Info

Iii Wood in stick at Sheffield Park Sawmills, Sussex, England iii Wood in stick at Sheffield Park Sawmills, Sussex, England degrade (splitting, checking, etc.) must be expected on the ends where the moisture is drawn from the cut pores fairly rapidly, but this can be kept within reasonable limits by covering the ends with special paint. Unfortunately, merchants or dealers usually cannot afford these extra precautions for the common run of wood, but some square edge woods imported from tropical...

Circular Saws

Sometimes known as 'saw cats' or 'builders' saws', and available in both general and heavy duty models, with a range of saw diameters from 61 2 in (165 mm) to 10 in (254 mm) the smallest size will cut slightly over 2 in (50 mm) thicknesses, and up to 3 1 2 in (89 mm) for the largest. As a rule all these saws are well balanced, fully adjustable for depth and any angle of cut up to 45 , with automatic retractable lower guard and fixed upper guard, splitting- or riving-knife and ripping fence. In...

Slot Screwed Joint

Sometimes used for drawing boards of softwoods, glued on the edges, deeply saw kerfed on the back to take up any movement and prevented from hollowing or warping on the face by the slot-screwed battens. An alternative method is to taper dovetail the battens (137 3) which do not need either screws or glue.

Bevelled and coopered joints

Bevelled joints are edge joints at any preset angle other than 45 , at which angle they are termed mitre joints, while coopered joints are and 18 and twelve sides 75 and 15 ). In order to obtain the correct angle of any splay it is first necessary to draw an end view full size (318 1) and set the adjustable bevel, template or protractor accordingly. Having ascertained the correct angle it should then be drawn at each end of the board to be bevelled, and the pencil should also be rubbed along...

Carcass dovetails

Where a side rail is grooved or tenoned into a leg or post as in a framed-up carcass, the shoulders of the two dovetails must be offset moreover in tenoned work the tenon and haunches must be set down by an amount at least equal to the depth of the larger dovetail. Figure 159 1 shows a typical assembly with front rail dovetailed into post and side rail. The side rail and post are assembled first and flushed off, the thickness of the front rail gauged in the post and pencilled in on the side...

Marking Measuring And Testing Tools

Traditionally the furniture-maker has relied upon the standard 2 ft (609 mm) fourfold rule, the joiner on the 3 ft (914 mm) pattern, both marked in eighths and sixteenths of an inch, and obtainable as standard or blindman's, the latter with extra bold figurings. For long lengths the standard boxwood rule or the engineer's long one-piece rule are preferable to flexible steel tapes which should not be used for highly critical work on the bench. Finely divided semiflexible engineers' steel rules...

Sawing And Planing Appliances

Reversible bench-hooks are used to support small pieces while being sawn or cut, at the same time protecting the bench-top from incidental damage. They can be either bought or simply made out of hardwood about 10 in (254 mm) by 6 in (152 mm) by 1 in (25 mm) with I1 4 in (32 mm) square cleats screwed on both ends as shown (the position can be reversed for left-handed workers). Straight shooting-boards for the accurate squaring of ends can also be purchased or again made by the worker, preferably...

Cross Veneering

All veneers laid at right angles to the grain direction of the groundwork substrate are classed as cross veneers, but more specifically the term cross veneering is applied to narrow widths laid across door-frames, mirror surrounds, etc. border crossbanding to narrow edge borders on panel- and table-tops crossbanding counter veneering) to an under veneer laid on groundworks and then covered with a face veneer, and balance veneering to compensating veneers laid on the underside of groundworks....

Highspeed Routers

These have power-driven vertical spindles on which the appropriate cutters are mounted and fed down to the work, while some models have an adjustable side swing movement enabling the width of cut to be increased or extended without moving the router-fence or changing the cutters. Usually these tools rely on speed rather than power output, therefore the depth of cut obtainable at any one setting is fairly small, but the degree of finish is quite high. Many models are available from fractional up...

Rubbed joints

Assuming that several narrow boards have to be jointed together with hide-type glue, the boards should be arranged on the bench, choosing the best face uppermost, matching the grain and colour and, wherever possible, reversing the heart side so that any subsequent rounding is equalized without losing too much thickness (133 2). The boards are then marked as shown (133 1). The first board is held in the vice and the second board placed on it edge to edge and tested with a straight-edge across...

