DIN 18064, 18065, 4174
Stipulations covering the design of stairs vary among the building codes. DIN 18065 covers the main requirements to be satisfied by stairs. Residential buildings with no more than two apartments: usable width min. 0.80 m, rise/going ratio 17/28; stairs not deemed necessary by the building regulations: 0.50 m, 21/21; other stairs deemed necessary by the building regulations: 1.00 m, 17/28. Stairs in high-rise apartment blocks: 1.25 m wide. Stair width in public buildings must also take into account the desired escape time p. 466 "Theatre". Length of stair flight: a 3 steps, s 18 steps 5. Landing length = n times step length + 1 tread depth (e.g. for 17/29 rise/going ratio = 1 x 63 + 29 = 92 cm or 2 x 63 + 29 = 1.55 m). Handrafe can be omitted °n stairs with a piteh < 1:4. Doors opening into a stair shaft may not impair the statutory width.
A shallow, comfortable pitch for external stairs in gardens etc. is achieved by including landings every 3 steps. This ensures that a stair in a theatre or an external location is ascended and descended slowly, i.e., it could be even shallower. But a stair to an ancillary entrance or escape stairs should enable a rapid change in height.
Stairs can save space when positioned properly one above the other.
If rafters and beams run in the same direction as the stair flight, it is possible to save space and expensive trimmers.
Basement entrances and trapdoors should be avoided; however, the above combination is advantageous and presents no risks.
Ernst Neufert, Bauentwurfslehre (loc cit)
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