Conclusion And Outlook

In form and division, the geometry of the dome reflects the characteristics of glass as a building material. The linear hinged connections emphasise the load-bearing capacity of the dome and the diaphragm action of the glass and are reminiscent of putty-glazed grid shell structures of 19th-century glasshouses. An adhesive system that is suitable in the long term for such complex requirements must be developed in additional experimental stud ies, which could not be carried out within the context...

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Analytische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum X Biegedrillknicken thermisch vorgespannter Glasschwerter, diploma thesis at the Lehrstuhl f r Stahlbau, RWTH Aachen 2000 m 4.3 12 Luible, A. Stabilit t von Tragelementen aus Glas, Dissertation EPFL 3014, Ecole Q- Polytechnique F d rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 2004, pp. 145-155 4.3 13 Proc. glasbau2005, Institut f r Baukonstruktion, TU Dresden, pp. 52 et seqq., pp. 104-114 4.3 14 Haas, Ch. Haldimann, M. Entwurf und...

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The basic types of glass courtyard, glass band and glass core are summarised in_Fig. 1. The glass courtyard is defined by a planar (two-dimensional) roof, the glass band by a single folded or curved roof and the glass core by a double-folded or curved roof. Typologically, the glasshouse is characterised by a glass skin on all sides, the sculptural quality of which liberates it from unequivocal typological references. 2.2 2 The flow of force in the structural system and...

Bibliographical References

Le Verre structurel, Paris 1990 P 2 Button, D. Pye, B. Glass in Building, Oxford 1993 P 3 Wigginton, M. Glass in Architecture, London 1996 P 4 Gigon, A. Guyer, M. Die Grammatik der Werkstoffe, in DAIDALOS 08 1995, Magie der Werkstoffe II, pp. 48-55 P 5 Siegel, C. Strukturformen der modernen Architektur, Munich 1961 1 1 Laugier, M.-A. Bock, H. (eds) Das Manifest des Klassizismus based on the original Essai sur l'architecture (1753), Zurich 1989 1 2 Hix, J. The...

Historic Evolution

The historic evolution of the glass roof and its typical appearance in the glass courtyard, glass band, glass core and glasshouse is illustrated in the diagram _Fig. 2. The overview presents the trends and evolutionary lines of cross-section (roof shape) and plan (orientation) from the first glass roof constructions circa 1800 to the present day. Solid construction typologies which are characterised by a similar spatial configuration are given as examples in the column headed preliminary...

Folded Plate Structures

Folded plate structures behave as pure structural skins. They are composed of planar, bending- and shear-resistant shell elements and present an ideal situation for the constructional use of glass. The ridge-and-furrow principle developed by the English greenhouse pioneer J. C. Loudon and used to great success by J. Paxton with his Crystal Palace in 1851 is an early example of folded glass roof construction. The panes were inclined in opposite directions to one another with the result that they...

Energy Generation

The cross-sections of double-curved glass roofs can be optimised to suit the path of the sun. This can eliminate low angles of light incidence and produce greater solar gain. The designers of the spherically curved curvilinear greenhouses of the 19th century sought to use this effect to increase plant growth. In addition, heat losses are correspondingly lower for domed halls as their ratio of enclosed volume to surface area is smaller than that of other buildings shapes

The Greenhouse

With the advances in technology brought about by the industrial revolution, the dream of a dematerialised roof constructed of iron and glass could finally be realised. English greenhouses featured the first glazed roofs in the history of architecture. Greenhouses became an oasis, a place promising to be the embodiment of the dream of a happy unity of nature and man. 2.1 9 The abundance of tropical plants, exotic scents and sounds created a dream world that gave city dwellers an

Info

21 Spectral transmission of low-iron and float glass 22 Overview of the optical parameters relating to visible light (index v) and the whole range of radiation (index e) for float glass of various thicknesses 23 Spectral transmission of green glass, which is suitable for solar control glass because of its high absorption of light in the IR range. 24 Light transmission and reflection graph for various angles of incidence 25 Total reflection at a flat observation angle, Finnish Pavilion, Expo...

Loadbearing Capacity

The position of the interlayer within the stressed cross section is relevant to its load-bearing capacity. With outer layers of equal thickness in a symmetrical laminated section, the interlayer lies at the neutral axis and in an intact system is subject to shear stresses only. The stiffer the film, the greater is the composite action effect and the smaller are the resulting deflections. As PVB is a viscoelastic thermoplastic, the shear modulus is particularly dependent on the ambient...

O C A S A S S A

30 Laminated natural stone-glass panels create unusual optical effects (laminated glass comprising 12 mm tempered glass, 1.5 mm casting resin and 10 mm marble). Christ Pavilion at Expo 2000, Arch. gmp, glass Wendker & Selders 31 View of laminated glass with integrated HOE film The incident light is dispersed into its spectral colours. 30 Laminated natural stone-glass panels create unusual optical effects (laminated glass comprising 12 mm tempered glass, 1.5 mm casting resin and 10 mm...

Preface And Acknowledgments

What the structural engineer sees as a load-bearing truss is seen as a sculpture by the architect - naturally, it is both. - Ove Arup Based on its geometry, its mechanical, building physical and visual qualities, every material is uniquely suited as a load-bearing component, as a building skin or design element. Within this Grammar of Materials, as Anette Gigon called it, no other material opens up as comprehensive a range of possibilities to the designer as flat glass, which increasingly...