Planers

A skilled machinist can accurately thickness a panel on an overhand surface planer jointer but it requires practice and is dangerous. Ideally one should have a long bedded surface planer for the accurate truing of one surface and long edges, and a separate thicknesser surfacer to reduce stock to a consistent thickness. Alter- 107 Wadkin heavy-duty 20 in (508 mm) by 10 in (254 mm) thicknesser surfacer natively, where space and cost are crucial, a combination surface planer and thicknesser, often...

Drillpress

The drill-press equipped with 1 2 hp (0.373 kW) motor has a range of pulley speeds for wood and metal, graduated feed, locking handle to the feed and swivelling table which can also be tilted for angle drilling. Its V2 in (12.5 mm) capacity chuck will accommodate all types of machine bits and drills, and it can be used not only for all vertical drilling operations to any preset depth, but also for veining, shallow grooving, light hollow-chisel mortising, drum sanding and polishing, etc....

Sharpening stones Oilstones

For the whetting or honing of ground edges (and all edge tools are supplied ground but not honed) a variety of stones are necessary. They can be either India, carborundum, or the slower cutting Washita, which is an inferior form of Arkansas, while true Arkansas is very scarce and expensive. Both India and carborundum grits are artificial, and therefore their quality is consistent, but Washita is a natural stone and can vary considerably, with an occasional piece almost too hard to cut the best,...

Bandsaw

The effectiveness of this machine is governed by the throat depth, i. e. distance from saw to body framework, and a 20 in (508 mm) band-saw will cut a width of 19 1 2 in (495 mm) and a depth or thickness of 13 in (330 mm). The smaller machines (12 in 304 mm throat, etc.) have small-diameter wheels imposing greater strain on the band-saws, therefore here again it should be as large as possible. All machines have (or should have) a tilting table and ripping fence, 104 Startrite light duty 12 in...

Warped Tops

Badly warped tops can often be corrected by saw kerfing, provided the under surface is not visible in the fixed position. A series of parallel cuts are run in with the circular saw, 1 4 in (6 mm) apart and to within a full 1 8 in (3 mm) of the upper surface. The board is then Cramped clamped down to a level surface, and softwood wedge strips or strips of veneer glued into the 541 Seventeenth-century French marquetry cabinet under restoration at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, using...

Preassembled carcasses from sheet materials

In reproduction work and in quality living room and dining furniture, in particular, much is still manufactured, assembled and finished in the factory as complete items of furniture, and it is this area of industrialized construction which is of most interest to the small cabinet-maker. In this area, where veneering and surface finishing are undertaken as part of the production, MDF is fast superseding both plywoods and chipboard as the base material. Its main disadvantage (its considerably...

Jointing Veneers

The trimming and jointing of narrow veneers to form larger panels is done by special saws or power-operated guillotines in production-work, but knife cutting by hand is rarely satisfactory and the veneers should be worked as in jointing narrow boards. Single leaves can be planed up on the shooting-board (293 1) if adequately supported as shown, or a pack of veneers can be cramped clamped between two wood straight-edges and either held in the vice (288) or passed over the jointer. If the veneer...

Cutting angles

All bench-planes for general levelling, i.e. jointer-, try-, fore-, jack- and smooth-planes, have double irons (Figure 60 1) composed of the cutting iron proper and the cap-iron whose function it is to stiffen the cutting edge and break up the shaving as it is raised so that, robbed of its stiffness, it does not tend to run ahead of the cut in a series of small splits in the surface of the wood. The closer this cap-iron is to the cutting edge the sooner the shaving is bent over and broken, and...

Woodworking and allied machinery

Certain basic machines are indispensable to every workshop even where hand work predominates. These are circular table saw radial arm-saw band-saw planers spindle moulder shaper mortiser horizontal borer overhead table router drill-press bench-grinder sanders and lathes. If much veneer-work is done then either a screw-operated or vacuum-bag veneerpress will need a high priority, while production shops would place the dovetailing-machine and belt sander high on the list. Where it is intended to...

