The Greenhouse

With the advances in technology brought about by the industrial revolution, the dream of a dematerialised roof constructed of iron and glass could finally be realised. English greenhouses featured the first glazed roofs in the history of architecture. Greenhouses became an oasis, a place promising to be the embodiment of the dream of a happy unity of nature and man. 2.1 9 The abundance of tropical plants, exotic scents and sounds created a dream world that gave city dwellers an

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21 Spectral transmission of low-iron and float glass 22 Overview of the optical parameters relating to visible light (index v) and the whole range of radiation (index e) for float glass of various thicknesses 23 Spectral transmission of green glass, which is suitable for solar control glass because of its high absorption of light in the IR range. 24 Light transmission and reflection graph for various angles of incidence 25 Total reflection at a flat observation angle, Finnish Pavilion, Expo...

Loadbearing Capacity

The position of the interlayer within the stressed cross section is relevant to its load-bearing capacity. With outer layers of equal thickness in a symmetrical laminated section, the interlayer lies at the neutral axis and in an intact system is subject to shear stresses only. The stiffer the film, the greater is the composite action effect and the smaller are the resulting deflections. As PVB is a viscoelastic thermoplastic, the shear modulus is particularly dependent on the ambient...

Loadbearing Structure

The truss features a nearly flat top chord and a parabolic bottom chord. It is divided into ten sections through vertical and diagonal load-bearing components. The height of the framework diminishes in relation to the span - from 1 8 at the end supports to 1 13 at the centre _Fig. 96. With a uniformly distributed load, the internal geometry causes the bottom chords and diagonals to be under tensile stress and the top chords and vertical members to be under compression. The material selection...

Loadbearing System

The top chord of the GlassTex arch is formed by identical glass plates with hinged edge connections it is therefore a folded plate arch structure. Given the arch effect, the glass elements are subject to compression forces under dead load. Due to its lack of bending stiffness, the system must be stabilised for asymmetrical load cases such as wind and snow by means of prestressing forces. These radially oriented forces are transferred evenly to the glass plates by fabric panels, in a truss-like...

Maintenance And Cleaning

A flatter slope or curvature of the roof means the glass has a less effective self-cleaning effect. The build-up of dirt increases towards the apex on curved roof structures. Cleaning the outside of the roof is normally done by automatic cleaning and access equipment running on rails at the eaves and ridge. The inside of smaller roof surfaces can be cleaned with wheeled access scaffolding larger roofs may require access systems such as gantries. The most efficient way of cleaning wide span...

O C A S A S S A

30 Laminated natural stone-glass panels create unusual optical effects (laminated glass comprising 12 mm tempered glass, 1.5 mm casting resin and 10 mm marble). Christ Pavilion at Expo 2000, Arch. gmp, glass Wendker & Selders 31 View of laminated glass with integrated HOE film The incident light is dispersed into its spectral colours. 30 Laminated natural stone-glass panels create unusual optical effects (laminated glass comprising 12 mm tempered glass, 1.5 mm casting resin and 10 mm...

Plates Loaded In Compression

The brittleness of the material scarcely reduces the strength of plate elements under compression. Glass plates can be used as wall panels, struts and shell elements. Examples of projects in which load-bearing wall panels are designed to support the roof structure include the Sommerakademie in Rheinbach _Figs 53-56, the Temple de l'Amour at Noyers in Burgundy_Fig. 12 and Big Blue, a sculpture by Ron Arad in Canary Wharf, London_Figs 1-3. Struts are used in externally prestressed tie systems and...

Preface And Acknowledgments

What the structural engineer sees as a load-bearing truss is seen as a sculpture by the architect - naturally, it is both. - Ove Arup Based on its geometry, its mechanical, building physical and visual qualities, every material is uniquely suited as a load-bearing component, as a building skin or design element. Within this Grammar of Materials, as Anette Gigon called it, no other material opens up as comprehensive a range of possibilities to the designer as flat glass, which increasingly...

Structural Skins

The principles of structural skins will gain in popularity over skeleton construction. Continued research in the area of the load-bearing behaviour of redundant sandwich, folded-plate and truss structures, and also in the field of adhesive technology, could in the near future lead to load-bearing building kits approved by the building authorities. Construction modules for medium and large spans could be introduced to the building market in accordance with the design parameters outlined in this...

