Build Your Own Greenhouse

Tiberian Growdome System

Are you tired of dealing with so-called organic foods or or vegetables that you know are covered in lethal chemicals? If you are, why not grow your own food? It is not nearly as hard as people make it out to be Growing your own food is one of the most rewarding things that you can do! You are being healthy in two ways; you're growing all-natural foods AND you're staying fit by growing food! This ebook teaches you how to make a simple device from ancient times that allows you to grow the very best food that you can at home! This device is much like a small greenhouse You will be able to control the climate inside to make sure that your plants are always in great weather. Don't go along with the rapidly expanding food prices; start growing your own, and don't play the game of people that want to hurt the food supply with chemicals and genetic engineering! More here...

Tiberian Growdome System Summary


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Greenhouse Ecosystems

Complicated Coloring Pages For Adults

Greenhouse ecosystems (Fig. 11-2) are secondary sewage treatment systems that are constructed wetlands moved indoors. Marine biologist John Todd developed Living Machines at Ocean Arks International. They consist of a series of tanks, each with its own particular ecosystem. The first is a stream, and the second is an indoor marsh that provides a high degree of tertiary wastewater treatment. The system costs less to construct and about the same to maintain as a conventional sewage treatment system. It uses less energy, depending upon solar energy for photosynthesis and on gravity flow. There is no need for a final, environmentally harmful chlorine treatment. The system produces one-quarter of the sludge of other systems. These greenhouse environments are pleasant to 3 look at and smell like commercial greenhouses. They are welcome in the neighborhoods they serve, and can save huge costs in sewer lines that would otherwise run to distant plants. Greenhouse ecosystems offer an...

The Greenhouse Effect

Human activities are adding greenhouse gases pollutants that trap the earth's heat to the atmosphere at a faster rate than at any time over the past several thousand years. A warming trend has been recorded since the late nineteenth century, with the most rapid warming occurring since 1980. If emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, scientists say we may change global temperature and our planet's climate at an unprecedented rate. The greenhouse effect (Fig. 1-1) is a natural phenomenon that helps regulate the temperature of our planet. The sun heats the earth and some of this heat, rather than escaping back to space, is trapped in the atmosphere by clouds and greenhouse gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide. Greenhouse gases serve a useful role in protecting the earth's surface from extreme differences in day and night temperatures. If all of these greenhouse gases were to suddenly disappear, our planet would be 15.5 C (60 F) colder than it is, and uninhabitable....

The evolution of the glasshouse

In seeking to communicate how this environmentally responsive, process-driven design method can be demonstrated in physical form I have found that the development of glasshouse design proves to be a very succinct example of how building forms respond to the natural world. They have very simple criteria to maximize solar light and heat gain and minimize heat loss. The question is how far can the building form assist towards maximizing free energy. A unit of measure should be established to compare this in the same way that human-powered flight can be compared with carbon-powered machines. construction techniques. Some of the early glasshouses such as Bicton (1820) are highly crafted buildings that pushed, and indeed expressed, the limitations of the glass-manufacturing processes of the time. The 'crown' process of glass manufacture produced only limited sizes of glass pane (up to 0.75 metres*0.5 metres but generally much smaller) and it was only after manufacturers began employing the...

The Glasshouse

Geist, the glasshouse corresponds to the all-encompassing skylight . In contrast to other types, the glazing extends across the lateral enclosures down to the floor and forms a weather skin on all sides. Depending on the internal plan, the geometry of the glasshouse can be interpreted as a space defining variation on the glass courtyard, the glass band or the glass core. Typologically, the cubic glass fabric therefore corresponds to the glass courtyard, the glass tube to the glass band and the enclosing dome to the glass core. Generally speaking, aspects of differing basic types often converge in glasshouses what emerges are mixed types that do not make an unequivocal statement on functional or mechanical form. Thus the greenhouse, the glasshouse par excellence, has been realised in a multitude of geometric formulations depending on floor-plan layout and the plant species it shelters. When building in the existing fabric, glasshouse designs may respond primarily to...

The Greenhouse

With the advances in technology brought about by the industrial revolution, the dream of a dematerialised roof constructed of iron and glass could finally be realised. English greenhouses featured the first glazed roofs in the history of architecture. Greenhouses became an oasis, a place promising to be the embodiment of the dream of a happy unity of nature and man . 2.1 9 The abundance of tropical plants, exotic scents and sounds created a dream world that gave city dwellers an


Greenhouse or conservatory A building or structure constructed chiefly of plastic, glass, glass-like or translucent material, cloth, or lath, which is devoted to the protection or cultivation of flowers, vegetables, ground covers, or other tender plants. In these structures where the climate is modified or completely controlled, the climate is improved for the growing of plants. They may have artificial means (natural gas heater or electrically powered humidifier, etc.) of controlling temperature, light, or humidity. They can also extend the growing season, winter over tender plants, start annuals early, raise vegetables and flowers out of season, or grow plants that could otherwise not be grown in the hardiness zone where the greenhouse is located.

Renewable Energy and Closed Loop Cities

A number of the cities seek to promote a more closed-loop or natural urban metabolism in which wastes become inputs or food for other urban processes. Stockholm has administratively reorganized its departments of waste, water, and energy into a combined ecocycles division. A number of actions have already been taken, including the harvesting of bio-gas from sewage sludge and its use as a fuel for the city's combined heat and power plants. A number of Swedish cities also are using bio-gas from household waste as a fuel for buses and other public vehicles (Swedish Ministry of the Environment, undated for a review of environmental vehicle programs in European cities, see European Commission 2001). Experience to date suggests that in addition to recycling waste there has been a dramatic reduction in conventional air pollutants as well as in carbon dioxide emissions in these cities. Another powerful example of the closed-loop concept can be seen in Rotterdam's Roca3 power plant, which...

Kawagoe Saitama Japan 19992000

House Shigeru Ban Saitama

Shigeru Ban has attempted on numerous occasions to redefine the limits of architecture, in particular in his own Case Study Houses, such as the Wall-less House (Karuizawa, Nagano. Japan, 1997) In the NAKED HOUSE (Case Study House Number 10), located in an agricultural district about twenty kilometers north of Tokyo, tie has created a shed-like desjgn with moveable bedroom units that can be rolled into any location, even outside the limits of the house itself. Inspiring himself from local materials and agricultural architecture, he employed white extruded polyethylene - a packing material for fruits - in the skin of the shed, which resembles a greenhouse to some extent. Thirty-four arched trusses form the essential shape of the building. Inside, the actual bedrooms are made of brown paper honeycomb panels set on wooden frames, the whole on wheels, each unit measuring a modest six square meters. Bathroom, kitchen and laundry areas are in fixed locations separated from tie rest of the...

Sunlight In The Architecture Of Classical Rome

Zenithal Natural Lighting

The Romans are known to have pioneered the technology of glass window coverings, which they used to capture and trap solar heat to warm their homes, their baths, and their greenhouses where they cultivated plants, flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Plants would then grow more quickly to produce fruits and vegetables all year round. Although glass had been used for nearly 3000 years by other civilizations in the Middle East and Africa, its use as a window to admit light and prevent rain and cold from entering a building was said to be a Roman creation.