Vertical drillstand

Vertical pillar drill-stands with spring-loaded instant-return feed and fixed table are usually available for all models of hand drills. With the gun clamped in position the stand becomes an effective vertical table-drill or drill-press for vertical drilling of wood and metal. It lacks the versatility of the orthodox drill-press but will perform most of the main functions of the heavier tool.

Planes for curved surfaces

Shaped edges which are convex can be worked with a smoothing- or block-plane provided the curve is not too acute, but for quick curves and concave edges a metal compass-plane is obtainable whose flexible spring steel face can be adjusted to any arc. This is an expensive tool proportionate to the amount of use which could be found for it, and given a true eye most curved edges can be worked equally well but rather more slowly with spokeshaves which have either a flat face for convex work or a...

Intarsiawork

Originally developed in the fourteenth century this process uses separate inlays of wood, ivory, bone, tortoiseshell, mother-of-pearl, brass, silver, etc. cut to shape, laid on the ground substrate, the outlines traced with a fine point and the appropriate recesses cut in with wood-carving tools, slightly bevelling the shoulders of the cuts to give a tight fit. Wood thicknesses are usually from 1 8 in (3 mm) to 1 4 in (6 mm) thickness and can be levelled off flush after laying, but the more...

Cutting procedures

Laminated plastic veneers can be cut with circular saws, using square tipped teeth without set, band-saws with hack-saw-shaped teeth, or fine-toothed backed tenon-saws, in all cases cutting with the face side up. For machine-saws in production-work tungsten-carbide teeth should be used, for the resin content is very hard on cutting edges while if there is any tendency for the back to chip or 'tear out' with any type of saw the teeth should be resharpened, and the plastic sheet firmly supported...

Types of bits

Bits are probably the most abused of all woodworking tools, for too often the wrong type is chosen, or the bit is incorrectly or over sharpened. The general run of bits are supplied with either square taper shanks (69 1) for use in the armbrace, or parallel round shanks (69 14) for hand-drills. A few types are also available with parallel shanks turned down to 1 4 in (6 mm) diameter (69 13) for use in the standard drill-gun, and with Morse taper shanks for lathe heads or specialized...

Tongued and grooved joints

Where there is considerable loading of the surface, as in unsupported table flaps, etc., edge joints should be strengthened with tongues, which increase the gluing area. Tongues can be worked in the solid (134 1) or both edges grooved and a loose tongue inserted (134 2). These loose tongues were formerly cut from cross grain solid wood but plywood is now univerally used, matching the ply to the thickness of the cutter. The boards are not planed hollow, while the tongue itself, whether loose or...

Productionworkshops

Mass-produced, i.e. quantity-production, furniture is more the result of business expertise and engineering skill than the application of fine craftsmanship, although furniture is and probably always will be a craft-based industry while it continues to use a natural and viable material. The modern factory employs machine- and hand-workers of a variety of types, assemblers, finishers, polishers, upholsterers and inspectors, etc., and, in the narrow sense, expert cabinet-makers might have no...

Jigsaws

These are sometimes known as 'sabre saws', which is more correct as the term 'jigsaw' could also be taken to mean power-driven fretsaws in which the blade is secured at either end. Available in home, general and super duty, some have vertical stroke, and others have a cycloid action which keeps the teeth clear of sawdust. The no-load speed is usually around 3000 strokes per minute, with a stroke depth of from 1 2 in (12.5 mm) to 1 in (25 mm) and a cutting depth of up to 23 8 in (60 mm) in...

Miscellaneous Materials

Mother-of-pearl can be obtained prepared for use in various qualities and colours, blue, pink and green being the most expensive. It can be cut with a jeweller's piercing saw and filed to shape, but should be backed with a temporary veneer or sheet of paper before cutting as some varieties are very brittle. If laid with hide glue it should be roughened with a file and any slight curvature taken up with plaster of Paris mixed in the glue. Very little pressure must be used, sufficient only to...

