Apartment blocks Martinsbergstrasse Baden

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Urs Burkard, Adrian Meyer + Partner

Example

Alois Diethelm

Architects: Burkard, Meyer, Bader

Construction period: 1998-1999 Project managers:Roger Casagrande

Alois Diethelm Structural engineers: Minikus Witta Voss, Zurich

Situation, theme

This development occupies the south-east corner of the Merker district, a former industrial site in the centre of Baden. The three separate blocks, two of which were built in the first phase of the project, reflect the style of the detached houses along the Martinsbergstrasse, which date from the early 20th century.

The main entrance on Martinsbergstrasse is via a small forecourt enclosed by concrete walls and hedges. In keeping with the urban situation, the private external areas are covered in gravel and screened off from the public road by walls. The road at the rear gives access to the garages and also to the "Merker" meadow, an open recreational area which, like the two apartment blocks, forms part of the development plan for the whole area.

Whereas the buildings appear to be solitary when viewed from the south side, the lower ground level on the north side exposes the basement and reveals the fact that the buildings are part of the same unit. The sequence of open car parking areas below the blocks and closed garages between forms a sort of chequer effect as they alternate with the buildings and intervening open spaces above. Although there is a variation of material (fair-face concrete and facing brickwork) in the basement parking level and the apartments above, continuity between them is maintained.

Tube House Charles Correa

Fig. 36: Stark volumes in an urban context

Sketch

Fig. 36: Stark volumes in an urban context

Sketch

Fig. 37: Situation without third block

Point-blocks on the opposite side

Fig. 37: Situation without third block

Point-blocks on the opposite side

Architects: Burkard, Meyer, Bader

Construction period: 1998-1999 Project managers:Roger Casagrande

Alois Diethelm Structural engineers: Minikus Witta Voss, Zurich

Berufsbildung Baden Bbb

Fig. 35: View from the "Merker" meadow

The difference in levels reveals the basement

Fig. 35: View from the "Merker" meadow

The difference in levels reveals the basement

Basic Object Drawing

Fig. 40: Wooden model

Shows the different ceiling heights and how the apartments are "stacked"

Layout and loadbearing structure

With the exception of block A, where the topmost apartment occupies one-and-a-half storeys, each block contains four apartments, one on each floor, organised around a central access core. This core divides each apartment into two areas: a bedroom wing with a ceiling height of 2.46 m, and a living/dining wing with ceiling heights up to 3.06 m. This latter wing, which spans across the full depth of the building from facade to facade, changes from one side of the core to the other on every floor. This enables the lower ceiling height of the group of rooms above or below to be exploited. This "stacking" principle is visible in the facade by way of the staggered floor slab edges.

The living room opens out onto a veranda. Although this is not heated, it is fitted with double glazing on the facade. This creates a buffer zone which can be opened up virtually over its full area in the summer.

The masonry of the f acade and the concrete access core, together with the in situ reinforced concrete floors, form the l oadbearing structure. The remaining walls are non-loadbearing plasterboard on timber studding.

Fig. 40: Wooden model

Shows the different ceiling heights and how the apartments are "stacked"

Double Facade Buffer Zone VegetatedVisko Kupplung Aufbau

Fig. 43: Plan of 3rd floor

Living room without veranda

Fig. 43: Plan of 3rd floor

Living room without veranda

Fig. 44: Section

Showing rooftop terrace to penthouse

Openings and loadbearing structure

Some of the openings are intrinsic to the layout and others may be located to suit the owners' requirements. What both have in common is that they span between the edges of the floor slabs.

Openings of the former type are to be found on the north and south elevations, forming extensions to the living rooms. Their interaction reflects the principle of the mirrored plan layouts. With a span of about 4.60 m, however, they are on the limit of feasibility because the adjoining Optitherm masonry, which owing to its porosity has a lower compressive strength than normal brickwork, can only just carry the loads that arise.

On the other hand, the east and west elevations are characterised by the storey-by-storey alternation between "frameless" windows flush with the facade and French windows set in deep reveals. Spanning between the floor slabs, these openings turn the masonry into shear walls which, owing to the fact that the floor slab edge elements distribute the loads, stand virtually separately from the sections of wall above and below. From a design point of view this meant that the position of the windows could in fact remain variable right up to shortly before work started on site.

Fig. 45: External view of block A

The garden wall along Martinsbergstrasse can be seen in the foreground

Fig. 45: External view of block A

The garden wall along Martinsbergstrasse can be seen in the foreground

Square Sweden Architect

Fig. 46: North elevation

Fair Faced Concrete Elevations

Fig. 47: South elevation

Fig. 46: North elevation

Fig. 47: South elevation

Face Wall Position

Fig. 48: Ground floor wall at the position of the window flush with the outside face

The masonry bond can be clearly seen

Fig. 48: Ground floor wall at the position of the window flush with the outside face

The masonry bond can be clearly seen

Design and realisation I

The brickwork of the facades is based on the combination of Optitherm and Kelesto masonry developed by the architects and first used on Brühl School in Gebenstorf.

