Heat Pump Do It Yourself Install

Guide on how to build and install a Geothermal Heat Pump

Heres Some Example Of Whats Inside -Detailed pictures with every step Ive made in building the Geothermal Heat Pump. How to build The Ground source loop field. How to build The Heat Pump. How to create your pipe welding equipment from a mini electric sandwich maker and a Teflon skillet. How to weld Polyethylene pipe with the Diy device. How to dig 18 feet holes for your loops with a geared DC motor and some hand built equipment. How to test the welds of your loop. How to make your trenches. Handy little tips that I have found along the way that will save you a lot of time (and money). How everything connects together. Easy step-by-step instruction that will walk you through the entire process. Safety issues that you Must be aware of during this project. Big colorful pictures, diagrams, detailed dimensions and explanation of every process to make it as easy as possible for you to follow and other great stuff which you will find in 176 pages of this Journal.

Guide on how to build and install a Geothermal Heat Pump Summary


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Author: Alexander Hughes
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Mode of operation of geothermal heat pumps

The cooled water then passes through a heat exchanger in the heat pump. Within the heat exchanger refrigerant, gas heated by a compressor releases its heat to the water, which then begins its travel to release heat to the ground. The refrigerant, having released its heat energy, becomes a cold gas after passing through an expansion valve which is used to cool air or water. In a ducted air system the heat pump's fan circulates warm air from the building through the coils containing the cold refrigerant. The resultant cooled air is then blown through the ductwork of the building. The cold refrigerant in the air coil picks up heat energy from the building and then travels to the compressor where it again becomes a hot gas and the cycle starts again. A reversing valve linked to the compressor enables the heat pump to revert to a heating mode. In this case the water in the earth loop is colder than the surrounding ground and draws warmth from it. This heat is conveyed to...

Fan Coil Units and Heat Pumps

The compression expansion cycle can be used to heat as well as cool a space. The process is reversible in a device known as a heat pump, which literally can carry heat into or out of a building. Figure 13.10 illustrates this process. In the winter or heating mode, at the top of the figure, refrigerant is circulated through a refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, where it absorbs heat from water that is colder than the exterior environment but warmer than the refrigerant. The heat absorbed warms the refrigerant and converts it to a gas. It then

Airsourced air heat pumps

Air-source heat pumps are becoming increasingly efficient. In fact, milder winters in the UK mean that inverter-speed-controlled compressors make air-source heat pumps more efficient than ground-source heat pumps. This version of the heat pump is mainly used to serve ducted air systems there are very few available which operate wet underfloor heating systems. However, due to the absence of extensive external works, air-source heat pumps are much cheaper than ground-source systems. Figure 4.3 Ground source heat pumps in a commercial building context (source Geoscience) Variations There is also potential for heat from natural gas or biogas to supplement the output from the heat pump when the external temperature falls below 1.6 C. Such dual-fuel systems will be particularly attractive where gas prices are significantly lower than electricity costs. Figure 4.3 Ground source heat pumps in a commercial building context (source Geoscience) Variations There is also potential for heat from...

Upton Square Apartments Heated By Ni Be Exhaust Air Heat Pumps

At the top of the apartment, where the heated air from within would normally be discharged, it is channelled instead into the Fighter 200 heat pump. This almost literally squeezes the heat from the air before releasing it into the atmosphere at a temperature very close to zero degrees Centigrade. The system works very much like a refrigerator except in reverse, in this case creating the hot air and expelling the cold. A valuable spin-off factor from this energy efficient system is that carbon emissions are drastically reduced in the process of generating the heat.

Lowtemperature Heat Pumpstage

Now suppose that the bottle is replaced with a closed loop of tubing filled with refrigerant, half of it inside a building, where it's warm, and half outside, where it's cold. The refrigerant inside the tubing would change states constantly, boiling, evaporating, and condensing, moving heat from the inside of the building to the outside and returning for more. The only time it would stop changing states is when the temperature inside the building equaled the temperature outside. A heat pump does the opposite, using the refrigerant to gather heat from the air outside of the building and move it to the interior. To do this, it is necessary to add two components to the loop. One is a compressor (see opposite page, diagram 1), which pressurizes vapor so it can be turned into liquid inside an assembly, called the condenser. The condenser is made up of coils of tubing running through sheet-metal fins, which is installed downstream from the compressor. It provides lots of surface area, so...