Benchgrinder

The bench-grinder is virtually indispensable for the rapid grinding of cutting edges, moulding blanks, etc., and the various abrasive wheels are listed on p. 108. 115 1 2 in (12.5 mm) capacity five-speed table drill or drill press 116 8 in (203 mm) high-speed bench-grinder 17 6 in (152 mm) pad belt sander 17 6 in (152 mm) pad belt sander

Perspex

Perspex or acrylic sheet (polymethyl methacry-late) is readily obtainable in clear transparent, pastel shades, full colours, and transfusing and fluorescent colours in thicknesses from V25 in (1 mm) to V2 in (12.5 mm) in colours, and up to 2 in (50 mm) in the clear sheet. It is also supplied in clear rod and tube up to 1 in (25 mm) diameter. Although not as hard as fused glass it has the same clarity and appearance and can be cut very easily with circular saw, band-saw or very fine-toothed...

Assemblybenches

These need only be softwood and require no vices but here again they should be strong, steady and truly level. Separate benches for gluing up, especially for the hand-coating of glue on veneers, etc., are probably a luxury but well worth the extra space if it can be provided, for resin glues set glass hard and have an unholy knack of badly scarring finished surfaces if allowed to harden on working-tops. Oilstones and bench-grinders also deserve a special bench or table, preferably with...

Foam padding

The original and familiar latex rubber foam was first developed by the Dunlop Rubber Company in the early 1930s, and completely revolutionized upholstery techniques, to be followed later by polyester and polyether synthetic foams. Apart from differences in performance-,-latex rubber sponge is foamed by chemical additives (originally soap solutions) therefore the cushions can be shaped or moulded at the time of manufacture, while synthetic sponges generate their own carbon dioxide which blows...

Restoration repairs and wood finishing 47 Structural repairs

The repair of modern everyday furniture usually calls for cutting out and replacing broken parts, fixing false tenons or dowels to fractured joints, strengthening joints with metal straps, insets or angle pieces, renewing whole members where necessary, and in general applying normal cabinet-making skills. Valuable antique furniture repairs require expert know-how with carefully matched old wood, scraps of old saw-cut veneer, and a keen appreciation of period, colour and patina, together with...

Surface damage

Slight bruising of surfaces where the actual fibres are not fractured can often be lifted by the repeated application of a heated iron tip through a wet cloth, creating sufficient steam to swell the fibres up. Bruises in bare wood can also be lifted by flooding the bruise with methylated spirit and setting fire to it, but the wood must not be scorched. There is no guarantee that the bruises will be eradicated entirely, for much depends on the elasticity of the wood fibres and their ability to...

Column veneering

A traditional and effective method of veneering small circular columns and half columns, which does away with the necessity for shaped cauls, is to glue the column with hide glue and allow to cool off, cut the veneer with a generous overlap in the width, pin one long edge (if necessary damping it so that it lies flat), wrap the veneer round the column and bind it with a 2 in (50 mm) continuous calico strip which has been well wetted so that the whole of the area is covered with the strip. The...

Frame and panel or frame and thin skin construction

Much of this method of construction is a legacy of the utility furniture of the 1940s and early 1950s, when wood was at a premium and components were whittled down to a bare minimum. The extremely thin veneered plywood skins and panels were designed to give the appearance of solid wood construction and a traditional feel. This method of construction, 177 Basic construction showing joints 1. Housed with economy of material as its main aim, dadoed joint 2 & 3. Tongue and lap 4. Mitre and...

Movement And Shrinkage

Sound jointing techniques upon which the stiffness, appearance and general usefulness of furniture depend must take into account the natural movement of wood, and its propensity to shrink, swell and warp under fluctuating 12 Drying-oven for testing moisture content 12 Drying-oven for testing moisture content atmospheric conditions. It is, therefore, vitally important that the woodworker should understand exactly what kind of structural material it is which ceaselessly moves in sympathy with its...

Grading and classification of plywood

Clear distinction must be drawn between the grading of ply, which is concerned only with the quality of the face veneers, and the classification into groups or types, which is concerned with the nature of the bonding adhesive and the durability of the actual wood used. Hitherto plywoods were loosely grouped into interior and exterior qualities, but these terms are fairly meaningless. Admittedly, 25 Manufactured boards 1 3 ply construction 2 5 ply construction 3 Multi-ply construction 4...