The walls are made up of 400 mm thick Optitherm units (insulating bricks) in a masonry bond plus 120 mm Kelesto units (facing bricks fired below the sinter point). The two leaves of masonry, which are built simultaneously, are connected at every fourth course by means of a row of headers to form an inseparable bond. The wall requires no further i nsulation (U-value 0.38 W/m2K). No i nsulation is inserted into the voids that are created between the bricks.

Besides the advantages for the i nterior climate that result from such an inert wall construction (phase shift effect), this design also benefits from the fact that - in contrast to conventional facing masonry in a twin-leaf arrangement and cavity i nsulation - the interlacing of the courses means that expansion joints are unnecessary. The sculpted appearance of the building (no interruptions at the corners and in the middle of the elevations) is primarily due to this component.

The facing masonry and the type of joints were chosen based on performance criteria. According to these, it is important to guarantee the migration of the vapour diffusion but also to protect against driving rain. The mortar joints on the outside face were therefore compacted with an electric vibrator as the wall was built because any water penetrating the joints cannot be drained away as there is no ventilated cavity as such. Joints simply struck with a trowel would have been inconceivable. Likewise, facing bricks with a high vapour diffusion resis tance would have been unsuitable because the backing of Optitherm bricks is open to diffusion; a hard-fired facing brick would have been too dense.

In terms of its elasticity, Optitherm masonry is regarded as moderately soft. For internal plastering work this means that it is not possible to use a pure cement plaster. Instead, a lime-diluted undercoat (hydraulic lime plus cement) or a lightweight undercoat must be used. The Optitherm bricks themselves are normally used in conjunction with a lightweight mortar, which exhibits better thermal insulation properties owing to the expanded clay-sand content but has a lower loadbearing capacity. Their use together with facing masonry, where a lightweight mortar would be unsuitable because of the high water infiltration, meant that for both the Optitherm and the Kelesto units a facing-grade mortar was used throughout in order to create the same structural relationships for both types of masonry.

During construction great care had to be exercised by all involved to ensure that the masonry was kept dry because the highly porous Optitherm bricks (thermal i n-sulation) quickly absorb any water. The upshot of this is that any moisture present migrates outwards during the first heating period and in doing so liberates lime from the bricks, which appears on the surface in the form of efflorescence. However, this is quickly washed away by the rain.

Another building by Urs Burkard Adrian Meyer & Partner employs similar masonry but with impregnated Kelesto bricks. The idea behind the impregnation is to prevent the efflorescence.

Urs Burkard Adrien Meyer Brick

Fig. 49: Close-up of masonry

Combination of Optitherm and Kelesto facing masonry

Fig. 49: Close-up of masonry

Combination of Optitherm and Kelesto facing masonry

Design and realisation II

The edges of the floor slabs, which characterise the appearance of the facades, consist of prefabricated concrete elements which, in the standard case, are supported on the outer half of the masonry cross-section. This means that the cross-section at the French windows, which open inwards, is doubled because of the formation of a lintel plus sill.

Fig. 50: Axonometric view

"Thickening" of slab edge elements adjacent to window

Although these bands offer almost unlimited freedom for positioning openings during the design phase, the opposite is true during the construction phase. The desire to create complete concrete soffits or lintels throughout the thickness of the masonry had the effect of limiting the repetition of elements because of the unrestricted positioning. Prefabrication was therefore chosen because it produces a better surface finish and not because it achieves rational construction.

The contractor used the concrete elements as permanent formwork which, owing to its relatively high "self-weight", did not require any further fixings. A 10 mm cavity between the strip of extruded polystyrene i nsula-tion along the edge of the slab and the concrete elements guarantees that floor slab and elements can move independently. Gypsum boards act as spacers during placing of the concrete and are later removed.

Polyethylene film both above and below the concrete elements separates them from the masonry so that both materials can move independently. Accordingly, the joints are sealed with putty.

Fig. 51: Close-up of formwork

The slab edge elements act as a permanent formwork; gypsum boards provide a space for the insulation.

Fig. 51: Close-up of formwork

The slab edge elements act as a permanent formwork; gypsum boards provide a space for the insulation.