Torrent Research Center Ahmedabad India

Torrent Building Ahmedabad

Architects pursuing environmental sustainability are making similar choices about types and levels of technology, but primarily for reasons of 'greenhouse gas' reduction rather than 'sense of place'. For the Torrent Pharmaceuticals in Ahmedabad, India (Plate 36), Brian Ford studied traditional Mogul cooling techniques by means of deep wells and thermal mass before developing a PDEC (passive downdraft evaporative cooling) system for the centre. PDEC uses micronizers that spray air taken in at the top of the building with a fine mist that causes the air to drop quickly, causing a cool downdraft that cools the floors below as it falls (Fig. 6.13). If one adopts this kind of complex

Arched and curved structures

Richard Rogers Canopy

The roof of the great glasshouse of the National Botanical Garden of Wales used the concept of a curved roof consisting of arches of similar curvature but of reducing span to create a toroidal shape (like a slice through a car tyre), as illustrated in Colour Plate 2. The maximum span of 60 m is achieved with only 324 mm diameter circular hollow sections (CHSs) which support the glass roof.

Waiver Of Liability And Hold Harmless

Underground House Damp Control

Surprisingly, your best hunting areas for plain used windows may be the cities. Most every city has a wrecking-salvage yard or two. There is considerable wrecking that goes on in the cities and not much owner-building, so the price is often right. Sometimes outfits such as the Salvation Army, Goodwill or Saint Vincent DePaul sell old windows at a bargain. And don't shy away from storm windows and doors. The frames may not be as sturdy as a window built to open and close, and sometimes the glass is a little thinner, but they do a fine job when set in permanently. Buy windows whenever you can get them reasonably. If you wind up with too many you can always build greenhouses. They make fine swap items also. Some will object to using a poison which will obviously leach into the ground. This is a reasonable objection. I've always felt uneasy on this point myself. Being an organic gardener I would never under any circumstances use poison treated posts in my solar-geo-thermal greenhouses....

Table 101 Horse Stable Water Use Estimates

ARiding arena footing water use was estimated from similar conditions used in greenhouse crop watering to achieve good soaking of entire soil profile, which provided the high-end estimate. The low-end estimate may be used for topping off already damp footing and was established from limited horse facility data.

Center of Advanced European Studies and Research CAESAR

Bell Northern Research Buildings

The bird's-eye view shows the strict layout of the building and the connected greenhouse View from the southwest showing the three separate volumes the administration wing with the casino and underground parking access, the unostentatious box-shaped laboratory wing, and the wavy office wing The main entrance with its large forecourt The main characteristic of the lecture hall and the two-storey library is the double-layered and double-bent point-supported fa ade The bird's-eye view shows the strict layout of the building and the connected greenhouse View from the southwest showing the three separate volumes the administration wing with the casino and underground parking access, the unostentatious box-shaped laboratory wing, and the wavy office wing The main entrance with its large forecourt The main characteristic of the lecture hall and the two-storey library is the double-layered and double-bent point-supported fa ade On the basement level of the laboratory wing, central facilities...

The Dilemma of Technology

Low Tech Reinforced Concrete

This essay is not intended as a diatribe against modern technology. It is. however, important to understand it and its context. It is the reality of our life today, and tomorrow, and until or if there is some cataclysm which forces us to re examine everything. Such a dramatic change could be brought about by the Green Movement. Slowly, all technology is becoming subject to scrutiny. The explosion at Chernobyl, the greenhouse effect and a general awareness of the fragility of our Earth arc forcing us to reconsider the assumptions underlying our way of life. We are being asked to think about the long-terms effects of our decisions and to examine how the Earth's resources can best be used. The motor car. symbol of our modern way of life, is the first to be put to the test. Building cannot be far behind. No real analysis of the cost in environmental pollution, energy consumption and recycling exists for buildings. It will surely come, and when it does many of today's assumptions will be...

Reginald H Parsons Residence 1905

Ancienne Ecole Autrefois

The two-and-a-half-story Parons-Gerrard residence is a derivative of the Dutch Colonial style. The roof is gam-breled, with the large front-facing gambrel intersecting a secondary gambrel to form the main body of the house. An addition to the right combines several roof types. The roofing material is slate, reminiscent of Colonial houses in the mid-Atlantic states. The brick foundation of the house extends to the base of the first-story windows, and stucco clads the rest of the structure. Window arrangement (fenestration) is highly irregular lower stories contain a mix of casement windows, many with transoms, while second-story windows are predominantly double hung, with multiple lights. The eastern addition has several windows with leaded glass. The southeast corner porch was later converted into a greenhouse. The estate originally included a carriage house on the west side, which was replaced by

Construction Style and Materials

Hoop structures are a newer introduction to horse stabling and riding arena construction. Because of lighter and low-cost construction materials, they offer a lower cost per area enclosed than the more traditional construction approaches discussed earlier. Hoop structures for horse stables and riding arenas provide clear-span attributes that developed from livestock housing and greenhouse construction

What An Underground House Is

BUILT-IN GREENHOUSE. (9) BUILT-IN GREENHOUSES are a feature which is superbly applicable to U housing. Even the federal government has recognized the wisdom of attaching greenhouses to dwellings for both food production and solar heating it has been making funding available for experimentation in this direction. On all housing both above and below surface attached greenhouses not only provide a means of food production and solar heating, but when built around windows they help to keep heat escapage to a minimum, the same way storm windows do. When these greenhouses are built below the surface as with U

The climate in the Nuremberg Prisma

Queens Botanical Garden Dreiseitl

In Nuremberg, for example, five waterfalls pout down at the same time into a set of residential and commercial premises that have been designed with a great deal of variety, using an entirely new design approach. In the 'Prisma' - 'Prism' - as the complex is called, removing boundaries was the key issue. Rainwater is of crucial importance here. All the water that falls on to the roofs flows through various cleaning phases into a tank with a capacity of just under 300 cubic metres, and is pumped from there into two circulating systems. Surplus water seeps into the ground under the underground car park. The first circulating system is used to supply the plants in the greenhouse, which extends over four storeys. South American vegetation grows in one section, Australian in the other, and both in a landscape of water-courses and ponds. These conservatories face south and south-west, and are part of the passive solar energy use concept. The greenhouse as a pleasant...

Sustainable Design Strategies

The materials and methods used for building construction and finishing have an impact on the larger world. The design of a building determines how much energy it will use throughout its life. The materials used in the building's interior are tied to the waste and pollution generated by their manufacture and eventual disposal. Increasing energy efficiency and using clean energy sources can limit greenhouse gases. As an interior designer, you can help limit greenhouse gas production by specifying energy-efficient lighting and appliances. Each kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity produced by burning coal releases almost 1 kg (more than 2 lb) of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. By using natural light, natural ventilation, and adequate insulation in your designs, you reduce energy use.

Eastwest Aiis For Skylight

Plants being moved from the ideal light conditions of a shade house, greenhouse or nursery into a building interior must slowly be acclimatized to the lower light conditions. Without this period of adjustment, most plants will go into shock, stop growing, become weakened, and possibly die. The length of time required to acclimatize a plant depends on the species, the degree of change in light intensity, and the size of the plant. Large trees 13 000 mm (10 ft) or larger should be allowed at least 3 to 6 months during the growing season to acclimate, and small material 600 mm 24 in) or less at least 6 to 10 weeks. During this time, the amount of light should be gradually reduced to half of the original amount or less if needed.

