Sequential sketches

Architecture Freehand Drawing

Sketching is about exploration, about learning to see places and architecture through the graphic experience. As such, the architectural illustrator is concerned with interpretation rather than mere description, and that interpretation must contain elements of critical judgement. A common mistake is to draw too literally and to seek representation from one viewpoint alone. To reach a real understanding of 'place', you need to walk through it, thereby experiencing the changing geometries of the...

The Nature And Characteristics Of The Background Architecture

The background architecture of the Merchant City determines the physical context for the public buildings. Whether the everyday buildings are houses, offices or warehouses, they are the backcloth to urban life and contribute significantly to the character of this inner city area. The relationships between the function of an area, its buildings and how they are decorated are worthy subjects for sketchbook exploration. The character of residential neighbourhoods in the Merchant City depends upon...

The benefits of drawing

The act of drawing is an important starting point for the intellectual process we call 'design'. To be able to draw a chair or a building is a prerequisite for anyone wishing to design such things. Drawing has two functions for the designer - it allows him or her to record and to analyse existing examples, and the sketch provides the medium with which to test the appearance of some imagined object. Before the advent of photography most architects kept a sketchbook in which they recorded the...

Gateways entrances and doorways

The sense of arrival at places is important, and in recognition of this many cities and the buildings within them have elaborate gateways or doorways. Entry points are usually celebrated in this way except in the most utilitarian structures. At the other end of the scale, entry may consist only of a roundabout on a ring road or a collection of petrol stations marking an approach into a modern town. Historic towns, on the other hand, are normally well defined in terms of entry points, often...

Types Of Drawing

To the architect and urban designer there are three main types of freehand drawing. The first is the elaborate perspective drawing used to communicate design ideas to clients or planning authorities. Increasingly this type of drawing is produced by computer. The second type concerns the production of sketch perspectives and views used to communicate design ideas to specialists such as engineers, and sometimes to help clarify points for the designer's own benefit. This type of drawing can be...

The key drawing questions addressed

Drawing and abstract thought processes Can you think without drawing Can you draw without designing Can you design without drawing Drawing and practical problem solving What type of drawing do you begin with How do drawing, model-making and CAD interrelate How does sketching inform designing The first set of questions tried to tease out the cerebral role of drawing not just in terms of organising and solving abstract problems but also in relaying something of the thought processes of the...

Drawing in architectural practice

It is now necessary to explore how freehand drawing is employed today in design generation by a selection of leading architects in the UK. The emphasis is not upon drawings as end products but on the role of drawing in the process of designing buildings. The investigation is into the drawings that architects produce - their type at different points in the evolution of a design idea, the paper and graphic techniques employed, the interrelationships with thought processes and other tools such as...

Second Edition

This new edition is fully revised and updated and includes new chapters on sustainability, history and archaeology, designing through drawing and drawing in architectural practice. The book introduces design and graphic techniques aimed to help designers increase their understanding of buildings and places through drawing. For many, the camera has replaced the sketchbook, but here the author argues that freehand drawing as a means of analysing and understanding buildings develops visual...

The Findings Drawing And Spatial Investigation

The type of freehand drawing first employed often depended upon the nature of the architectural problem posed. Seven of the architects talked about the primacy of the plan as the main generator of built form, often combining a sketch site plan with an embryonic diagram of building functions drawn to scale. Although the plan was the primary generator it was normally merely a diagram of circulation, functional disposition or urban relationship. However, the word 'diagram' should not belittle what...

Why draw

Freehand Architectural Sketches

There is an undisguised air of evangelism running through this book, for it seeks to encourage students of architecture, craft and design to forsake their cameras and learn the art of freehand sketching. Drawing is not only more enjoyable and far more educational, but the end product is more likely to remain a cherished object than would an anonymous slide or photographic print. Drawing an object, building or townscape forces you to engage more directly in the subject than as a mere...

Designing through drawing

Architecture Freehand Drawing

The idea as formed in the mind was imperfect and could only be given its consequent form through examination, exercise of judgement, and modification of the idea through drawing. Leon Battista Alberti (1452), Ten Books on Architecture The traditional view is that the objective of design is the creation of form and the task of drawing is to give that form some shape or expression (Alexander 1964 p15). Hence, in modernist practice form is grounded in function and meaning - the argument being that...

From sketch to design

Architecture Freehand Drawing

Having become accustomed to using the sketchbook as an aid to visual understanding, it is not too much of a leap to begin thinking in design terms. Your sketches will not only have sharpened your perceptual awareness, but more importantly opened your eyes to how a designer thinks. Basically an architect or urban designer has to evolve a form - hopefully an elegant one - to suit a particular function, and relate it to a context. Hence design is a two-way process - working from the functional...

The Findings Drawing Tools And Techniques

Objet Comparatif Vmesure Longueur

The materials, tools and techniques of architectural drawing have not overly concerned academics. The questions addressed here seek to tease out the drawing tools employed in a practical sense for design exploration. The issue concerns the role of line, its weight and permanence, the type of paper and pen used, and the strategies for integrating sketching with other investigative tools. Whilst all architects interviewed designed primarily by drawing, not all employed the pen. Foster, for...

Sustainability

Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming...

Looking And Seeing Through Drawing Modern Sketchbook Practice

The practice of looking is as important as the practice of designing. The sketchbook allows the looking to become more critical - the image produced by drawing heightens awareness of the subject and offers a greater range of potential to the designer. Freehand sketching is a way of recording subjects in a more rigorous way than simply photographing them, thereby helping to cultivate visual memory and critical judgement. Looking is a precondition to exploring subjects beneath the surface, and...

The importance of practice

The co-ordination of hand and eye is a necessary starting point for freehand drawing. It is only through frequent practice and by following sound principles that the facility to draw without hesitation or uncertainty can be attained. The fluid, confident lines of an accomplished draughtsman are achieved as the result of much practice. This book does not pretend to teach drawing, only to encourage its use as part of the design process. Like the acquisition of all skills, training and...

Perspectives On Architectural Drawing

Architecture Heat Analysis Freehand

The literature on drawing highlights a number of important characteristics of the architectural drawing. Whereas Paul Klee describes drawing as 'taking a line for a walk', the architectural drawing has an important role to play in the conceptualising process we call design (Stern 1977 p382). In architecture, the line is taken for a walk with purpose - i.e. design. The renewal of interest today in drawing is part of a more general discourse surrounding visual culture embracing themes such as...

The Findings Drawing And Abstract Thought Processes

Without exception all of the architects questioned acknowledge the symbiotic relationship between thinking, drawing and designing. However, not all thought that drawing was a prerequisite for design many architects, including Cullinan, Grimshaw, Alsop and Foster, often arrived at an initial design idea in their head before they committed a line to paper. These early design ideas were generated spontaneously, perhaps whilst jogging in Foster's case, cutting logs in Cullinan's or painting in...

History and archaeology

Architecture Freehand Sketch

Drawing is a particularly useful tool to employ in the study of the history of architecture and in related fields of archaeology. The site sketch supplemented by measurements on the ground brings the organisation, structure and construction of historical and archaeological subjects into a graphic form that can be readily understood. Historical sites come in many forms - some are predominantly below ground, others are fragments of structure above, others are relatively complete assemblies...

Materials

The artist of today has never been so fortunate with regard to drawing equipment. Modern waterproof felt-tip pens, clutch pencils and a wide range of drawing papers mean that every situation, type of subject and sketching style is catered for. The decision nowadays tends to be what to leave behind, since the range of materials is so wide and their reliability so good. When choosing sketchbook paper, you should have already decided upon your sketching medium. Generally speaking, smooth cartridge...