Nibe Exhaust Air Heat Pumps Help Meet New Ecotargets

Nibe Exhaust Heat Pump

The stringent requirements of Level 4 have been met by utilising a number of different systems including solar panels, 300mm fully filled cavity walls, and improved U values on glazing, doors and loft space. The piece de resistance, however, is the installation of NIBE Heat Pumps designed to convert air that would otherwise be expelled in the normal ventilation process into energy for domestic hot water and central heating. The NIBE Fighter 360P units take air at ceiling level that has been warmed by the heating system, appliances within the home and residents' body heat, extracts the energy via a heat exchanger located in the heat pump circuit and expels it into the outside atmosphere at very close to zero degrees If the system sounds complicated, the result is not. Ventilation is a necessity for both health and comfort but by definition it normally released a great deal of carefully generated heat. Using an exhaust air heat pump virtually all that heat is recovered and reused. The...

Exhaust air heat pump systems

Often an 'air-to-liquid' heat pump is used in which the evaporator is located in the exhaust air stream to extract heat from the outgoing air, while the condenser is located in a reservoir tank, to boost water temperature. Sometimes the condenser may be located in a fan coil unit through which indoor air is continuously circulated and heated (an air-to-air heat pump system). To extract maximum efficiency, heat pump output may be split between space heating and DHW heating. The advantages of a ventilation exhaust air heat pump are as follows There is potential to upgrade exhaust systems or passive stack ventilation systems by incorporating a heat pump. The disadvantages of ventilation exhaust air heat pump are

Heat Pump Water Heaters

A heat pump water heater takes excess heat from the air in a hot place, like a restaurant kitchen or hot outdoor air, and uses it to heat water. In the process, the heat pump cools and dehumidifies the space it serves. Because the heat pump water heater moves the heat from one location to another rather than heating the water directly, it uses only one-half to one-third of the amount of energy a standard water heater needs. Heat pump water heaters can run on the heat given off by refrigeration units such as ice-making machines, grocery refrigeration display units, and walk-in freezers. Because a heat pump water heater uses refrigerant fluid and a compressor to transfer heat to an insulated storage tank, they are more expensive than other types of water heaters to purchase and maintain. Some units come with built-in water tanks, while others are added onto existing hot water tanks. The heat pump takes up a small amount of space in addition to the storage tank, and there is some noise...

C11 Heat Pumps

In a heat pump, heat is treated as a compressive quantity that exists independently of ambient temperature gradients. Then, after a certain quantity is compressed, it can be moved from a lower to a higher temperature more efficiently than by producing the same amount by exothermic reaction. As usual, the heat must exist in a medium of some kind, which in the case of heat pumps is a refrigerant that can be compressed and expanded. Thus a heat pump's operation is basically a four-step cycle in which a refrigerant at room temperature (1) is supercooled by expansion to temperatures that may be well below 0 F, (2) absorbs heat via a network of coils (the absorber) that are immersed in a medium whose temperature is usually 35-45 F, (3) is compressed, which raises its temperature to well above 100 , then (4) radiates its heat through a network of coils (the radiator) that are immersed in a medium that is warmed until the refrigerant is again at room temperature. The process can be reversed,...

Heat Pumps

Heat pumps derive their name from their ability to transfer heat against its natural direction. As we know, heat normally flows from warmer to cooler areas. But any air above absolute zero always contains some ther mal energy. The higher the temperature, the more energy is available. A heat pump can deliver 1.5 to 3.5 units of heat for each unit of electricity it uses. This can save 30 to 60 percent over the cost of electric heating, depending on geographic location and the equipment used. Heat pumps do this without combustion or flues. In a heat pump (Fig. 24-12), a relatively small amount of energy is used to pump a larger amount of heat from a cold substance (the water, the ground, or outdoor air) to a warmer substance, such as the air inside the building. Heat pumps work especially well with relatively lower temperature heat sources, such as the water inside the jacket of an internal combustion engine, or warm water from a flat-plate solar collector. The heat pump increases the...

