By 1849 Downing was determined to become an architect, and in this capacity he approached Davis and proposed a partnership. The latter declined, and in July 1850 Downing - still the Anglophile - sailed to England specifically to find an architectural partner who would also immigrate to the United States. He found such a person in the young architect Calvert Vaux. Just before leaving for England, Downing completed the manuscript of The Architecture of Country Houses, his last and most significant venture with Davis.
The book was more ambitious than earlier ones in that Downing and Davis devoted more attention to less expensive dwellings, and more to simple cottages intended for laborers. Downing now advocates less expensive timber construction for housing and champions Davis's board-and-batten construction. On a theoretical front, Downing had just read Ruskin's Seven Lamps of Architecture, and he is inspired to compose an introductory essay ''On the Real Meaning of Architecture," in which he praises at length the meaning of utility, beauty, variety, character, picturesqueness, and truth in architecture. The short Preface is also a masterpiece of content, as the moral connection of a home with civilization and social values neatly transposes the Anglo-Saxon notion of a ''home'' into the American psyche.
There are three excellent reasons why my countrymen should have good houses.
The first is, because a good house (and by this I mean a fitting, tasteful, and significant dwelling) is a powerful means of civilization. A nation, whose rural population is content to live in mean huts and miserable hovels, is certain to be behind its neighbors in education, the arts, and all that makes up the external signs of progress. With the perception of proportion, symmetry, order, and beauty, awakens the desire for possession, and with them comes that refinement of manners which distinguishes a civilized from a coarse and brutal people. So long as men are forced to dwell in log huts and follow a hunter's life, we must not be surprised at lynch law and the use of the bowie knife. But, when smiling lawns and tasteful cottages begin to embellish a country, we know that order and culture are established. And, as the first incentive towards this change is awakened in the minds of most men by the perception of beauty and superiority in external objects, it must follow that the interest manifested in the Rural Architecture of a country like this, has much to do with the progress of its civilization.
The second reason is, because the individual home has a great social value for a people. Whatever new systems may be needed for the regeneration of an old and enfeebled nation, we are persuaded that, in America, not only is the distinct family the best social form, but those elementary forces which give rise to the highest genius and the finest character may, for the most part, be traced back to the farm-house and the rural cottage. It is the solitude and freedom of the family home in the country which constantly preserves the purity of the nation, and invigorates its intellectual powers. The battle of life, carried on in cities, gives a sharper edge to the weapon of character, but its temper is, for the most part, fixed amid those communings with nature and the family, where individuality takes its most natural and strongest development.
Andrew Jackson Downing, from The Architecture of Country Houses (1850). New York: Dover Publications, 1969 (facsimile edition), pp. xix-xx.
The third reason is, because there is a moral influence in a country home - when, among an educated, truthful, and refined people, it is an echo of their character - which is more powerful than any mere oral teachings of virtue and morality. That family, whose religion lies away from its threshold, will show but slender results from the best teachings, compared with another where the family hearth is made a central point of the Beautiful and the Good. And much of that feverish unrest and want of balance between the desire and the fulfilment of life, is calmed and adjusted by the pursuit of tastes which result in making a little world of the family home, where truthfulness, beauty, and order have the largest dominion.
The mere sentiment of home, with its thousand associations, has, like a strong anchor, saved many a man from shipwreck in the storms of life. How much the moral influence of that sentiment may be increased, by making the home all that it should be, and how much an attachment is strengthened by every external sign of beauty that awakens love in the young, are so well understood, that they need no demonstration here. All to which the heart can attach itself in youth, and the memory linger fondly over in riper years, contributes largely to our stock of happiness, and to the elevation of the moral character. For this reason, the condition of the family home - in this country where every man may have a home -should be raised, till it shall symbolize the best character and pursuits, and the dearest affections and enjoyments of social life.
After the volumes I have previously written on this subject, it is needless for me to add more on the purpose of this work. But it is, perhaps, proper that I should say, that it is rather intended to develop the growing taste of the people, than as a scientific work on art. Rural Architecture is, indeed, so much more a sentiment, and so much less a science, than Civil Architecture, that the majority of persons will always build for themselves, and, unconsciously, throw something of their own character into their dwellings. To do this well and gracefully, and not awkwardly and clumsily, is always found more difficult than is supposed. I have, therefore, written this volume, in the hope that it may be of some little assistance to the popular taste. For the same reason, I have endeavored to explain the whole subject in so familiar a manner, as to interest all classes of readers who can find any thing interesting in the beauty, convenience, or fitness of a house in the country.
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