Relative importance of drawing models and CAD at different stages of design evolution by architects interviewed

Scale 5 very important 4 important 3 less important 2 occasionally used 1 rarely used. design work', arguing that sketching helps reinforce his visual memory, and Alsop does the same. Farrell thinks, too, that his earlier New York sketchbooks may have influenced his approach to design although today Farrell sees sketching as a 'way of seeing rather than a way of designing'. Six of the architects interviewed (Cullinan, Foster, Fraser, Grimshaw, Gordon Murray and Allan Murray) did, however, admit...

Exploring Designthe Work Of Four Great Architects

A great deal can be learnt from a careful study of buildings designed by famous architects. How they fashion a corner, model a fa ade, or organise the ground plan are The Norman carving on the capital of each of the nave columns at Bayeux Cathedral varies from one column to the next. This sketch is one of a series that chart the differences along the nave. Industrial architecture provides some of the most sculptural subjects for those intent on learning about design. This crane is to be found...

Exploring Your Local Heritage

Sketching is an excellent way to study your local architectural or archaeological heritage. You do not have to be a great artist to benefit from the heightened awareness of the subject that drawing it gives. The exploration of one's locality through the freehand sketch can be supplemented by accurately measured surveys or searches through documentary sources. No matter where one lives, the local environment will provide much material for those intent upon exploring a town's heritage. Whether...

The benefits of drawing

The act of drawing is an important starting point for the intellectual process we call 'design'. To be able to draw a chair or a building is a prerequisite for anyone wishing to design such things. Drawing has two functions for the designer - it allows him or her to record and to analyse existing examples, and the sketch provides the medium with which to test the appearance of some imagined object. Before the advent of photography most architects kept a sketchbook in which they recorded the...

Drawing As Communication

Drawings are a designer's way of writing they are a means both of communication and of problem solving. For many architects there is not a clear distinction between drawings, words and symbols (Lawson 1980 p173). All contribute towards the evolution of a design whether in plan, section or elevation. The shapes on Sketch for unrealised Samsung Headquarters Building in London by Sir Terry Farrell. Notice the similarity in the use of line and shade to Figure 2.10. (Sir Terry Farrell) paper, often...

Line and shade

Sketching the outline of objects can lead to rather featureless and abstract drawing. Although one may recognise the shape of a house, its value to us as an object is determined by issues of form, texture and arrangement. These qualities are best represented not by line alone, but through line and shade. Shade gives a sense of three-dimensional reality to two-dimensional shapes. The convention is simple select a direction for a source of light (often imagined) and shade the sides of the object...

Gateways entrances and doorways

The sense of arrival at places is important, and in recognition of this many cities and the buildings within them have elaborate gateways or doorways. Entry points are usually celebrated in this way except in the most utilitarian structures. At the other end of the scale, entry may consist only of a roundabout on a ring road or a collection of petrol stations marking an approach into a modern town. Historic towns, on the other hand, are normally well defined in terms of entry points, often...

From sketch to plan making and documentary investigation

Sketching may on occasion be supplemented by drawing quick plans or sections. The sketch is a useful and enjoyable tool, but there are occasions when more analytical drawings are required. Although a sketch can indicate the position of a doorway relative to the rest of the fa ade, it cannot show the importance of the door with regard to the plan of the building. Here you will have to resort to preparing drawings of a more technical nature. As with sketching, there are a few useful tips to bear...

Understanding Andy Goldsworthy Through Drawing

A number of artists work in the media of landscape, such as Andy Goldsworthy whose installations at the Yorkshire Sculpture Park are explored here. Landscapes are primarily man-made and hence lend themselves to analysis through drawing, particularly when artists and sculptors intervene in interesting ways. Goldsworthy's art engages directly with nature, producing work in the countryside that draws upon ecological understandings, local materials and cultural references. Using dry stone walls,...

Key Decorative Elements Such As Windows Or Doors

The design and detailing of windows and doors help establish the style of architecture. The use of decorative surrounds picked out in stone, brick or timber allow us to categorise buildings into particular styles, and often provide clues to their date of construction. Also the use of specific technologies in the design and fabrication of windows and doors tells us a great deal about the technology of the age that produced them. For example, the narrow width of Georgian windows and their...