Drawings

Drawings should be lightly done at first, using a medium hard pencil and boldly outlining when correct, while a 4H pencil should be used for critical measurements. Moulded sections should be heavily outlined to show the correct profile, and all end-grain sections cross-hatched for easy identification. Curved lines should be drawn first and straight lines carried into them, while tracing through to another sheet or to the bare wood can be done with carbon paper or rubbing the back of the drawing...

Portable Planers

These have only a limited use for the furniture-maker who, unlike the joiner and builder working out on site, has constant access to a floor-mounted machine. On occasion, however, the surface planer may not be wide enough, and then the portable is extremely useful for these extra wide boards or table tops, even though, for final accuracy, a hand plane will be needed. It is also useful for rebating if for any reason this cannot be undertaken on either the spindle moulder or surface planer. At...

Upholstery 475

VENEER EDGES 297, 302 guillotine 46, 302 jointing 297, 302 presses 298, 300 splicer 303 thicknesses, table of 47 -trimmer 122, 297 Veneering, caul 298 chipboard 302 column 313 counter 307 cross 305 crossbanding 305, 307 diaper-work 313 edge 191 -hammer 294, 296 hand- 294 particle board 302 pattern 309 practice 294 preparation 294, 300 pressure 298 reasons for 294 rubber bag 249, 307, 308 sandbag 308, 327 with miscellaneous materials 321 Veneers, balancing 300 coloured 49 flatt(en)ing 300...

Electric Chainsaws

The lightweight electric chainsaws which have recently been introduced are a great asset to the furniture-maker. They are invaluable for roughing out large, thick boards to arrive at the sizes that can be manhandled on the normal workshop machinery. They are much safer and more versatile in use than the portable circular saws, although a little more wasteful of wood. Also, for those involved in sculptural work, heavy bowl turning or carving, they are very manageable aids to roughing out and...

Housingdado Joints

Housings are usually taken to mean wide grooves cut across the grain to receive the full thickness of fixed shelving, drawer runners, etc., although they can also be worked with the grain. Probably the only real difference between a housing and a groove is that the latter is designed to take a shouldered tongue and not the full thickness. Trenches are usually taken to mean seatings or wide housings, but the terms are interchangeable. Housings dadoes for fixed shelves can be worked right through...

Measuring Point Perspective

This is an alternative method of drawing perspective which has the advantage that no plan has to be drawn. If the sizes are known, they can be used directly on the horizontal and vertical scales and a perspective drawing produced. Once the SP has been used to fix the measuring points (335 A) it can be ignored. Remember that the measuring points fix measurements of length and width, read off directly from the height scale, the lines from which are taken to the vanishing points. As the object of...

Water stones

Over the past few years a growing number of craftsmen in Britain and the USA have swung over to using inexpensive Japanese water stones. These are only available from specialist tool suppliers and, due to their extreme softness, are unsuitable for the novice or for school use. However, used with care, they cut fast, produce a near perfect edge, and avoid the use of messy oil. This latter is important as it is a basic necessity for the furniture-maker to keep his hands clean and free from...

Double bevel dovetail joints

These joints are sometimes used for bevel-sided hoppers, knife-boxes, etc., and although rarely used are worth describing for the sake or the principles involved in setting or laying out bevelled work. A full-size drawing is necessary from which the true length (A) and the true width (B) can be obtained (158), also the edge bevel in the thickness of each piece shown by the arrowed line (c). All the bevels are marked and worked holding the bevel at right angles to the edges of the sloping ends...

Gauges

Honing-109 Geometry in workshop 363 Glass fibre plastic mouldings 61 Glasspaper 81 Gliders 285 Glue, heat acceleration of setting 342 -pots 80, 142 spreader 300 Glues, see also adhesives 74 applicators 80 comparison of various types 79 hide 74, 294 impact 77 preparation of 75 preparing surfaces for 77 resin 75, 298 types of 74, 79 working properties of 75 Gluing difficult materials 78 Go-bars 341 Gothic tracery 375 Gouges 106 Grasshopper gauge 92 Grinding and honing angles, chisels 106 wheels...