Exuberance And Digital Virtuosity

Unit Bartlett School Architecture

Finally, Enlightened agronomics saw agriculture as the most virtuous and useful art, the way forward back to nature and romantic sensibility, as well as to productivity and investment. Nowadays, is not the decision of governments to cut down carbon emissions and greenhouse gases, and in future the intense focus on the bio - biotechnology, bioengineering - inevitable

The Active Climate Skin The Microclimate

A microclimate describes an artificial climate within a glazed space. With the conditioning of certain parameters (temperature, relative humidity, light levels etc.) a microclimate can allow these spaces to be used permanently despite changes in daily and seasonal outdoor climate. Microclimatised halls create living space for people, either as places to work or to enjoy free time and relaxation. This category also includes greenhouses and animal enclosures.

Renault Parts Distribution Centre 119

The main factory, located in the middle of the site, was torn down and replaced by a garden designed by Piano in collaboration with Alexandre Chemetoff. This came to surround, smother and even break into the older buildings in the form of greenhouses, so reversing the previous process that had characterized the spread of industrialization. 'Often*, explained Piano, construction has suffocated, overloaded, killed nature. This is why when I have to deal with a re-use project, I tend, on the contrary, to favour nature over the city.'

Indirect Gain Designs

Greenhouses and sunspaces (Fig. 23-4) combine direct and indirect gain systems. When a greenhouse is used as part of a solar heating system, a masonry or water thermal wall is used between the greenhouse and the occupied space. Solar greenhouse efficiency can be as high as 60 to 75 percent. Only 10 to 30 percent of the energy entering the greenhouse is supplied to the occupied space unless an active heat storage system is used. The remainder of the heat is used to heat the greenhouse itself. Figure 23-4 Passive solar greenhouse sunspace. Figure 23-4 Passive solar greenhouse sunspace. amounts of sunlight. They are used in passive solar designs with thermal mass. Where sunspaces don't include thermal mass for night heating, and are not heated at night, they are only used as weather permits. If an insulated, lightweight frame is the common wall with the occupied space, the sunspace should contain a row of water containers along the full east-west width of the space. These containers, two...

Building The Winter Garden

The typology of glasshouse buildings originates from the desire for a peaceful and green neighbourhood in the overpopulated cities during the Industrial Revolution. The first iron glasshouse is the iron hothouse in Hohenheim near Stuttgart (Germany) dating back to 1789 (Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991). The evolution of glass and iron production techniques in the nineteenth century was essential for the development and spread of the glasshouses. The Winter Garden of Laeken is part of a major complex of glasshouses in the Royal Domain in the northeast of Brussels, Belgium (Figure 1). The complete set of glasshouses takes up an area of 1.5 ha, covered with 2.5 ha of glass (Goedleven 1988). All entities are built between 1817 and 1905 in order of king Leopold II, who reigned the country from 1865 until his death in 1909. He is known as the king who fundamentally changed Belgium and Brussels in an architectural as well as in an urban development manner. Despite the fact that Belgium is a...

Stein Aarau Switzerland

Through the particular arrangement of the buildings, footpaths at ground level, and the successive layout of courtyards of varying sizes, the complex provides optimum functionality, orientation, and lighting. The symmetrical complex is orientated in north-south direction. In successive order, the three-storey laboratory and office building, followed by the application and climatic chambers, the greenhouses and finally

Controlling tke Radiation o f Heat

Ataphascan Indians North America

Ordinary window glass transmits more than 80 percent of solar infrared radiation but absorbs the majority of the longer-wave infrared from sun-warmed interior surfaces. In cold weather the glass loses most of this absorbed heat by convection to the outside air. The glass does serve, however, to prevent the passage of heated air from the sun-warmed interior back to the outdoors, and it is primarily for this reason that greenhouses, parked automobiles, and flat-plate solar collectors are heated so dramatically by the sun.

Primary Energy and CO2 Conversion Factors

2 CO2 emissions these are related to the heat energy consumption, including the whole chain from extraction to transformation of the energy carrier to heat. Using the CO2 equivalent values (CO2eq), not only CO2 but all greenhouse gases are taken into account, weighted with their impact on global warming.

Interior courtyard of an old peoples home in Stuttgart

For people who like to have greenery around them the Nicolaus-Cusanus-Haus in Stuttgart offers an internal space with a lot of plants, thus bringing nature even to those who are confined and can only control how they spend their own time to a limited extent the occupants of old people's homes and nursing-homes. The first impression is that of being in the tropical house in a botanical garden, though without the greenhouse atmosphere that quickly drives Western Europeans back out into the fresh air. This idea comes from a luxuriant display of mainly evergreen plants, in a glazed inner courtyard covering 800 square metres.

Arlotti BeccuDesideri Raimondo

Minimalist Rural Landscapes

ABDR with SAC SpA and IGIT, Project for the reconstruction of the Serra-ex-Piacentini greenhouse, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, due for completion 2007 Renderings of the glass volume for temporary exhibitions. reconstruction of the Serra-ex-Piacentini greenhouse at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, their display for the Lapidarium at the Palazzo Venezia Museum, new residential neighbourhood in Tormarancia, new office park on Via Tiburtina and the new parks plan for the EUR neighbourhood, without forgetting the projects for Lecce and Barcellona Pozzo di Gotto in Sicily, where they built their first works back in the 1980s. Each of these projects is effective in terms of its spatial value and the relationship between the formal mechanism and the use of technology they are elegant and essential, without any For the reconstruction of the former Piacentini greenhouse at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni, in order to avoid any direct confrontation with the historic language of the palatial...

St Louis Missouri USA

62,000 m3 (greenhouses not included) To the north, the building makes use of the sloping site to accommodate underground growth chambers well protected from exterior climatic conditions. They received green roofs that provide further thermal insulation. Finally, classical rows of greenhouses in north-south direction complete the layout.

Nature as model and mentor

These efficiencies extended beyond the structure and into the envelope and environmental systems. Spheres are minimal surfaces that have maximum volume. They also, unlike more common orthogonal glasshouse forms, allow direct sunlight to enter perpendicular to the surface at all times of the day, thus maximizing the free energy. The ability of current desktop computers to carry out complex calculations enabled us to undertake solar animation studies for the pit. We studied 365 days to provide an accurate and essential solar profile. Maximizing solar penetration was a key target and knowing where this asset lay determined the optimal positions for the biome structures. The results of this mapping indicated that our design should be linear in profile with lean-to structures built against south-facing cliffs. Such a diagram refers back to the very earliest glasshouse structures, such as Bicton. (One can only wonder at what ephemeral designs would have been developed by these engineers had...

Onsite Sewage Treatment

Other systems use land disposal by filtering waste through constructed wetlands or through treatment in a series of ponds or tanks in more confined spaces such as greenhouses, a system first pioneered in the 1970s by John and Nancy Todd of the New Alchemy Institute. In a living system greenhouse, the nutrients in sewage feed algae and water plants that in turn nourish fish. The final effluent is quite clean and can be reused in various ways. Using treated wastewater is nothing new. Many cities use reclaimed wastewater for irrigating golf courses and other spaces such as median strips and parks. Properly applied, it is a beneficial way to save water and reuse the nutrients present in wastewater.

Energy Production and Use General Policy Statement

As an institution of higher education, Oberlin has a special obligation to be proactive and responsible in energy management. Oberlin will pursue a long-term goal of reducing energy use and achieving carbon neutrality in which the release of CO2 and other greenhouse gases through all activities associated with the College is minimized and balanced by activities that remove carbon from the atmosphere. Carbon neutrality is an essential goal for achieving climate stability, but one that may take many years to achieve.

