The fixing of heavy external cladding concrete

Fig. 40: Cladding panel fixing system: elevation (above) and section (right)

Fig. 43: Heavy external cladding

Top fixing

Main support at top of precast element

Top fixing

Main support at top of precast element

Dowels beneath element

Compression screw (spacer screw)

Dowels beneath element

Compression screw (spacer screw)

Fig. 40: Cladding panel fixing system: elevation (above) and section (right)

Fig. 41: A Installation work in the factory, temporary fittings in the form

Fig. 42: B Installation work on site

Fig. 43: Heavy external cladding

Fig. 42: B Installation work on site

Fixing heavy cladding elements

The fixings for large, precast concrete cladding panels depend on the weight of the element. The high demands placed on fasteners mean that two fixings are usually necessary for storey-high panels. In order to accommodate tolerances, or to enable alignment of the elements, the fasteners must permit adjustment in three directions. Such fasteners represent discrete thermal bridges and this fact must be accepted. All fixings must be made of stainless steel (rustproof). The clearance between the i n situ concrete structure and the precast elements can lie between 0 and 14 cm, and in special cases may even be greater. Wind pressure and wind suction effects must be taken into account. Facade fixing systems consist of:

1 Top fastener (loadbearing fixing) with height-adjustable threaded bar

2 Spacer screw for adjusting position of cladding panel relative to structure

3 Dowels for locating the elements with respect to each other

4 If required, compression screws, depending on loading case (wind pressure or suction))

Facade fixings are installed at the same distance from the panel's centroidal axis. This ensures that every fixing carries half the self-weight of the facade element. The joints between individual facade elements should be sufficiently large (15 mm) to ensure that no additional loads (e.g. due to expansion) are placed on the elements.

Installation

A Place the top fastener (loadbearing fixing) in the form-work for the facade element at the precasting works and integrate it into the reinforcement. Place a polystyrene block (removed on site, see below) between bracket and angle. The timber board shown here serves only as an aid during casting (enabling fixing to facade element formwork).

B Positioning and attaching the supporting bracket on the structure

- Remove polystyrene.

- Insert perforated strip between bracket and angle.

- Secure perforated strip with screws.

- Apply "Loctite" or similar to the screw and fit finished component to supporting bracket.

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