Polypipe Partners Innovation

Products from Polypipe Building Products have been used extensively in the latest phase of the innovative and sustainable the BRE Innovation Park in Watford. In the existing structure the floor heating is Polypipe's Overlay system which is a low profile panel floor heating system, designed for quick installation into existing spaces. The floor height is hardly raised as the system is only 18mm in depth. In the new build section of the centre another system again from Polypipe was used this time the Solid Floor system that is permanently built into the floor screed, a unique floor panel is placed above the insulation and the pipe is simply slotted in allowing for an even spread of heat throughout the floor. The underfloor heating is powered by an air source heat pump. Polypipe devised a water management solution and has supplied its rainwater harvesting system. Installed to collect rainwater from the roof, the tank stores and filters rainwater for the primary use of toilet flushing,...

Malmo city of the future

Malmo Bo01

A heat pump drawing warmth from an underground aquifer and seawater is anticipated to meet 83 of district heating needs. The same system will provide cooling in summer. Of the remaining heat demand around 15 will be provided by 2000 m2 of solar collectors and the rest from biogas derived from waste and sewerage. The energy is distributed by district heating cooling mains.

Heat Recovery And Energy Conservation

Another form of heat exchanger is the energy recovery ventilator (ERV), which draws air out beside a toilet, and exchanges 85 percent of the heat in this warmed air with incoming fresh air. The fresh air is mixed with some return air, fed to a heat pump above the ERV, then on to other rooms, maintaining negative pressure in the bathroom. The ERV system has been used in student apartments in Greensboro, North Carolina. The Canadian National Research Council offers information on a breathable wall to be used with an exhaust air heat pump. When the heat pump takes heat from forced exhaust air for space heating or domestic hot water, the result is a house under negative pressure. Fresh replacement air then infiltrates through the outside walls. This is made possible by the breathable wall construction, a combination of fiberglass lap siding board, fiberglass insulation batts, breathable sheathing, and no vapor barrier. The slow, steady stream of cold air that enters is warmed by the...

Airwater Distribution Systems

The first cost of both air and water supply and return trees is higher than some other systems. Space is needed for both the air ducts and water piping. Filters must be maintained within the space, and the system offers less humidity control than all-air systems. Within the space served, air-water systems may be distributed by induction systems, by fan-coil units with supplementary air, by radiant panels with supplementary air, or by a water loop heat pump. Water loop heat pumps are a variation on the two-pipe water distribution system. Heat pumps either draw heat from the loop to heat the space, or discharge heat into it to cool the space. In a large building in cold weather, excess interior zone heat can be used to warm perimeter spaces. In hot weather, a cooling tower is used

Sizing the Components

The heat pumps may be located above a dropped ceiling over the bathroom and dressing areas in hotel rooms, or below windows. A typical under-window heat pump unit is approximately 30 in. (760 mm) high, 12 in. (305 mm) deep, and 60 in. (1525 mm) long. An CLOSED-LOOP HEAT PUMPS CLOSED-LOOP HEAT PUMPS HEAT PUMP

Radiantly Heated Floors

The water supplied for radiant heating may be heated in a boiler, heat pump, solar collector, or geo-thermal system. In response to a thermostat setting, a control valve in each coil adjusts the supply water temperature by mixing it with cooler water that has been circulated already. Adjacent spaces must be insulated, as radiant panels generate very high temperatures, and there is the strong potential for great heat loss. With higher insulation, smaller panels can be used. They are usually located near exterior walls, but this may not be the case in solar-heated buildings, where they can supplement areas that aren't heated well by the sun. Copper was formerly used for the piping, but connections could fail, so synthetic one-piece systems are now used.

Unit Air Conditioners

Unit air conditioners (Fig. 25-4) are not as efficient as a larger central unit, however, especially if a fuel other than electricity would power the larger unit. They don't offer energy-conserving options like exchange of waste heat. Unit air conditioners are noisy and, due to high air velocity, can cause drafts. Sometimes the noise is welcome, as it can mask street noise. In moderate climates, air can be circulated either through cold-side or hot-side coils, using the unit as a heat pump to cool in hot weather and heat in cool weather. This doesn't work economically in very cold weather, when there is not enough heat outdoors.