Being good in buildings

As if this weren't enough, 40 to 50 per cent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions are also produced by the built environment. Given the enormous impact of the built environment upon the natural one, architects cannot avoid for much longer repositioning themselves in relation to their own material production. Within environmentalism, the decisions and actions architects take matter again. Even if most of those in the building industry are still unaware of it, choices as to siting, building configuration, construction methods and materials have environmental, and thus ethical, consequences. Contractors, developers and architects tend to gain awareness of this as legislation interrupts established practice, or, more rarely, as the market demands a change. The

A22 International Energy Agency

An important part of the Agency's programme involves collaboration in the research, development and demonstration of new energy technologies to reduce excessive reliance on imported oil, to increase long-term energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The IEA SHC's research and development activities are headed by the Committee on Energy Research and Technology (CERT) and supported by a small secretariat staff, headquartered in Paris. In addition, three working parties are charged with monitoring the various collaborative energy agreements, identifying new areas for cooperation and advising CERT on policy matters.

Toward Solar Architecture

The energy potential, which the sun places at our disposal cn a daily basis, seems inexhaustible. The incident radiation on the a dmasses of the earth alone is 3000 times greater thar the worldwide demands. Yet we continue to meet these demands almost exclusively with non-renewable energies generated pnmanty from fossil fuels. The resultant environmental problems - air pollution, acid rain, greenhouse effect and climate change - are only too well known. As if this weren't bad enough, annual consumption is climbing drama -icaiiy. For affluence is on the rise and some of the most populous countries of the world, such as China and India, are atxxit to adopt the extravagant lifestyle of the West. This will lead to nearly immeasurable ecological and political consequences in the near future s*Ke the conventional energy resources are finite and wil soon be exhausted. The fight for access to and control over these energy resources, first and foremost oil. will intensify even more. Seen from...

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC

More particularly, the Objective of the FCCC in its Article 2 is 'to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that does not cause dangerous interference with the climate system' and that is consistent with sustainable development. Such stabilization would also eventually stop further climate change. However, because of the long time that carbon dioxide resides in the atmosphere, the lag in the response of the climate to changes in greenhouse gases (largely because of the time taken for the ocean to warm), and the time taken for appropriate human action to be agreed, the achievement of such stabilization will take at least the best part of a century. Global emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning are currently approaching 7 billion tonnes of carbon per annum and rising rapidly (Fig. 1.4). Unless strong measures are taken, they will reach two or three times their present levels during the twenty-first century and stabilization...

Pollution and climate change

High levels of sulphur dioxide being released into the atmosphere. Where cleaner forms of fuel are now being used for generating power, most of the pollution comes from traffic emissions. While the resulting pollutants are less visible, the forms of pollution have negative health effects on individuals, particularly with the increasing numbers of people suffering from asthma, heart or lung diseases. Climate change, on the other hand, is having a less direct impact on individuals but, instead, is affecting the equilibrium of the biosphere. This is a result of our over-dependence on fossil fuels like coal and oil, and this has produced what have become known as greenhouse gases. As fossil fuels are major, traditional energy sources for building, heating, cooking and travelling, current design is concerned with making developments more energy efficient, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources and reducing the need to travel.

Reference buildings based on national building codes 2001

2 CO2 emissions, which are related to the heat energy use, including the whole chain from extraction to transformation of the energy carrier to heat. Using the CO2 equivalent values, not only CO2 but all greenhouse gases are taken into account, weighted with their impact on global warming.

Background Climate change

The hypothesis of adverse change in the global climate is now generally accepted (UNEP, 2001). It is mainly the precise causes, scale and significance of this phenomenon that are in some dispute. The UK government in late 2000, however, unveiled a clear strategy aimed at reducing the country's contribution to climate change by cutting emissions of carbon dioxide by 20 per cent below 1990 levels by 2010. Carbon dioxide is emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels. It accounts for over 80 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions and is generally thought to be the main human cause of global warming these days (Graves and Phillipson, 2000).

Intelligent glass facades

An intelligent glass building facade changes its physical properties in response to sensors detecting the external light and weather conditions, thus reducing the energy consumption necessary to maintain the appropriate internal environment. Therefore intelligent facades have ecological significance in reducing global greenhouse emissions and also in reducing operational building costs to clients and users.

In Your Office or Workplace

The COYou2 reduce and gain program supports employees' investments in measures that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in relation to mobility, heating and electrical energy. Such measures, which vary according to regional circumstances and preferences, include low-emission hybrid cars, use of public transport and the installation of solar panels or heat pumps. From now until the end of 2011, Swiss Re plans to rebate each employee one-half of the amounts invested in these measures, up to a maximum per employee of 5,000 Swiss francs (about 4,000) or the equivalent in local currency.

Clerestory Flat Land Design

Both the living room and master bedroom have private entrances off outside walkways which also serve as lounging areas either sunny or shaded, whichever one wants to use. Above the work counter in the kitchen is a translucent fiberglass panel which can be opened to allow communication through to the living room (so mother knows what the kids are up to). The master bedroom similarly has a fiberglass panel which may be opened to allow communication down to the kitchen and dining room, or closed for peace and quiet.

Resource Depletion and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

According to the US Green Building Council, the annual direct impacts of all US residential and commercial buildings include 39 of total energy use, 68 of electricity consumption and 30 of greenhouse gas emissions. Add in the embodied energy in making building materials, getting them to the job site, installing and servicing them, and total energy use is closer to 48 . Buildings make a major impact on just about every aspect of the world we live in building design and construction can account for up to 30 of raw materials use, 40 of non-industrial landfill waste (including 31 of the mercury in municipal waste) 12 of potable water use, according to the US Green Building Council and the US Environmental Protection Agency.5 Taking firm actions to reduce the environmental impacts of buildings can have a number of beneficial effects

Energy Generation

The cross-sections of double-curved glass roofs can be optimised to suit the path of the sun. This can eliminate low angles of light incidence and produce greater solar gain. The designers of the spherically curved curvilinear greenhouses of the 19th century sought to use this effect to increase plant growth. In addition, heat losses are correspondingly lower for domed halls as their ratio of enclosed volume to surface area is smaller than that of other buildings shapes

Preface To The First Edition

The subject matter of this book is sustainable city development. Any discussion of urban design which does not address environmental issues has little meaning at a time of declining natural resources, ozone layer destruction, increasing pollution and fears of the greenhouse effect. The long-term survival of the planet as a hostess for sustained human occupation in anything other than a degraded lifestyle is in some doubt. In these circumstances any discussion of aesthetics in a pure or abstract form unrelated to environmental concerns could be thought to be superficial. This book considers architecture and its sister art, urban design, to consist of 'Commodotie, Firmness and Delight' (Wotton, 1969 Moughtin, 1992). One aspect of 'Commodotie' in urban development is sustainability, that is a development which is non-damaging to the environment and which contributes to the city's ability to sustain its social and economic structures.

Folded Plate Structures

Folded plate structures behave as pure structural skins. They are composed of planar, bending- and shear-resistant shell elements and present an ideal situation for the constructional use of glass. The ridge-and-furrow principle developed by the English greenhouse pioneer J. C. Loudon and used to great success by J. Paxton with his Crystal Palace in 1851 is an early example of folded glass roof construction. The panes were inclined in opposite directions to one another with the result that they were able to provide mutual support.