The Active Climate Skin The Microclimate

A microclimate describes an artificial climate within a glazed space. With the conditioning of certain parameters (temperature, relative humidity, light levels etc.) a microclimate can allow these spaces to be used permanently despite changes in daily and seasonal outdoor climate. Microclimatised halls create living space for people, either as places to work or to enjoy free time and relaxation. This category also includes greenhouses and animal enclosures. Comfort temperature is between 12 C...

The Passive Climate Skin The Mesoclimate

Mike Davies compares the climate of large enclosed unheated glass halls with standing under a canopy of trees walking in the open across the valley to the forest one is buffeted by the chill wind and touch of rain. On entering the forest the rain stops, absorbed by the 24 Micro- and mesoclimatic conditions under double-skinned glass roof, thermal baths Bad Elster, 1999, Arch. Behnisch und Partner foliage canopy, the wind dies away becoming just a rustle in the tree tops. One is 'Outside' but...

The Safe Design Of Glass Structures Loaded In Compression

The characteristic triangular patterns in truss structures create favourable normal stresses and avoid unfavourable bending stresses. In trusses, glass can be used for the structural members loaded in compression in a way compatible with its characteristics, whilst steel can be used for the structural elements loaded in tension. As applied loads such as dead load and wind can act in different directions and cause oppositely signed stresses in the system, the one-sided compressive stress design...

The Use Of Glass Panes In Building Skins

Depending on the installed position of the glass panes in the building envelope, they may be classified as vertical, inclined or horizontal glazing according to the relevant national standards. German standards for example define vertical glazing as inclined at up to ten degrees to the vertical horizontal glazing at up to 15 degrees to the horizontal The installed position of the glazing determines the type and duration of the loadings and the associated potential danger _Fig. 2. As inclined...

Ventilation

Highly curved roofs enhance thermal buoyancy. The large wind suction forces occurring at the flat ridges of pitched and barrel vaulted roofs help to draw the air from the hall_Fig. 24. Spoilers attached to the roof improve natural ventilation at low wind speeds. Mechanical ventilation must be used when there is no wind. Depending on the wind direction and the geometry of the surroundings, curved roofs can set up complex patterns of positive and negative wind pressures, which may require wind...

The Flat Or Inclined Roof The Glass Courtyard

A planar roof area is horizontal or pitched, the roof profile is one-dimensional. The top-lit courtyard screened off from the external surroundings is one of the oldest forms of spatial organisation. It serves to provide light and access to adjacent spaces and is defined by a tranquil, introverted ambience that is an invitation to linger. The interior square atrium terminating in a horizontal glass ceiling, in which none of the lateral enclosing elements are dominant, constitutes the purest...

Introduction

Flat glass has been used to enclose space for nearly two millennia and Is one of the oldest manmade building materials. At the same time continual improvements to the manufacturing and refining processes make glass one of the most modern building materials today, one that shapes the appearance of contemporary architecture unlike any other. Almost any task associated with a modern building skin could be fulfilled with the help of this material. This made it possible to overcome the contradiction...

The Glasshouse

Geist, the glasshouse corresponds to the all-encompassing skylight. In contrast to other types, the glazing extends across the lateral enclosures down to the floor and forms a weather skin on all sides. Depending on the internal plan, the geometry of the glasshouse can be interpreted as a space defining variation on the glass courtyard, the glass band or the glass core. Typologically, the cubic glass fabric therefore corresponds to the glass courtyard, the glass tube to the...

Shear Plates

Glass has been used as a stiffening element in glasshouses since the 19th century. The panes were supported in a bed of putty, which not only braced the whole structure, it also stabilised the wrought-iron ribs, which were prone to buckling, with the result that there was no need for diagonal struts or rigid corner connections_Fig. 11. The following description by John Claudius Loudon, the great pioneer of glass construction, provides an impressive account of the glasshouse built at Bretton in...

Picture Credits

The Glasshouse, London 1996, p. 41 1, Fig. 5 from Mc Grath, A. C. Glass in Architecture and Decoration, London 1961 1, Fig. 9 James Carpenter Design Associates, New York 1, Fig. 10 Ulrich Knaack, Lehrstuhl f r Tragkonstruktionen, RWTH Aachen 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 ves Marburg, from Hix, J. The Glasshouse, London 1996, p. 53 1996, p. 191, Fritz Dressler, Worpswede Fig. 19 Courtesy The Estate of R....