Nibe Provides Geothermal Heat For Traditional Peak District Farm

When Deborah and Martin Hofman bought Wheeldon Trees Farm, in the Peak District National Park last year they were determined that the refurbishment and decoration programme they had planned should include as many environmentally sound features as possible. The most important area for change was for the heating system for the farmhouse itself and for the eight holiday homes. They decided on the use of NIBE geothermal system to harness the energy created by solar radiation and the residual heat from rainfall and stored in the ground. A surface collector system using extensive underground plastic tubing seemed the natural medium. The cottages and parts of the house were first fitted with the highest level of insulation possible. When this was completed, under-floor central heating systems could be installed, the groundwork dug and piping laid before the installation of the heat pumps. For the cottages a powerful NIBE Fighter 1330 heat exchange unit was used, fed from 1,200 metres of 40mm...

NIBE Heating For Heritage Farmhouse

Lydart Farm, near Monmouth and overlooking the lovely Trothy Valley, is what the Time Team refer to as 'High Status'. The three-storey building is Grade 1 Listed, very rare for a private house. Heating is always a problem in large old buildings and, to cover all hot water needs, the contractor 'Natural Warmth' of Darlington has installed a NIBE Air Water Heat Pump to replace the old oil-fired boiler. The system consists of a NIBE Fighter 2005 freestanding unit plus a super-efficient double-jacketed VPA300 200 hot water tank. The heat pump unit has been placed unobtrusively to the right hand side of the house and fitting was simple and caused very little disruption. The Fighter 2005 has an 11 kilowatt capacity and it generates a remarkable 3kW of energy for every lkW of electricity input. C02 emissions are very low, 35 or more below those from say the average gas boiler. The Fighter 2005 will operate at llkW output utilising single phase electricity.

Unitary Air Handling Units

Self-contained, weatherproof units with a fan, filters, a compressor, condenser, and evaporator coils for cooling are referred to as unitary air-handling units. A unitary air-handling unit is made up of a factory-assembled unit plus a cooling compressor in a compact enclosure, which can be connected to ductwork. The unitary air-handling unit may be connected to a cooling tower or fluid cooler, or to a remote condenser. For heating, the unit may operate as a heat pump or contain auxiliary heating elements. Unitary air-handling units are powered by electricity or by a combination of electricity and gas.

Mechanical Equipment Split Systems

Sleeve Bolt Details

Where the air is returned to the closet through a louvered panel located under the fan coil, noise levels are generally unacceptable, ranging from 45 to 55 dBA in the room containing the intake. Lining the area beneath the fan coil is of marginal value. Generally this space is too small to act as a plenum and at best becomes a lined elbow, which provides only a few dB of loss. Figure 15.23 shows a way of installing a fan coil or heat pump without a ducted return so that the return-air noise transmission path is attenuated by using a transfer-duct silencer. A heavy solid-core or sound-rated door with air-tight weather stripping, along with 2 (50 mm) fiberglass duct-liner board and 0.4 (10 mm) deflection neoprene isolators are necessary to properly isolate a vertical fan coil unit. Detailed calculations based on the casing radiated sound power levels of the unit can clarify the level of isolation required.

Direct electric resistance heating

Small heat pumps using exhaust heat from a ventilation system with heat recovery can provide seasonal performance factors (SPFs) higher than 3, making heat production by this method more efficient than direct electric heating. The investment costs for these combined systems are higher than for an ordinary resistance heater, but the energy savings during the system lifetime can offset this. When domestic water is heated by a low power heat pump coupled to a 150 litre to 200 litre boiler, there may be hot water shortage for short periods during the year. To economically solve this problem, a flow-through water heater is a reasonable alternative. This heater should be arranged after the heat pump so that direct electric heating is only called for when the heat pump is unable to deliver the needed heating power. If the system is properly dimensioned, such occurrences should be rare. Accordingly, the absolute amount of electricity consumed for this purpose should be minimal over the year....