The Winter Garden Today

When king Leopold II passed away in 1909, the ownership of the Royal Glasshouses passed on to various institutions. The land, purchased by Leopold II, and the glasshouses constructed on that land, became property of the Royal Donation, a semi-private institute. The other glasshouses, situated on the piece of land that he received to fulfil his duties as a king, are owned by the Regie der Gebouwen, a governmental institution. The borderline between these two adjacent properties can be diagonally traced through the Congo House (Figure 1, no. 4). The shared ownership of the glasshouses does not facilitate restoration procedures. Since the death of Leopold II, few of the Royal Glasshouses were restored. The Winter Garden merely received some refurbishments in the 1980's, funded by the Regie der Gebouwen. Regie der Gebouwen did again some tests with special techniques to remove the paint and corrosion (Figure 5-d). The techniques were evaluated on the time it took to rub a specific...

Green Buildings in a Global Context

Green buildings are part of a global response to increasing awareness of the role of human activity in causing global climate change. Buildings account for more than 40 of all global carbon dioxide emissions, one of the main culprits implicated in the phenomenon of global warming. While the US and Western Europe, Canada and Japan contribute the majority of greenhouse gas emissions at the present time, this situation is going to change dramatically in the near future. The projected rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions from China, India, the rest of Asia, Brazil and Russia make it imperative that the entire world participate in reducing the carbon footprint (the impact on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide) of urban civilization over the next 30 years. Global temperature increases are inevitable, with significant consequences for all of us.

Technical factors Constructional forms

Conservatories were originally viewed as merely glorified greenhouses. Granted, the construction of these two structures is similar. The former, however, requires a higher standard of construction and comfort conditions. As a result they need double or even triple glazing, whereas greenhouses only have single glazing. The superstructures of many conservatories, like greenhouses, are designed to be dismantled and re-erected elsewhere.

Unutilised service life

However justifiable the replacement may be, it is still the case that unutilised service life is being wasted. Until recently such tubes would be consigned to the refuse tip. However, it has been recognised that the fluorescent gases within the tubes contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming and that they should be disposed of with care. Perhaps a market in second-hand luminaires could be developed, in the same way as recycled CFCs and halon from existing, elderly refrigeration and oxygen-starvation fire-extinguishing systems that still have useful life elsewhere.

L Lauriks I Wouters S Adriaenssens M de Bouw B Verbeeck Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium

ABSTRACT The Winter Garden, the largest of the Royal Glasshouses, is situated at the Royal Domain in Laeken in the northeast of Brussels, Belgium. This glasshouse was built between 1874 and 1876 in order of king Leopold II, according to the design of architect Alphonse Balat. A two-dimensional analysis demonstrated the basis structural behaviour under a series of symmetrical load combinations the structure works as a cupola with a tension and a pressure ring. The stress levels and deflections in the structure have to be evaluated in a three-dimensional model which is still in progress. For the time, it seems that the norm values are not exceeded. The major threat for the metal structure is corrosion. Previous interventions and a very aggressive tropical indoor climate inflicted heavy corrosion damage. Nowadays, this elaborate plain tour de force must undergo a major restoration.

Kyoto And The 10 Year Plan

Transport 2010 The 10 Year Plan (DETR, 2000) identified the key challenges for transport planning until 2010. Amongst these challenges are road traffic growth and congestion overcrowding and congestion in London and inadequate public transport across England. The Plan forecast that traffic, measured in vehicles kilometre would grow by 22 per cent between 2000 and 2010. Congestion was forecast to grow by 15 per cent across the network, and by 28 per cent on the inter-urban trunk roads. Some 75 per cent of those people working in central London travel to work on overcrowded public transport on four out of five commuter rail services the operators exceed overcrowding standards, while road congestion in London before the introduction of road pricing was three-and-a-half times the average in England. In the rest of the country, public transport does not offer an attractive alternative to the private motor car, while bus patronage has declined by two-thirds since 1990. It is these...

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Martin wssihe chief executive officerof the Lark in Company, and responsible for Wright getting the commission for their building. At the same lime, he commissioned Wright to design his own home. The plan is essentially cruciform, dining room, living room and library along one axis, the other housing reception room, kitchen, and covered porch. The gallery leading off the dining room passes through two flower gardens until it reaches the conservatory at the other end of the property, with garage, stable and greenhouses, The brickwork is of exceedingly beautiful quality, matchedonly by the equally fi ne c raftsm a nsh ip o n the woodwork throughout. These materials., so sensitively handled, are complemented by the fine art glass and the special furniture Wright designed for the home.

Environmental Problems

The nature and extent of global environmental problems have been discussed fully in many texts, so they will be dealt with only in summary here, and only where they have some bearing on the development of sustainable urban form and structure. One major threat to the quality of life is pollution, which can, in part, be related to the ways in which cities are structured and used. Atmospheric pollution includes damage to the ozone layer, acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Depletion of the Earth's stratospheric ozone layer allows dangerous ultraviolet light from the sun to penetrate to the surface of the planet. This increase in radiation has the potential to cause adverse effects upon plants, animals and human beings. Acid rain can do immense harm, particularly to forest areas. There is some evidence of improvements in both of these areas, though much still remains to be achieved. As Lovejoy (2002) points out, ' things improve because of the efforts of environmentalists to flag a...

Bibliographical References

On the original Essai sur l'architecture (1753), Zurich 1989 1 2 Hix, J. The Glasshouse, London 1996 1 3 Knaack, U. Konstruktiver Glasbau, Cologne 1998 1 4 Schlaich, J. Schober, H. Design Principles of Glass Roofs , conference zur Deckenmalerei des 17. und 18. Jh., Worms am Rhein 1994, p. 49 2.1 9 Kohlmaier, G. von Sartory, B. op. cit., p. 8 2.1 10 Hix, J. The Glasshouse, London 1996, pp. 56-72 2.1 11 Knight's Cyclopaedia of London , 1851 quoted in Hix, J. op. cit., p. 141 2.1 12 Taut, B. Haus des Himmels, Fr hlicht 1920, reprint as

Negative environmental impact

Nematode A microscopic, thread-like transparent worm that feeds upon living and dead organic matter. Some are parasites that infest roots, bulbs, and leaves. These are the most abundant animals in the soil. They cause problems for arborists, agriculturists, nurseries, greenhouses, and new

Carbon Neutrality And Design

The building sector accounts for nearly half of all annual greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Over the next 25 years, carbon dioxide emissions in the building sector are projected to grow faster than any other sector, with emissions from commercial buildings estimated to have the fastest growth rate 1.8 percent a year through 2030. In view of the situation, the move is on to design carbon neutral buildings that use substantially less energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create spaces that are healthy and comfortable all at market rates. TheU.S. Green BuildingCouncil (USGBC) awards Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) points for sustainable buildings. According to the USGBC, the average LEED8 certified building uses 32 percent less electricity and saves 350 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually a promising start. And LEED Innovation in Design points are now being awarded when building products and materials are certified as carbon neutral...

