentin Bearth, Andrea Deplazes, Alois Diethelm Architects Bearth Deplazes, Chur Project manager Bettina Werner Structural engineer Fredy Unger, Chur The science wing is an extension to the Grisons Teacher Training College. Its architectural vocabulary - four concrete platforms stacked one upon the other - and its division into teaching and preparation rooms reflect the terse operational space and economic criteria. The total transparency of the interior and facades is presumably meant to make...

Vaulted loadbearing structures in solid construction

Compression structures arches and barrel vaults Fig. 36 Succession of stacked arches sectional concept in order to omit superfluous material. The arch construction is sensible from an engineering and an economic viewpoint. Pont du Gard, Roman aqueduct at N mes F , 1st century AD Fig. 36 Succession of stacked arches sectional concept in order to omit superfluous material. The arch construction is sensible from an engineering and an economic viewpoint. Pont du Gard, Roman aqueduct at N mes F ,...

The roof as a folded plate

Gigon amp Guyer Extension to art gallery lr Wlnterthur CH , 1995 Gigon amp Guyer Extension to art gallery lr Wlnterthur CH , 1995 The sawtooth roof as a light-directing layer The art museums in Appenzell and Winterthur, both by Gigon amp Guyer, are excellent examples of two fundamentally different methods for dealing with the framework conditions of sawtooth roofs. The extension to the art gallery in Winterthur can be divided into three horizontal layers. The unheated, ventilated ground floor...

Nzd

Ligu timber elements consist of several offset layers of solid timber laminations - side boards in various softwoods - glued together and additionally secured with hardwood dowels in the overlaps. This results in air-filled chambers and a box-like glued loadbearing construction. Like a glued laminated timber beam, such elements can span long distances. The elements are produced in thicknesses from 140 to 240 mm, i.e. seven to twelve plies, and in widths of 62.5, 41.6 and 20.8 cm. Loose timber...

Marcel Meili Markus Peter

Marcel Meili Markus Peter Helvetia

Architects Marcel Meili and Markus Peter, with Zeno Vogel, Zurich Construction period 1997-1999 Project manager Zeno Vogel Structural engineers Conzett Bronzini Gartmann, Chur Swiss School of Engineering for the Wood Industry, Biel, 1990-1999 This school, even before the new extension, already boasted a remarkable character. The site and the buildings form what is almost an island between residential districts and an industrial area, which stretches along the hard edge of the Jura Massif. The...

Valerio Olgiati

Valerio Olgiati

The school is located at the top end of Paspels village, which clings to a slope facing south-west. The three individual buildings of the existing school complex are joined in a row along the contour line of the slope, each one posit ioned to suit the local topography. They integrate seamlessly then into the scattering of buildings that make up the village. Following the same logic, the new, separate school building is added on at the top end of the village. A distorted square on plan, with...

Vertical loadbearing structures in solid construction

The principle of solid construction exploits the physical - interlocking of wall elements the zip principle bricks, stones, hybrid forms - jointing mortar between wall elements the glue principle, increasing the frictional resistance adhesion between the wall elements - stability and load-carrying capacity the wide base, narrow top principle objective optimised use of materials Fig. 27 Base of wall approx. 6 to 7 m wide, top of wall 4 to 6 m masonry external walls with rubble infill Fig. 27...

Sustainability

Fig. 1 Hans Kollhoff High-rise office block, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin D , 1999 Fig. 1 Hans Kollhoff High-rise office block, Potsdamer Platz, Berlin D , 1999 Fig. 2 Jean Nouvel Arts and Congress Centre, Lucerne CH , 1999 Fig. 2 Jean Nouvel Arts and Congress Centre, Lucerne CH , 1999 The 3rd International Architecture Symposium took place in Pontresina in the autumn of 2000. This marked an encounter between two high-profile antipodes of architecture - not, unfortunately, in a direct debate - whose...

Platform frame construction

Fig. 45 Platform frame elements prior to erection Bearth amp Deplazes private house Willimann , Sevgein CH , 1998 Fig. 45 Platform frame elements prior to erection Bearth amp Deplazes private house Willimann , Sevgein CH , 1998 Platform frame construction is currently very popular in Switzerland. This is the outcome of marketing campaigns and engineering developments carried out by the timber building industry during the 1980s. The goal was to transform timber stud construction - which had been...

Girder lattice beam and facade

Craig Ellwood Construction Detail

Fig. 63 The windows are located between the posts and the diagonals. MVRDV senior citizens' apartments, Amsterdam NL , 1997 Fig. 63 The windows are located between the posts and the diagonals. MVRDV senior citizens' apartments, Amsterdam NL , 1997 Once the span exceeds a certain distance, off-the-shelf rolled steel sections are no longer adequate. To save material and weight we truss the beam with ties underneath, use a castellated or cellular section, or provide a I attice beam or girder. Up...

The fixing of heavy external cladding concrete

Fig. 40 Cladding panel fixing system elevation above and section right Main support at top of precast element Main support at top of precast element Fig. 40 Cladding panel fixing system elevation above and section right Fig. 41 A Installation work in the factory, temporary fittings in the form Fig. 41 A Installation work in the factory, temporary fittings in the form Fig. 42 B Installation work on site Fig. 42 B Installation work on site The fixings for large, precast concrete cladding panels...

Apartment blocks Martinsbergstrasse Baden

Architects Burkard, Meyer, Bader Construction period 1998-1999 Project managers Roger Casagrande Alois Diethelm Structural engineers Minikus Witta Voss, Zurich This development occupies the south-east corner of the Merker district, a former industrial site in the centre of Baden. The three separate blocks, two of which were built in the first phase of the project, reflect the style of the detached houses along the Martinsbergstrasse, which date from the early 20th century. The main entrance on...