C5 Water Heat Reclamation

An excellent method of retrieving wasted energy is with a heat pump. The pump's cold end is immersed in the rejected heatflow, whether it be air or liquid, then the retrieved Btus are carried to the pump's hot end, which is immersed in the fluid that needs heating. The technology behind such thermal transfer is the same as that of the decades-old refrigeration industry. Such systems usually require considerable cleverness to actuate thus they are a good example of substituting imagination for money.

Project Construction

The building is projected to conserve 40 to 50 percent of the energy of a code-compliant building of the same type designed to code in Iowa. This is achieved using a number of strategies. First, the envelope is designed with higher insulation values and energy efficient windows. The envelope is also designed to be tight and enabled to dry to the exterior for the Iowa climate. Second, as discussed before, the shape of the building and the use of windows in every occupied space allows for daylighting, which reduces the need for electric lighting. The lighting that is provided is energy efficient and controlled by occupancy and photocell sensors. Third, the building utilizes a geothermal heat pump system that uses the earth's soil temperature as a heat sink for heating and cooling the facility. The loads for the building using this all-electric system are more consistent year-round and reduce the impact on peak cooling loads in the summer. In addition, natural gas or oil is not used for...

Reducing energy needed to heat domestic hot water

The heat in used hot water on the way down the drain is a tempting source for heat recovery. Such heat recovery systems tend to require an unacceptable amount of undesirable maintenance, however. Heat production from a renewable source (i.e. heat pump, biomass or active solar system) is likely to be a more attractive solution for the building owner.

Reducing ventilation losses

As mentioned, minimum ventilation rates are a given. Typical minimum values are 30 m3 h per occupant, which should not be reduced further and an increase of the air change rates should be anticipated over the building's lifetime. To reduce the amount of energy consumed for ventilation, the first step is to ensure that no spaces are excessively ventilated. The next step is to reduce the fan power needed to supply this required air volume. Duct lengths and layout should be optimized to reduce hydraulic pressure drops (short is beautiful). Finally, some ventilation systems (fans and heat exchangers) are more efficient than others regarding both heat exchange efficiency and electrical power. The latter is a very important factor given the primary energy conversion factor for electricity. The heat recovery can be an efficient air-to-air heat exchanger or a heat pump to extract still more heat out of exhaust air before it leaves the house.

Isoenergy Plans Save Country House Costs

Isoenergy is a company specialising in the design and installation of cost justifiable renewable energy systems and over the years, rather surprisingly, it has proved to be old country houses that can benefit most from the application of 'green' energy. Such properties are notoriously difficult to insulate effectively and even more inefficient to heat. The application of modern energy efficient heating systems utilising naturally generated power, however, can make very substantial cost savings and improve effective heat provision as well as appeasing the green gods of the environment as the owner of a large rural property in deepest Surrey agrees. Built in the early 18th Century, his six-bedroomed farmhouse is timber framed with brick and stone inserts and has a walled front garden with converted outbuildings to one side. The owner asked Isoenergy to devise an eco-friendly system that would cut costs and improve fuel efficiency. The Isoenergy design involved a great deal of discreet...

Wates House Centre for Alternative Technology

Water cylinder by a 0.18kW heat pump, a cooking stove surrounded with 150mm of insulation, a single entrance lobby with double doors, and low wattage fluorescent lights. The building consumed about one-fifth of the energy of a similarly sized conventional house built at the same time. The evaporator of a 0.15 kW air air heat pump is placed in a stream of outside air (the heat source) and the condenser placed in the stream of recirculating room air (the heat sink). Fresh air is introduced at a rate of one-quarter of an air change per hour, and stale air is extracted from the kitchen and expelled over the evaporator to help prevent icing up in cold weather. The system can be reversed for summer cooling.