Fibre Boards

Fibre boards have been used extensively in the building industry for many years in various densities, but until recently the only application for furniture-making was the dense hardboard used for back panels and drawer bottoms. More recently, a medium density fibreboard (MDF) has been manufactured for the furniture industry, and it is available in thicknesses from 1 4 in (6 mm) up to 1 in (25 mm), which gives it a versatility in use that previously only plywood enjoyed. On average it is about...

Curves From Solid Wood

The process of finding wood with grain that naturally follows the curve required goes back centuries. It was this tradition that led to the oak forests of Britain being scoured for timber which would naturally supply the structural curves which were necessary for roof stresses and boat building. Sadly, because of industry's demand for straight-grained, easily worked wood, it is more difficult today to find these natural curves. It is this shortage of naturally curved timber that has led to an...

Table lining

Hitherto a separate craft, the lining-in of inset leather or baize surfaces to table- and desk-tops was usually passed over to small specialist firms who also gold blocked the borders. The actual laying of the leather, etc. is now often done by the furniture-maker, with any gold border blocked in by a specialist. It should be pointed out in this connection that most leathers are now heavily dressed with synthetic resin lacquers during finishing which may or may not take the leaf or foil, and...

Particle Boards Chipboards

These are composed of wood chips carefully graded, mixed with synthetic resin glue and either pressed or extruded into rigid, self-supporting sheets of uniform thickness which are sanded down to close tolerances. Flax-sheaves are sometimes used instead of wood chips (flax boards) and have virtually the same properties, although they tend to be lighter in weight and not so strong for any given density. Considerable research has gone into the development of both types of board, and woodchip...

Furniture For Outside

It is essential that the right materials are used for outside work, and this applies not only to the choice of wood but also to the choice of hardware and adhesives. If the appropriate materials are used, then outside furniture will give years of maintenance-free service. Of the home-grown species oak, macrocarpa, yew, cedar of Lebanon and sweet chestnut are all ideal similarly from the imported timbers, Burmese teak, iroko and Western red cedar are eminently suitable. They can be left with no...

Woodturning Lathes

Most furniture-makers require turned components from time to time, from chair legs to turned drawer knobs, so it makes sense, if space permits, to undertake this within the workshop. The woodturning lathe can also be a useful source of income, and bowls and platters, often from the waste products of furniture-making, can keep apprentices and trainees gainfully employed between orders. It is preferable to purchase as heavy a machine as 120 A medium duty wood turning lathe by T.S. Harrison &...

Bedroom furniture

Increasingly, clothes storage is being catered for either by permanent built-in units installed by the builder, or by KD linking wall units that arrive in flat boxes ready for DIY assembly. These often replace not only the traditional wardrobe but also the chest of drawers and dressing table as well. For this reason, and because the general public is less willing to spend the equivalent amount of money on bedroom furniture as they do on their sitting room, dining or kitchen requirements,...

Cocktail cabinets

Figure 436 illustrates a cocktail cabinet in English walnut, composed of carcass and separate stand with built-in shelf. Figure 437 1 shows the elevation and 437 2 the side sectional elevation. The carcass is in 3 4 in (19 mm) lamin-board with exterior veneered walnut from one wide leaf of sufficient length to yield continuous grain throughout, and interior in Nigerian pearwood, with the carcass mitre tongued and grooved at the top, and lap tongued and grooved at the bottom. Alternative methods...

Other Edge Tools Chisels

It is hardly necessary to have complete sets of mortise-, firmer- and bevelled edged chisels for furniture-making, as the bevelled-edged will do everything necessary. Nor are complete sets of any one type essential, for there will always be three or four favourites to which the hand automatically turns. A first selection could be 1 8 in (3 mm), 1 4 in (6 mm), 3 8 in (9 mm), 1 2 in (12.5 mm) and 4 in (19 mm) bevelled edge (61 lA) with the addition of a 1 16 in (1.5 mm) firmer type (61 lB) and...

Hand tools

The basic tools of woodwork and the elementary processes of sawing, chiselling and smoothing wood are widely known, and detailed repetition is hardly necessary. What is of concern here is the specialized application of these basic techniques to the fabrication of project components, usually of small dimension, which will eventually become pieces of furniture. Therefore, although the tools employed and the methods of manipulating them are in principle the same as for any woodworking trade, the...