Moving Cooler

An Analysis of Transportation Strategies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cambridge Systematics, Inc. This report otters hard tacts and describes the science behind the significant, long-term impact that various transportation and land use strategies can have on improving the environmental quality of areas. Land use Is one ot nine categories of strategies considered by Moving Cooler, and the effectiveness of each strategy in cutting greenhouse gas emissions is measured against a baseline that represents current trends. 2009 96 pages paperback color ISBN 978-0-87420-118-5 34.95

Sources and sinks

At the same time, the treatment and storage of waste was identified as becoming more difficult, contentious and expensive as the existing sites (or sinks) became overburdened (such as the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases) and new sites (such as for landfill) become harder to find. Much current policy development is still based around these core principles.

Dirtworks PC

The terrace garden is an extension of a renovated penthouse in Gree-. Village. The planting plan highlights seasonal change and frames city . e from the interior spaces. Sweeps of native grasses and shrubs frame views r nearby water tower. An ivy-covered steel trellis and small flowering trees midtown skyline views. A sculptural Black Pine terminates the view through -greenhouse from the entrance.

Shear Plates

Glass has been used as a stiffening element in glasshouses since the 19th century. The panes were supported in a bed of putty, which not only braced the whole structure, it also stabilised the wrought-iron ribs, which were prone to buckling, with the result that there was no need for diagonal struts or rigid corner connections_Fig. 11. The following description by John Claudius Loudon, the great pioneer of glass construction, provides an impressive account of the glasshouse built at Bretton in 1827 No rafters or principal ribs were used in addition to the wrought-iron glazing profiles to stiffen the roof. This caused some concern, as at the moment when the iron structure had been erected but not yet glazed the slightest wind put the whole thing in motion. But as soon as the glass had been put in place, one could see that the structure completely stopped moving and became quite firm 4.3 3

Row House Designs

The key characteristic of this narrow house type is the longitudinal division of the floor plan. This makes the already narrow proportions of the space even more extreme. The apparently illogical design approach reveals its qualities when the possibilities for dayiighting and the dramaturgy of the spatial experience are considered. Dividing the floor plan lengthwise allows full-height glazing of the rooms without permitting insights from the outside. This creates the impression of a completely open glasshouse amidst dense urban developments. In the upper storeys, two closed jutties extend into the open space above the courtyard they contrast with the open areas and therefore enhance the spatial concept. The entrance to the house is located on a mezzanine level. Going downstairs, one enters the eat-in-kitchen upstairs, the long room comprises the living spaces. Personal rooms are located in the niche-like cubes attached to the long room.

Okohaus Frankfurt

The basic construction is heavyweight, with 500mm-thick solid brick walls and clay block floors, to reduce peak temperatures. The heavy mass building reduces peak temperatures. The glasshouse which encloses the south-facing aspect of the building captures passive solar energy, providing a bright circulation space. Reflective windows to the glasshouse reject solar energy from high angles. The heating consists of solar gain from the glasshouse and heat recovery from the printing works. The heat is distributed both via air circulation and through a low-temperature central heating system, fed by a heat pump and a back-up condensing boiler. It uses two conservatories, one to the north and one to the south, which are connected to either pre-heat or cool incoming air to the building as required.

The Royer Foyer

Jaguar Sicherungskasten

Cover the open parts of the foyer with corrugated plastic or fiberglass and you have an automatic greenhouse much like the Uphill Patio greenhouse. The geothermal heat radiation from the floor and from the retaining wall, the heat loss from the windows and door, and the trapping of the sun's energy during the day should provide enough energy to keep the greenhouse warm during all but the extreme cold months. Even then, certain crops such as lettuce, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kale and most of the root crops might survive without any supplemental source of energy. If you were really intent on saving a delicate crop, such as tomatoes, during a cold spell, you could consider firing up the stove in the house a little more and cracking open the door. You might also consider throwing a tarp or hay or other insulator over the top at night. The retaining wall, if constructed of stone, could make an excellent heat retainer. A large stand up water tank lining that wall or fifty-five gallon...

Natural lighting

Curtain Wall Seismic Drift

Direct sunlight will pass through translucent panels, with two potentially detrimental effects in addition to the beneficial light. The first is heat buildup in the arena similar to the greenhouse effect. Although desirable in winter, this adds to heat that must be removed on hot summer days. The facility manager should determine whether heat buildup interferes with arena use if most riders are using an outdoor riding arena during summer months. Direct sunlight entry can be mitigated by eave overhangs Sidewall curtain material is often translucent and so provides light even when closed (Fig. 16.17). Another option for light and air entry is a mesh material rather than or in addition to a solid curtain material. Greenhouse shade cloth or similar material may be used. Shade cloth is a woven polypropylene fabric that is selected to block from 5 to 95 of the light striking it. Therefore, a portion of light is blocked for reduced glare from direct light and heat buildup. The mesh fabric...


Of thermal radiation released by objects at normal earth temperatures. That is why the sun warms plants inside a glass greenhouse, but the heat absorbed and reradi-ated by the plants and soil can't escape back out through the glass, a situation known as the greenhouse effect. Radiation is not affected by air motion, so a breeze doesn't blow away the sunlight that pours down on your sunburned back at the beach.

Leaning Vaults

How Put Roofing Sandbag House

The buttressed and bermed earthbag wall provides structural stability and support for a drying rack in this earthbag strawbale hybrid greenhouse built by the Youth Garden Project -Moab, Utah (Fig. 18, right). Eddie Snyder's earthbag flower planters adorn the entrance to a popular restaurant in Moab, Utah (Fig. 19, below left).


Let me start with a quick summary of some of the science of global warming. By absorbing infrared or 'heat' radiation from the Earth's surface, 'greenhouse gases' present in the atmosphere - such as water vapour and carbon dioxide - act as blankets over the Earth, keeping it warmer than it would otherwise be. The existence of this natural 'greenhouse effect' has been known for nearly two hundred years it is essential to the provision of our current climate, to which ecosystems and we humans have adapted. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution around 1750, one of these greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - has increased by more than 30 and is now at a higher concentration in the atmosphere than it has been for many thousands of years (Fig. 1.1). Chemical analysis demonstrates that this increase is largely due to the burning of the fossil fuels coal, oil and gas. If no action is taken to curb these emissions, the carbon dioxide concentration will rise during the twenty-first...

The Uphill Patio

Make And Drawing Bridge

We have seen how the Uphill Patio solves the problems of drainage and lateral thrust, how it functions as an emergency exit or second entrance, how it adds to the aesthetic appeal of a given neighborhood, and why it makes the perfect greenhouse and promotes energy savings. There is one other eventuality which we haven't covered here despite your best design efforts your controlled view out the patio could become marred. Neighbors could build a twenty story highrise one foot oft your property line. Or the electric comparr. might string a high voltage forest overhead Or wishing the widest, shallowest, longes sunken patio possible, you might even build with a view of someone's ugly edifice visible from the start. What then The answer here may be to keep the greenhouse covering over the patio year-round creating an artificial skv which blocks the offending structures from view. You will have to design so that on warm days the trapped heat may escape (if you do not have some way of...


However, we do not recommend light shafts for the owner-builder, particularly not for the penny-pinched homesteader. They provide neither view nor (in most cases) ventilation. They solve no drainage problems, can't be used as greenhouses or as barbecue windows. sound of most sections of the house ( What are those kids up to now ). Though separated from the living dining room area by an elevation change no steps need be climbed up or tripped over when serving at the massive (5'x8') dining room table since this table is incorporated into the level change itself. The table also doubles as a kitchen work table. Depending upon where the worker sits there are possible views in four directions. By sitting on stools on the kitchen side of the table it is possible to look out through the opened doors to the north, or up through the clerestory windows to the east. Sitting on chairs in the dining room section allows views through the sewing and greenhouse areas to the south or out through the...

