Stairs

DIN 18064, 18065, 4174

The range of possibilities for stairs and means of access is broad: from the design options for the most diverse types of residential stairs to spacious external stairs to those on which ascending and descending calls for big strides. Using a stair requires, on average, seven times more energy than walking normally along a horizontal plane. When ascending a stair the physiologically favourable "climbing work" is given by a pitch of 30° and a rise/going ratio of step height (rise) H _ 17 step depth (going) T 29

The rise/going ratio is determined by the step length of an adult (approx. 61-64 cm). To determine the favourable rise/going ratio with the minimum energy requirement use the following equation:

Besides the aforementioned relationships, the overriding functional and architectural purposes of the stair are very important for the dimension i ng and design of stairs. It is not just the gain in height that is important but rather the way in which that gain in height is achieved. A low rise of 16 cm (with 30 cm going) is preferred for external stairs designed for use by large numbers of persons simultaneously. On the other hand, steps in offices or escape stairs should render possible a rapid change in height. Every stair deemed necessary must be placed in a continuous stair shaft which, including its entrances and exits to the outside, should be positioned and designed in such a way that it can be used safely as a means of escape. Exit width a stair width. The distance from any point within a room designed for occupation or a basement storey to a stair deemed necessary or an exit may not exceed 35 m. If more than one stair is necessary, they should be distributed so that the means of escape is as short as possible. In stair shafts the openings to basements, roof spaces not designed for occupation, workshops, retail areas, storage areas and similar areas must be fitted with self-closing doors, fire resistance classification T 30.

Ernst Neufert, Bauentwurfslehre, Braunschweig/ Wiesbaden, 2002. - English translation: Ernst and Peter Neufert, Architect's Data, Oxford 2004.

Step length of an adult on a horizontal surface

An inclined, rising surface shortens the step length; comfortable gradient: 1:10 to 1:8

Favourable standard rise/going ratio 17/29; step length = 2 going + 1 rise = approx. 62.5 cm

Step length of an adult on a horizontal surface

An inclined, rising surface shortens the step length; comfortable gradient: 1:10 to 1:8

Favourable standard rise/going ratio 17/29; step length = 2 going + 1 rise = approx. 62.5 cm

Ship's ladder Plant access ladder

Step ladder with balustrade

Standard stairs 17/29, max. 18 steps

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