Laying out finger jointing

The veneers chosen should be reasonably straight grained and not too pronounced in figure. The butt ends of the matched veneers taken in strict order from the bundle should be overlapped by the amount required for the fingering, always remembering that the longer the fingers the more they will approximate to the direction of the long grain and the less evident they will be when laid. A small allowance, say3 8 in (9.5 mm) over and above the length of the fingers, should be made at each end to...

Solid board carcass construction

This method of carcass construction is rarely undertaken by large manufacturers, and, when it is, the wood is usually strip laminated for stability and uniformity of colour and grain in production. Figure 185, for example, shows a solid wood top made of 18 in (45 cm) sections glued together with a resin adhesive to form an 18 in (45 cm) board. Ercol of High Wycombe 182 Framed carcasses using thin sheet material 182 Framed carcasses using thin sheet material are the masters of this form of...

Circular Table Saws

As a rough approximation it is usual to take one-third of the diameter of a circular saw as its effective cut, therefore a 15 in (381 mm) saw giving a cut of about 5 in (127 mm) would be about the minimum for general work. However, many large concerns do not use timber thicker than 11 2 in (38 mm) building up for larger dimensions, and this greatly simplifies their stocks, while large-diameter saws are no 99 12 in (304 mm) sliding-table panel-saw (dimension saw) 100 Startrite 9 in (228 mm) tilt...

Stains In Wood

Stains can be caused by harmless fungi as distinct from wood-rotting fungi, soil conditions, frost factors, etc., chemical contamination, and natural oxidization or weathering. Positive identification of any particular type of stain can be difficult, but as a rule fungal and mineral stains are of variable intensity, fading slightly at the edges and following the grain. Stains with a hard edge which do not follow the grain are usually chemical in origin, while overall discoloration is probably...

Cast and moulded structures Thermosetting plastics

Special casting or compression moulding resins (PF, UF, MF and epoxy resins, etc.) are used. In the most simple technique a cold cure resin mix (resin syrup and catalyst) is extended with appropriate fillers and colorants and cast in metal, silicone or hot melt rubber or plaster moulds without heat. In a more sophisticated technique the resinous solution is neutralized with a suitable organic acid, dehydrated under vacuum, and poured into lead moulds which are then oven treated. A third...

Manufacture Of Wood Veneers

Before the introduction of power-driven circular saws all veneers were sawn by hand, usually V8 in (3 mm) and over in thickness, with deep saw kerfing which had to be planed off before laying or the ribbing would ultimately show through the polish. At the turn of the century specially large circular saws up to 18 feet (5.48 m) in diameter with very fine saw teeth and little set were introduced which could cut veneers from V32 in (0.8 mm) to Vi6 in (1.5 mm) in thickness, or about 12 sheets to...

Index

ABRASIVES, see also sanding materials 81 choice of grits 84 choice of types 83 comparable gradings 82 hardness of grits 85 miscellaneous 86 sanding papers 81, 85 wheels, etc. 86 Adhesives, see also glues 73 Altar-rails 484 tables 484 Angles 365 Arches 375 BALANCING VENEERS 300 Bandings 316 Beads, cock 251 Bed sizes 451 types 453 Bedsteads 453 Belt sanders, dustless 125 pad 136 Bench, cabinet maker's 87 -drill 135 -grinder 135 -holdfast 89 -hook 89, 163, 350 Bending plywoods 52, 339 wood 332...

Diseases And Pests

Wood which is deeply buried in the ground or completely submerged in water does not decay, as witness the highly prized black bog oak which has been buried for centuries under layers of wet peat, and the use of timber baulks for underwater piles and breakwaters. However, where there is free oxygen, living fungi will attack the wood, provided there is moisture present and although most of these fungi are relatively harmless, causing little more than local staining, two main types of rot actively...

Properties Of Common Woods

The following list gives descriptions of some of the more widely known woods suitable for furniture-making. In each case, colour, texture, figure, working properties and behaviour can only be an approximation or general average, for individual trees within each species may differ very considerably. There will be marked differences between trees of the same species and accorded the same commercial gradings grown some 2000 miles apart, but there can also be an appreciable difference between trees...

