Vertical loadbearing structures in solid construction

Plan concepts

Fig. 29: Walls reinforced with ribs, sections (top) and plans (bottom)

for increasing the inherent stability

Fig. 34: Concrete half-cylinders 25 m high (d =25 cm); the tie bars at the top guarantee the stability of the form.

Maailen Struijs: windbreak in Rotterdam Harbour (NL), 1985

Fig. 30: Cob construction with timber reinforcement (internal frame) with protective covering of cob (transverse ribs)

Traditional construction of the Dogon people (Mali)

Fig. 34: Concrete half-cylinders 25 m high (d =25 cm); the tie bars at the top guarantee the stability of the form.

Maailen Struijs: windbreak in Rotterdam Harbour (NL), 1985

Fig. 35: Wall forms for stability: L-shape, curve, cranked and winding forms

Fig. 31: Omission of material to form alcoves In circumferential wall, which creates a ribbed effect (left)

Pantheon, Rome (I), 118-125 AD, loadbearing structure (right)

Looked at in terms of economy of material usage, various plan concepts are conceivable for stabilising the walls. For example, the stability and buckling resistance of the walls can be increased by including transverse ribs, which are either formed by adding the same or a different material, or by dividing, i.e. by omitting superfluous material, above all with very wide wall cross-sections (see fig. 31).

Changes of direction such as corners, cranks and curves also have a stabilising effect. Here, the height and length of the developed wall governs the number of changes of direction. The reduction in material can go so far as to make it essential, above a certain height, to include auxiliary structural members (see fig. 34).

Fig. 32: Flying buttresses to transfer thrust, e.g. from vaulting

Axonometric cut-away view of a Gothic cathedral

Fig. 32: Flying buttresses to transfer thrust, e.g. from vaulting

Axonometric cut-away view of a Gothic cathedral

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Fig. 33: The external loadbearing structure (flying buttresses) resulted in recesses which were later converted into chapels (along bottom edge of plan).

Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris (F), begun in 1163

Concepts

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