Types Of Drawing

To the architect and urban designer there are three main types of freehand drawing. The first is the elaborate perspective drawing used to communicate design ideas to clients or planning authorities. Increasingly this type of drawing is produced by computer. The second type concerns the production of sketch perspectives and views used to communicate design ideas to specialists such as engineers, and sometimes to help clarify points for the designer's own benefit. This type of drawing can be...

The key drawing questions addressed

Drawing and abstract thought processes Can you think without drawing Can you draw without designing Can you design without drawing Drawing and practical problem solving What type of drawing do you begin with How do drawing, model-making and CAD interrelate How does sketching inform designing The first set of questions tried to tease out the cerebral role of drawing not just in terms of organising and solving abstract problems but also in relaying something of the thought processes of the...

Building Details

If whole buildings or engineering structures are too complex for your needs or drawing skills, then select an aspect of their architecture or construction. You could concentrate on a relatively simple subject such as windows, chimneys or roofs, or alternatively you could attempt the more difficult topic of shopfronts, curtain walling or decorative paving. Whatever subject is selected, ensure you locate the example clearly and use a drawing style that allows one example to be compared with...

Drawing in architectural practice

It is now necessary to explore how freehand drawing is employed today in design generation by a selection of leading architects in the UK. The emphasis is not upon drawings as end products but on the role of drawing in the process of designing buildings. The investigation is into the drawings that architects produce - their type at different points in the evolution of a design idea, the paper and graphic techniques employed, the interrelationships with thought processes and other tools such as...

Second Edition

This new edition is fully revised and updated and includes new chapters on sustainability, history and archaeology, designing through drawing and drawing in architectural practice. The book introduces design and graphic techniques aimed to help designers increase their understanding of buildings and places through drawing. For many, the camera has replaced the sketchbook, but here the author argues that freehand drawing as a means of analysing and understanding buildings develops visual...

The Findings Drawing And Spatial Investigation

The type of freehand drawing first employed often depended upon the nature of the architectural problem posed. Seven of the architects talked about the primacy of the plan as the main generator of built form, often combining a sketch site plan with an embryonic diagram of building functions drawn to scale. Although the plan was the primary generator it was normally merely a diagram of circulation, functional disposition or urban relationship. However, the word 'diagram' should not belittle what...

The Bastide Towns France

The Bastide towns in the Dordogne region of France represent a unique collection of small country towns eminently suitable for a sketchbook study. Built as new, fortified settlements in the thirteenth century by different sovereigns, including the English King Edward I, each town contains a central market square surrounded by handsome arcades. A common range of elements is found in each of the dozen or so towns besides an arcaded market square there is generally a timber-framed market hall, a...

Why draw

Dovercourt Lighthouse Drawings

There is an undisguised air of evangelism running through this book, for it seeks to encourage students of architecture, craft and design to forsake their cameras and learn the art of freehand sketching. Drawing is not only more enjoyable and far more educational, but the end product is more likely to remain a cherished object than would an anonymous slide or photographic print. Drawing an object, building or townscape forces you to engage more directly in the subject than as a mere...

Designing through drawing

Architecture Freehand Drawing

The idea as formed in the mind was imperfect and could only be given its consequent form through examination, exercise of judgement, and modification of the idea through drawing. Leon Battista Alberti (1452), Ten Books on Architecture The traditional view is that the objective of design is the creation of form and the task of drawing is to give that form some shape or expression (Alexander 1964 p15). Hence, in modernist practice form is grounded in function and meaning - the argument being that...

From sketch to design

Architecture Freehand Drawing

Having become accustomed to using the sketchbook as an aid to visual understanding, it is not too much of a leap to begin thinking in design terms. Your sketches will not only have sharpened your perceptual awareness, but more importantly opened your eyes to how a designer thinks. Basically an architect or urban designer has to evolve a form - hopefully an elegant one - to suit a particular function, and relate it to a context. Hence design is a two-way process - working from the functional...