Pullover Cross Cut Saws Radial Arm Saws

A heavy duty radial or swing saw mounted on a long wooden table is a regular item of equipment in most joinery workshops for the rapid crosscutting of squared up boards and timbers. It is less common in cabinet-making shops simply because waney edge boards are more commonly used. Many shops do have a lighter version, the radial arm saw, which has been particularly developed for the home craftsman and has a versatility that enables many processes from ripping to drilling to be accomplished on...

Carcass assembly

Carcas Construction

Final assembly of the various component parts is the culmination of many hours of patient work and should never be hurried. A preliminary assembly in the dry state can be made but only to establish the direction of entry and the exactness of the fit. Dowelled components can be tried with spare dowel-pegs sanded slack (tight dowels should never be used as the suction in a tight hole can hold them immovable), and there can be no objection to fully seating tenons in order to check the shoulders,...

Planes

One of the most useful of all planes is the 22 in (558 mm) try-plane 'jointer No. 07 with 23 8 in (60 mm) cutter. Shorter planes in this category are known as 'fore' for general levelling, and longer planes 'jointers' for shooting square edges, etc., but the middle size will do everything necessary. Jack-planes can either be 14 in (355 mm) or 15 in (380 mm) long with 2 in (50 mm) or 23 8 in (60 mm) cutter (Nos. 05 or 05V2). The name itself is probably a corruption of 'jackass' or 'Jack of all...

Furniture Making

Since its first publication in 1970 The Technique of Furniture Making has established itself as the bible for all woodworkers. However, in nearly twenty years there have been considerable changes in the craft, and so this book has been revised thoroughly in order for it to continue to be as useful and relevant to today's furniture makers. The revision has been carried out by Alan Peters, one of Britain's leading furniture makers, whose own training has led him to have a ready sympathy and...

Jng

Table without flaps, 385 2 the sectional elevation and 385 3 an isometric projection of the overall appearance. Figure 385 4 is the usual table with end flaps supported by swing knuckle-jointed brackets as in Pembroke tables, etc., and 385 5 an under plan showing the flap in the raised position. Constructional details are given in 386 with 386 1 the carcass framing, 386 2 leg details from which it will be seen that the side rail is bridled over the upright or standard, with the outer side of...

Dovetailing accessories

Arcoy Dovetailer

Where short runs do not warrant the use of a dovetailing machine, accessories can be obtained for most types of spindle moulding shaping machine and router including portable routers , incorporating suitable jigs or finger plates into which the single cutter is fed. Particulars of these can be obtained from the manufacturers concerned. For the handworker not completely wedded to hand dovetailing, and lacking sufficient practice to cut dovetails as speedily as the hardened professional, a...

Inlay Lines Bandings

It is a little sad that inlaid lines and bandings are no longer used in modern furniture, for they add great richness and a touch of welcome colour. Figure 302 1 shows various traditional examples, and 302 2-5 the method of assembly in which composite blocks are built up of layers of contrasting woods and veneers and then sliced as in 302 3, with a special planer or swage-set circular saw projecting only sufficiently above the saw-table to cut the thickness. Reproduction-work still makes use of...

Inlay Repairs

Figures 543-5 show the extensive renovation and repair of a set of six Regency-style chairs carried out by Mr CM. Lacey of Brighton, England. The appellations 'Genuine Antique', 'Genuine Regency' etc., etc., cannot be applied to any furniture made after 1830, which is the fixed datum line. As it would be impossible to distinguish between furniture of the same type or style made in, say. 1820 and 1840, any claim to genuineness must be supported by an original bill of sale or other trustworthy...

Saw Kerfing

This traditional method is not now used to any great extent in production furniture-making, but it still has an important role in smaller workshops, as it is often a more economic method in one-off work than laminating. In practice a series of saw cuts are run down to within about 1 8 in 3 mm of the outer face 319 1 according to the wood species, and the closer the cuts are the easier the wood will bend, with hard oak requiring a spacing of 1 4 in 6 mm or less. There is a tendency for the bend...