Fig. 52: 1st floor slab

The returns in the slab edge elements indicate the positions of the French windows

Fig. 50: Axonometric view

"Thickening" of slab edge elements adjacent to window

Fig. 52: 1st floor slab

The returns in the slab edge elements indicate the positions of the French windows

Slab edges

- Prefabricated concrete element, 500 x 290/340 mm

- Anodised aluminium sill, d = 3 mm, bonded to smooth-finish concrete element; turned up at junction with reveal masonry

- Aluminium open-grid flooring laid in stove-enamelled steel frame; finished level with apartment floor

Design and realisation -the French window

The window opens inwards and is a simple painted wood version because of its less exposed position. The lower section of the external anodised aluminium weatherproof screen, fitted flush with the f acade, serves as a balustrade; the upper section guarantees privacy by means of two shutters which pivot inwards. The space between screen and window therefore becomes - like the veranda - a transition zone, useful as a balcony for smokers but also as a rainproof area for airing clothes. The position of the shutters changes the expression of the f acade from an absolute plain one without any relief to a more sculpted one exposing the full depth of the masonry.

The construction of the reveals in Kelesto bricks, which have a considerably poorer i nsulation value than the Optitherm masonry, and attaching the window frames to these bricks meant that it was necessary to include a strip of extruded polystyrene i nsulation between the Optitherm and Kelesto units.

Slab edges

- Prefabricated concrete element, 500 x 290/340 mm

- Anodised aluminium sill, d = 3 mm, bonded to smooth-finish concrete element; turned up at junction with reveal masonry

- Aluminium open-grid flooring laid in stove-enamelled steel frame; finished level with apartment floor

Fig. 55: Close-up of French window

Weatherproof screen acts as balustrade and shutter

Fig. 55: Close-up of French window

Weatherproof screen acts as balustrade and shutter

Tile Layout

Design and realisation -the "frameless" window

The window, fitted flush with the facade, enables the full depth of the masonry to be appreciated from the inside and gives the matt but, owing to the brickwork bond, strongly textured facade a highly abstract highlight. This effect is accentuated by the use of stepped insulating glass which gives the impression of a window without a frame.

To create a safety barrier, the inner pane is of laminated safety glass; a separate balustrade, which would have lessened the effect of the direct transition to the outside world, is therefore unnecessary.

The linings to reveals and lintel conceal both the supporting framework for the window and the I nsulation.

Fig. 58: View of "frameless" window from inside

The reveals enable the thickness of the masonry to be appreciated

Fig. 58: View of "frameless" window from inside

The reveals enable the thickness of the masonry to be appreciated

Window element

- Stepped insulating glass bonded to aluminium frame (prefabricated structural sealant glazing)

- Glazing beads top and bottom serve as additional mechanical fixings

- Window element fitted into steel frame installed beforehand

Design and realisation - the sliding window

The two leaves of the window, which owing to its exposed position is a wood/metal composite design, slide in front of the masonry and enable the window to be opened to virtually its full width. The veranda, which in spring, autumn and winter also serves as a climate buffer zone, therefore becomes a proper balcony.

Unlike conventional sliding windows, there is no rectangular frame here; in other words, the window has been reduced to guide tracks top and bottom. This lends the facade f elief at these points thanks to the juxtaposition of window and masonry within the depth, a r elief that would otherwise only be possible by varying the building envelope.

The reduction of the wall thickness by the width of the guide track, and the desire to have walls in facing masonry on the inside of the veranda as well, led to the use of a twin-leaf masonry arrangement locally.

Floor construction, studio

Floor covering Cement screec Impact sound insulation Polyurethane thermal insulation Concrete slat

Edge of slab

Prefabricated concrete element OMEGA anchors

Extruded polystyrene slab edge insulation

10 mm 80 mm 30 mm 50 mm 240 mm

120 x 290 mm 50 mm

Fig. 60: Floor construction, veranda

Wooden grid (Douglas fir) Rubber mat bonded to insulation underneath (for stability)

Extruded polystyrene thermal insulation 2 layers of bitumen roofing felt Concrete slab laid to falls

27 mm

80 mm 220-240 mm

Fig. 59: Axonometric view of sliding window

Wall behind sliding window built as twin-leaf masonry, otherwise combination masonry

Fig. 60: Floor construction, veranda

Wooden grid (Douglas fir) Rubber mat bonded to insulation underneath (for stability)

Extruded polystyrene thermal insulation 2 layers of bitumen roofing felt Concrete slab laid to falls

27 mm

80 mm 220-240 mm

Fig. 61: Ground floor veranda Fig. 62: Veranda

The sliding doors opening onto the veranda lend depth to the facade.Unheated intermediate zone acts as extension to living room and also as balcony

Fig. 61: Ground floor veranda Fig. 62: Veranda

The sliding doors opening onto the veranda lend depth to the facade.Unheated intermediate zone acts as extension to living room and also as balcony

Calendario 2019 Harry Potter

At the sliding windows the slab edge elements are fixed with OMEGA anchors

At the sliding windows the slab edge elements are fixed with OMEGA anchors

The windows are fitted without a true rectangular frame

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Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

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