Prisons and borders

And a 5m-high wire-and-mesh superstructure. Rolls of razor wire and a 4m-deep ditch are placed on one side. In addition, the structure is fitted with electronic sensors and it has an earth-covered 'trace road' beside it where footprints of anyone crossing can be seen. Parts of the structure consist of an 8m-high solid concrete wall, complete with massive watchtowers. Many towns are cut off or cut up by the wall. Imagine living in Qalqilya, where the wall surrounds the town almost completely. Residents are imprisoned, cut off from neighbouring Palestinian villages and the rest of the West Bank. Palestinian property within 35m of the wall, including homes, farms, agricultural land, greenhouses and water wells, has been destroyed by the Israeli army. Four entrances to the town have been blocked, while the only remaining entrance is a military roadblock. It denies locals the means to livelihood and access to natural resources. Qalqilya was once known as the West Bank's bread basket, but...


Awi Certification

(1) To enter the U.S. pavilion, visitors pass through a vinyl scrim by Estudio Teddy Cruz that represents a border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. (2) Minimalism to an extreme The interior of the Japanese pavilion is empty, save for delicate pencil drawings lining its walls by architect Junya Ishigami. (3) Around the Japanese pavilion's exterior, Ishigami has installed a number of lighter-than-air greenhouses. (1) To enter the U.S. pavilion, visitors pass through a vinyl scrim by Estudio Teddy Cruz that represents a border wall between the U.S. and Mexico. (2) Minimalism to an extreme The interior of the Japanese pavilion is empty, save for delicate pencil drawings lining its walls by architect Junya Ishigami. (3) Around the Japanese pavilion's exterior, Ishigami has installed a number of lighter-than-air greenhouses.

Raymund Ryan

Northern Architect

The greenhouses had to be sited in the unshaded strip at the foot of the cliffs on the north side of the pit. The first idea was for a linear, lean-to structure rather like Grimshaw's International Terminal at Waterloo station (AR September 1993). This form posed a number of problems, however. For one thing the three-dimensional profile of the site, far more complicated than the level curve of Waterloo, meant that it was difficult to use cheap, standardized components. To make matters worse, the ground profile was constantly changing during the development of the design, because the site had not yet been taken over by the client and was still being quarried. A long-span, arched structure would have been heavy, bulky and difficult to carry down into the pit. It would also have cast unwanted

Heating Systems

The industrial revolution brought steam heat to Europe in the eighteenth century. Steam conveyed in pipes heated schools, churches, law courts, assembly halls, greenhouses, and the homes of wealthy people. The extremely hot surfaces of the steam pipes dried out the air uncomfortably and generated the odor of charred dust.


The introduction has stressed the need for a reduction in the use of energy in buildings where the part played by a strategic role for daylighting can provide considerable savings in energy, and therefore of carbon dioxide emissions, leading to a reduction in greenhouse gases and ultimately a reduction in global warming.

The Eden Project

Northern Eden Project

After Waterloo was completed it struck me that in any architectural office there would be very few comparable projects. At precisely this time a chap called Tim Smit walked into our office and presented us with his dream of creating the largest glasshouse the world has ever seen. What initially looked like a pipe dream began to look more and more like a viable project. Tim had the passion, commitment and energy to make things happen. He had an uncanny ability to rally people to the cause and if anybody could make it happen it was he. However, passion can only take a design so far and in the office the excitement of designing such a dream began to shift towards concern as we came to realize that the brief could not be sustained by the capital cost. This was to be one of many issues that severely tested the design team, and fairly early on it became apparent that if a solution were to be found it would need to evolve out of lateral responses to the problems at hand. Fortunately, the...

Tree Experts

Plant experiments on the roof were not originally considered. Segments of the university already resisted having a green roof on campus, so to minimize objections and encourage the rapid design and construction of the roof, tests ofgreen roof methods and plants would take place only in the greenhouse and outdoor research plots nearby. The plant list for the roof, devised by landscape architecture and horticulture faculty and students, was composed primarily of proven Sedum species. It also responded to apprehensions that arose during the design process regarding root penetration, leaking, and the need for excessive maintenance (see Plant List, page 58). Plugs grown from seed in Temple's greenhouse were installed on the southeast-facing wing of the roof, and cuttings supplied by Emory Knoll Farms were installed on the north west-feeing side. In October 2005 the athletics building was officially opened and the PECO green roof dedicated.


Upon which the world relied, the coal and oil, had a finite life and once used were not replaceable. No doubt this would have been ignored apart from the further factor of a greater understanding of the greenhouse effect due to the release of carbon dioxide by the burning of those same fossil fuels. Finally there was the destruction of the ozone layer and the increasing danger of global warming.

Being good

There are two main obstacles to an acceptance of such an environmental ethics. The first is the debate over the reliability of the science that frames environmental degradation in terms of impending catastrophe. The second is the resistance of nation states to thinking universally. National self-interest was much in evidence at the 1998 Kyoto summit, at which developed nations like the United States sought to exempt themselves from any reduction in their own fossil fuel consumption by trading it off against the lower consumption of developing nations, much to the fury of those developing nations. (Nor does the export of cleaner technologies to developing nations let developed countries off the hook. The latter still need to contribute to a reduction of greenhouse gases as well. The buck cannot be passed to other (weaker) nations.) This refusal to think globally is a refusal to be bound by the universality of environmental ethics, to take responsibility for one's material production...


However, fossil fuels are increasingly recognised as generating costly and perhaps irreparable environmental damage. As a result, there is increasing attention to developing long-term fiscal policies which assist clean technology development. International agreements now oblige participating countries to make commitments to energy efficiencies. The Kyoto Agreement commits the UK to reduce greenhouse gases by 12.5 by 2012 from 1990 levels. At the time of going to press there is no agreement beyond Kyoto.


Use of organic waste for energy can be integrated into waste management strategies. Emissions from the combustion of biomass are cleaner than emissions from fossil fuels. Biomass is used extensively in developing countries, and in the developed countries large- and small-scale applications are becoming popular. The main sources in the UK are residues from pulp and paper operation, forests, agriculture, urban woodlands and animal waste. Some crops are grown specifically for energy. However, biomass energy is truly renewable (carbon neutral) only when the rate of planting equals or exceeds the rate of use. Landfill gas is a special case of biomass energy in that it is latent rather than renewable. It is formed from the natural breakdown of waste materials over time that generates methane, a particularly intense greenhouse gas.

Prologue Sustainable

Maison Hante

Sustainability may be defined as meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. When we burn fossil fuels, we consume a portion of a finite, nonrenewable resource so that it will not be available a generation or two in the future. We also generate greenhouse gases that promote global warming. This will confront a near-future generation with the problem of a world in which glaciers and ice caps are shrinking, seas are rising to perilous levels, and weather is violent and unpredictable. When we build sprawling residential subdivisions on fertile land once used for growing food crops, we reduce the

Thermal Transmission

Ordinary window glass passes about 80 percent of the infrared (IR) solar radiation, and absorbs the majority of longer-wave IR from sun-warmed interior surfaces, keeping the heat inside. In cold weather, it loses most of the absorbed heat by convection to the outside air. Because ordinary glazing prevents the passage of heat from sun-warmed interior surfaces back to the outdoors, greenhouses and parked cars get hot on sunny days. This principle is also used in the design of flat-plate solar collectors.

