Li gJnJ

Fig. 87: Schematic plan layouts

Individual chambers - Various room inclusions - Maximum use of wall thickness pp^i n fl c^i

Fig. 88: Schematic plan layouts

"True" basic plan - Extended basic plan - Sculpted surfaces they create a sculpted surface through which the original angular basic shape is still recognisable.

If, however, the chambers enlarge at the corners and protrude beyond the confines of the wall to a much greater extent, we reach the point where the original basic shape is no longer recognisable. We arrive at a new composition which is determined by the large chambers within the walls and is hardly akin to the original basic shape. On the other hand, the geometry of the interior, the central hall, oddly enough remains unchanged, which underpins the validity of the hypothesis related here regarding the spatial growth of Scottish tower houses.

Serial expansion concept

It is unusual that, contrary to developments in England and on the European mainland, the vertical organisation of the tower houses continued to hold sway in Scotland for the "castles" of later times. Extra wings (called "jams") were added to promote horizontal expansion, but no longer in the form of additional rooms but by interlocked "tower houses". (We get this impression on the outside but in fact the interior layout of the wings employed simple principles of subdivision.) Glamis Castle is a good example of how the "L-type" nucleus was added in the 17th century to rise above the jams on both sides.

Examples

Fig. 89: Total complex, plan of 1st floor

Glamis Castle, Tayslde (Scotland, GB), 13th-17th century

Fig. 89: Total complex, plan of 1st floor

Glamis Castle, Tayslde (Scotland, GB), 13th-17th century

Fig. 90: Total complex, plan of ground floor

Craigmillar Castle, Edinburgh (Scotland, GB), 14th-16th century

Fig. 90: Total complex, plan of ground floor

Craigmillar Castle, Edinburgh (Scotland, GB), 14th-16th century

Jams in the style of French palaces

Craigmillar Castle is a good example of another phenomenon which is not unusual in the history of tower houses with their surrounding complexes. The original tower house was of course incorporated into the sequence of spaces of the new complex. But in contrast to Glamis Castle the tower house was "ensnared". Only a horizontal section reveals the thick external walls which have been woven into the overall complex.

Adolf Loos and Scottish tower houses?

The plain expression and simple, cubic, vertical emphasis of the middle-class urban villas of Adolf Loos dating from the late 1920s awaken strong associations with Scottish tower houses. These urban villas are impressive on the one hand because of their elaborate space enclosures appropriately lined to suit their uses, and on the other because of the rich variety of spatially complex connections corresponding with classical notions of space hierarchies.

Tower houses are similar. Originally plain and unor-namented on the outside, their interiors developed from functional to mazelike internal configurations with a rich hierarchy. In terms of interiors it is the most recent tower houses, e.g. Craigievar Castle, that are interesting in connection with Loos. Their spatial complexity and carefully detailed internal surfaces, especially the stucco to the vaulting over the main rooms and the wooden linings to the rooms protruding into the external walls, are comparable with the linings of diverse materials in the aforementioned urban villas.

Spatial plan

Adolf Loos used this term to conceive a horizontal and vertical interlacing of spaces. It is tempting to search for this strategy in the tower houses. However, in reality in tower houses the notion of the spatial plan is confined to the main room and its various alcoves plus the associated galleries, just the same.

Loos made a theme of the interdependency of variously sized and hence variously tall rooms. His argument was spatial economy, the need to compress them into a dense conglomerate with compact external dimensions. Precisely positioned openings link these spaces and define, through their size, the spatial and hierarchical coherence.

Despite the disparate organisation, we can detect a relationship between the tower house and a Loos villa. Both are devoid of corridors in the main spaces or storeys and both have several staircases which do not connect all storeys. In the tower house this is clearly explained by the need to confuse attackers, while in the Loos house it is the need to set the scene for the sequence of internal spaces. As in the tower house with its central, main room, the expansion of the main storey is legible in the Loos designs.

Fig. 92: Section, plan of 1st floor

Fig. 92: Section, plan of 1st floor

Fig. 91: Part of model of main floor, undergraduate study, ETH Zurich, 2002

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