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Fig. 44: Load transfer

1 Dead and imposed loads

2 Bending moment at floor support

3 Bearing pressure at support

4 Earth pressure, hydrostatic pressure

5 Foundation load

6 Spread of load

7 Ground pressure (underside of foundation)

Fig. 45: Stem wall to provide frost protection

No direct structural function; prevents water seeping below the ground slab within the depth subject to frost heave; up to 800 m above sea level frost line = 80 cm below surface; at higher altitudes 1/10 (i.e. 120 cm at 1200 m above sea level)

Fig. 46: Shallow foundation Fig. 47: Deep foundation

Used when the load-carrying capacity of the subsoil is Used when the load-carrying capacity of the subsoil is consistent; depth of foundation = "depth at risk of frost inconsistent or inadequate near the surface; depth of heave" (alternative: provide stem wall) foundation = depth of loadbearing stratum

Raft foundation planar

Fig. 46: Shallow foundation Fig. 47: Deep foundation

Used when the load-carrying capacity of the subsoil is Used when the load-carrying capacity of the subsoil is consistent; depth of foundation = "depth at risk of frost inconsistent or inadequate near the surface; depth of heave" (alternative: provide stem wall) foundation = depth of loadbearing stratum

Raft foundation planar

Fig. 48: The foundations project beyond the rising structural member a) to spread the load b) to provide a firm, level base for formwork (components in contact with the soil are practically always in concrete these days)

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