Design aims

Energy standards must therefore respond to the needs of the whole community for improving performance and cannot be judged on cost alone, in the same way that fire safety issues would not be assessed solely on capital cost criteria. The single greatest impact of energy use in the latter part of the twentieth century is the greenhouse effect, which is largely the result of the growth in CO2 emissions since the Industrial Revolution. A number of countries around the world are committed to a programme of reducing CO2 emissions and this should, therefore, be a clear aim in stadia design. It is imperative to aim to minimize the CO2 emissions throughout the complete life cycle of the building, from construction through use and eventually to its demolition. A large part of this third objective is to attempt to reduce the dependence on mains electricity supplied from the national grid.

Meal Wheels

Park Amenities Mountain

The harvest is as irregular as Truck Farm itself, says Cheney. But Truck Farm started providing good eats in June and continued to blossom through the growing season, The harvest included herbs, greens, tomatoes, peppers, and broccoli. Cheney and Ellis hope to continue harvesting by adding a covered wagon-style greenhouse to the truck bed. I laving learned from the experience, Cheney says, It took planting my truck bed to become a good farmer.

Food and eating

Vast amounts of water are consumed by agriculturists and horticulturalists to keep their crops alive, healthy and growing, not to mention fertilizers and pesticides. Animal farming impacts even more. For cattle raised in feedlots, it takes roughly 7 pounds of grain to add a pound of live weight to the animal. Seventy per cent of the grain produced in the US and 40 per cent of the world's supply is fed to livestock, largely to satisfy burger demand in fast-food chains.8 To produce 1 pound of beef, a cow has produced 0.5 pounds of methane, a very potent greenhouse gas, which is equivalent to 10.5 pounds of CO2. The beef eaten by the average American in a year has produced the methane equivalent of 1.4 tonnes of carbon dioxide.9 22 per cent of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions, according to one estimate.14 Conversely, many high-density cities in the developing world produce up to 30 per cent of food production within their city boundaries.

Solar thermal

Flat-plate collectors (FPC) consist of water-carrying pipes in contact with an absorber surface. Back and side insulation prevents heat losses, and a transparent cover has the effect of retaining the solar radiation, creating a greenhouse effect. Efficiency is influenced by the amount of insulation, outdoor temperature, fluid temperature and construction. Typical efficiencies are 40-50 , but 70 is possible increasing levels of sophistication increase cost.

Architecture 2030

Recent analyses by New Mexico architect Edward Mazria showed that buildings are the source of almost half the global greenhouse gas emissions implicated in widespread climate change. The figure below shows the growth in such emissions up to 2000. Mazria's work and that of the Architecture 2030 organization shows that stabilizing emissions in this sector and then reversing them to acceptable levels is a key to keeping global warming to approximately 1 C (i.8 F) above today's level. 1 According to this proposal, by 2030 all new buildings should operate as carbon neutral, that is, requiring no emission of greenhouse gases, either directly or indirectly, to operate. Most architects would tell us that, at little or no additional cost, most buildings could dramatically lower their energy consumption through proper orientation, building shape, selection and placement of glazing and by incorporating natural heating, cooling, ventilation and daylighting strategies. Additional energy needed to...


The UK construction industry provides a tenth of the UK's gross domestic product and employs 1.4 million people. It is responsible for over 25 of all industry-related pollution incidents. Construction and demolition waste represent 19 of UK waste. The energy used in constructing, occupying and operating buildings is responsible for about 50 of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions. Our buildings are less healthy, less efficient, generate more waste, and are more polluting and more costly to run than those in many European countries.

Loss of biodiversity

Support for natural functions Plants and animals play a role in maintaining the equilibrium within environmental systems. Plant life maintains and binds soils and these collectively retain water within the landscape, reducing the frequency of flooding. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, a significant greenhouse gas, and they can remove sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees and hedges, on the other hand, provide shelter from wind while plants have cooling effects in hot climates. If an ecosystem is altered to the point that these forms of life no longer survive then these protective qualities are lost (see Town and Country Planning Association, 2004, p. 7).

Technology Green

We're seeing the world's largest companies make major commitments to energy technology and a wave of other innovations that will affect building design. A good example of this is the 1.5 billion investment Eco-Imagination campaign launched by General Electric's (GE) CEO Jeffrey Immelt in 2005, well before the current wave of eco-inspired corporate concern. The campaign includes major investments in solar and wind energy technology as well as in water desalination. In addition GE set a 30 greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity reduction goal by the end of 2008, along with a 1 absolute reduction by the end of 2012. GE has also set an energy-efficiency improvement goal of 30 by the end of 2012. Progress will be measured against a 2004 baseline.143

Bis Picture

Another example of the big picture addressed by green buildings, with their emphasis on dramatic reductions in energy use and global greenhouse gas emissions, is the shrinking of the Arctic ice cap by 20 since 1970 and the visible shrinkage of northern hemisphere glaciers in Europe and America from global warming.6 In Portland, contemporary photos of the nearby Mt. Hood glacier show dramatic shrinkage since the first aerial photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s. Many people have now seen photos

Passive Solar Gain


To get the benefit of modern day passive solar design, while making the best use of an earthen structure's mass, add a wraparound sunroom, or a greenhouse built of wood framing that can accommodate a lot of glass rather than to risk compromising an earthen wall with a series of big windows. Sun entering the glass room will heat up the earthen walls, which act as a thermal storage bank. Later in the day, as the sun retires, the heat is slowly re-radiated back into the living space. Cold, sunny climates are prime areas for this strategy. Cold, cloudy climates will need to supplement their heating with auxiliary systems, i.e., wood burning stoves, radiant floor heating, gas furnace, etc. (Fig. 17.6a & b).

Patent glazing

Nineteenth-century Victorian glasshouses gave many opportunities for the development of dry assembly systems of glass and metal (Fig. 7.2). Many of these are shown by Hix (1995) in his excellent historical study of glasshouse construction. Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace had wooden glazing bars made on site by sophisticated milling machines, but by the time it was moved to Sydenham it was largely rebuilt using metal glazing bars and a puttyless glazing system, the


An atrium is a small interior courtyard in a house usually fronted on all sides by windows and sliding glass doors. It is covered in the winter with glass or corrugated plastic greenhouse roofing, or with some other material such as fiberglass. This helps to keep the heat down over the windows and sometimes makes possible a greenhouse.

Climate Change

Propose development strategies, which reduce, as far as possible, the pressures on a fragile global environment. Here it is intended to continue to advocate 'the precautionary principle' as a guide for environmental design this principle is fundamental to the theory of sustainable development, which advocates a cautious approach to the use of environmental resources, particularly those which result in the pollution of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases.

Historic Evolution

The historic evolution of the glass roof and its typical appearance in the glass courtyard, glass band, glass core and glasshouse is illustrated in the diagram _Fig. 2. The overview presents the trends and evolutionary lines of cross-section (roof shape) and plan (orientation) from the first glass roof constructions circa 1800 to the present day. Solid construction typologies which are characterised by a similar spatial configuration are given as examples in the column headed preliminary stages .

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