Properties Of Glass

In nature it occurs as solidified volcanic lava and was used by humans in the manufacture of jewellery and other objects at least as long as 5 000 years ago. Glass in a hot, viscous state can be formed by mechanical processes into planar, linear or compact semi-finished products. All the products manufactured from glass and used in the construction industry - these include profiled glass and glass blocks but mostly flat glass - are classed as construction...

Solar Shading And Antiglare Measures

Glass roofs require effective precautions against overheating to be in place all year round. Solar control and anti-glare measures and blinds can be differentiated into external, integral and internal systems. They may be rigid or adjustable_Fig. 10. External shading devices are advantageous as they keep the absorbed solar energy separate from the internal space. An ideal solution is to have louvres that semi- or fully automatically track the daily and annual path of the sun and can be adjusted...

The Active Climate Skin The Microclimate

A microclimate describes an artificial climate within a glazed space. With the conditioning of certain parameters (temperature, relative humidity, light levels etc.) a microclimate can allow these spaces to be used permanently despite changes in daily and seasonal outdoor climate. Microclimatised halls create living space for people, either as places to work or to enjoy free time and relaxation. This category also includes greenhouses and animal enclosures. Comfort temperature is between 12 C...

The Domical Vault

Christian ecclesiastic architecture adopted the typology of the domed space as an image of the vault of the heavens from models dating back to antiquity. The symbolic connection between heaven and vault is enhanced by the lighting in the interior indirect light from the apex of the dome bathes the church interior in a heavenly glow. The illumination of the domed space through the oculus - a circular opening in the apex of the dome - is of prime importance for the spatial effect. The central...

The Passive Climate Skin The Mesoclimate

Mike Davies compares the climate of large enclosed unheated glass halls with standing under a canopy of trees walking in the open across the valley to the forest one is buffeted by the chill wind and touch of rain. On entering the forest the rain stops, absorbed by the 24 Micro- and mesoclimatic conditions under double-skinned glass roof, thermal baths Bad Elster, 1999, Arch. Behnisch und Partner foliage canopy, the wind dies away becoming just a rustle in the tree tops. One is 'Outside' but...

The Safe Design Of Glass Structures Loaded In Compression

The characteristic triangular patterns in truss structures create favourable normal stresses and avoid unfavourable bending stresses. In trusses, glass can be used for the structural members loaded in compression in a way compatible with its characteristics, whilst steel can be used for the structural elements loaded in tension. As applied loads such as dead load and wind can act in different directions and cause oppositely signed stresses in the system, the one-sided compressive stress design...

Ventilation

Highly curved roofs enhance thermal buoyancy. The large wind suction forces occurring at the flat ridges of pitched and barrel vaulted roofs help to draw the air from the hall_Fig. 24. Spoilers attached to the roof improve natural ventilation at low wind speeds. Mechanical ventilation must be used when there is no wind. Depending on the wind direction and the geometry of the surroundings, curved roofs can set up complex patterns of positive and negative wind pressures, which may require wind...

The Flat Or Inclined Roof The Glass Courtyard

A planar roof area is horizontal or pitched, the roof profile is one-dimensional. The top-lit courtyard screened off from the external surroundings is one of the oldest forms of spatial organisation. It serves to provide light and access to adjacent spaces and is defined by a tranquil, introverted ambience that is an invitation to linger. The interior square atrium terminating in a horizontal glass ceiling, in which none of the lateral enclosing elements are dominant, constitutes the purest...

Introduction

Flat glass has been used to enclose space for nearly two millennia and Is one of the oldest manmade building materials. At the same time continual improvements to the manufacturing and refining processes make glass one of the most modern building materials today, one that shapes the appearance of contemporary architecture unlike any other. Almost any task associated with a modern building skin could be fulfilled with the help of this material. This made it possible to overcome the contradiction...

The Glasshouse

Geist, the glasshouse corresponds to the all-encompassing skylight. In contrast to other types, the glazing extends across the lateral enclosures down to the floor and forms a weather skin on all sides. Depending on the internal plan, the geometry of the glasshouse can be interpreted as a space defining variation on the glass courtyard, the glass band or the glass core. Typologically, the cubic glass fabric therefore corresponds to the glass courtyard, the glass tube to the...

Shear Plates

Glass has been used as a stiffening element in glasshouses since the 19th century. The panes were supported in a bed of putty, which not only braced the whole structure, it also stabilised the wrought-iron ribs, which were prone to buckling, with the result that there was no need for diagonal struts or rigid corner connections_Fig. 11. The following description by John Claudius Loudon, the great pioneer of glass construction, provides an impressive account of the glasshouse built at Bretton in...

Picture Credits

The Glasshouse, London 1996, p. 41 1, Fig. 5 from Mc Grath, A. C. Glass in Architecture and Decoration, London 1961 1, Fig. 9 James Carpenter Design Associates, New York 1, Fig. 10 Ulrich Knaack, Lehrstuhl f r Tragkonstruktionen, RWTH Aachen 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 ves Marburg, from Hix, J. The Glasshouse, London 1996, p. 53 1996, p. 191, Fritz Dressler, Worpswede Fig. 19 Courtesy The Estate of R....