The Findings Drawing Tools And Techniques

Nicholas Grimshaw Sketches

The materials, tools and techniques of architectural drawing have not overly concerned academics. The questions addressed here seek to tease out the drawing tools employed in a practical sense for design exploration. The issue concerns the role of line, its weight and permanence, the type of paper and pen used, and the strategies for integrating sketching with other investigative tools. Whilst all architects interviewed designed primarily by drawing, not all employed the pen. Foster, for...

Sustainability

Sketches Animal Rescue Systems

The concept of sustainable development, and associated practices such as sustainable construction, lend themselves to investigation via the sketchbook. It is possible to use freehand drawing to explore aspects of modern green design, be it the use of solar energy, wind power or natural ventilation. Conversely, most of the buildings constructed before the Industrial Revolution utilised local renewable energy sources, building materials were from the immediate locality, transport and farming...

Looking And Seeing Through Drawing Modern Sketchbook Practice

The practice of looking is as important as the practice of designing. The sketchbook allows the looking to become more critical - the image produced by drawing heightens awareness of the subject and offers a greater range of potential to the designer. Freehand sketching is a way of recording subjects in a more rigorous way than simply photographing them, thereby helping to cultivate visual memory and critical judgement. Looking is a precondition to exploring subjects beneath the surface, and...

The importance of practice

The co-ordination of hand and eye is a necessary starting point for freehand drawing. It is only through frequent practice and by following sound principles that the facility to draw without hesitation or uncertainty can be attained. The fluid, confident lines of an accomplished draughtsman are achieved as the result of much practice. This book does not pretend to teach drawing, only to encourage its use as part of the design process. Like the acquisition of all skills, training and...

Perspectives On Architectural Drawing

Architecture Heat Analysis Freehand

The literature on drawing highlights a number of important characteristics of the architectural drawing. Whereas Paul Klee describes drawing as 'taking a line for a walk', the architectural drawing has an important role to play in the conceptualising process we call design (Stern 1977 p382). In architecture, the line is taken for a walk with purpose - i.e. design. The renewal of interest today in drawing is part of a more general discourse surrounding visual culture embracing themes such as...

The Findings Drawing And Abstract Thought Processes

Without exception all of the architects questioned acknowledge the symbiotic relationship between thinking, drawing and designing. However, not all thought that drawing was a prerequisite for design many architects, including Cullinan, Grimshaw, Alsop and Foster, often arrived at an initial design idea in their head before they committed a line to paper. These early design ideas were generated spontaneously, perhaps whilst jogging in Foster's case, cutting logs in Cullinan's or painting in...

Drawing Today

Drawing is a technique that allows the visual world to be understood. It is a convention, based upon a degree of abstraction and analysis, which focuses the mind upon aesthetic values. Whereas numbers are useful to economists, words to politicians and poets, lines are what artists and designers employ. Visual literacy is developed through the medium of drawing. A distinction needs to be made between drawing as a tool for designers and drawing as a technique employed by artists. Although both...

Streets lanes and footpaths

Our movement through towns is normally along streets and roads, and hence our perception of the quality of place is shaped by what we see from them. Anybody intent upon exploring cities through the freehand sketch should, therefore, concentrate upon the routes people normally take. These vary from grand streets to alleyways and pedestrian footpaths, and each has its distinctive character. The different types of city route can be categorised as follows street a relatively formal route lined by...

History and archaeology

Architecture Freehand Sketch

Drawing is a particularly useful tool to employ in the study of the history of architecture and in related fields of archaeology. The site sketch supplemented by measurements on the ground brings the organisation, structure and construction of historical and archaeological subjects into a graphic form that can be readily understood. Historical sites come in many forms - some are predominantly below ground, others are fragments of structure above, others are relatively complete assemblies...

Materials

The artist of today has never been so fortunate with regard to drawing equipment. Modern waterproof felt-tip pens, clutch pencils and a wide range of drawing papers mean that every situation, type of subject and sketching style is catered for. The decision nowadays tends to be what to leave behind, since the range of materials is so wide and their reliability so good. When choosing sketchbook paper, you should have already decided upon your sketching medium. Generally speaking, smooth cartridge...