Groundsurface water heat source

The seasonal storage effect of the ground at depths of 1.5 m to 2 m ensures that this heat source will be a constant temperature of approximately the average annual temperature. This greatly improves the COP of a heat pump. Figure 2.6.3 A compact heat pump-combined heating water and ventilation system Figure 2.6.3 A compact heat pump-combined heating water and ventilation system

Primary energy savings

The lower the space heating demand, the higher the specific primary energy demand per kWh heating. For the reference house, a low temperature gas heating system with radiators was assumed for the passive house standard, a heat pump mainly heating warm water and air was assumed. Since the tool used was a German tool (PHPP), the conversion factor for electricity is for the German energy mix. If the primary energy savings are related to the gross area of solar wall heating, this results in primary energy savings from 50 to 200 kWh (see Figure 9.4.9). It has to be kept in mind that the solar

Y Costs Afid Environment

Moreover, where a building uses a heat pump instead of the more conventional boiler, then energy savings can truly mount up - with an air source heat pump, energy consumption can be cut by 20 , and with a ground source heat pump, 30 energy consumption reduction can be achieved. This energy saving is translated into cost savings, again a major consideration for today's construction industry, particularly given the current economic climate. In all, any dwelling that uses underfloor heating obtains a reduced carbon footprint over conventional heating systems, and enables the use of low or zero carbon technolgies for heat generation. These include air source heat pumps or geoothermal systems, and in turn, these can affect the ratings of a dwelling to achieve code levels 4, 5 and 6 as well as earn extra credits available in ENE7. Following the introduction of the Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) earlier this year, demand is Polypipe offers a complete range of floor heating options Overlay...

Nibe Awarded Microgeneration Certificate

NIBE Energy Systems Ltd., a specialist in the domestic supply of energy from renewable sources, was recently granted approved status under the Microgeneration Certification Scheme MCS for the NIBE 2005 and 2025 Air to Water Heat Pumps. As an MCS Certified Supplier, NIBE Air Water Heat Pump installations will naturally be eligible for government grants under the Low Carbon Buildings Programme Et BERR schemes. The NIBE models have been specifically designed to optimise heat from the UK climate. The Air Water Heat Pumps in particular are designed to deliver 4kW of usable heat for every one kW input of electricity and offer an unusually high degree of economy even at low outdoor temperatures.

Energy savings and system performance

Heat pumps and condensing gas furnaces perform with a higher efficiency if low temperature radiant surfaces are used to distribute the heat. The COP of an earth-coupled heat pump increases about 30 per cent if the temperature of the heating system is reduced from 45 C to 35 C. The efficiency of a condensing gas furnace increases approximately 3 per cent to 5 per cent.

Photovoltaic systems

As discussed above, the primary energy equivalent of the annual PV yield can offset some to all of the primary energy (fossil fuels and electricity) needed by a house. In the case of an all-electric house (for example, space heating and DHW supplied by a compression heat pump), the PV yield can be directly compared to the electricity consumption by these technical systems. A sophisticated energy-saving concept is a precondition for such a PV application. Figure 14.1.1 shows the relevance of the PV output for different high-performance housing concepts. The light grey arrows indicate primary energy delivered the dark grey arrows point to the primary energy equivalent of the annual PV yield. The width of each arrow indicates the amount of energy. Except for the stand-alone case, all PV systems are grid connected.

Okohaus Frankfurt

The basic construction is heavyweight, with 500mm-thick solid brick walls and clay block floors, to reduce peak temperatures. The heavy mass building reduces peak temperatures. The glasshouse which encloses the south-facing aspect of the building captures passive solar energy, providing a bright circulation space. Reflective windows to the glasshouse reject solar energy from high angles. The heating consists of solar gain from the glasshouse and heat recovery from the printing works. The heat is distributed both via air circulation and through a low-temperature central heating system, fed by a heat pump and a back-up condensing boiler. It uses two conservatories, one to the north and one to the south, which are connected to either pre-heat or cool incoming air to the building as required.

Learning Objectives

Discuss solutions to using heat pumps in cold climates. Platts E Source expects that the low-temperature heat pump will be competitive with conventional heat pumps and central air in Zones 1 and 2. In Zone 3, utility companies would likely have to provide consumers with incentives to get them to make the switch. Platts E Source expects that the low-temperature heat pump will be competitive with conventional heat pumps and central air in Zones 1 and 2. In Zone 3, utility companies would likely have to provide consumers with incentives to get them to make the switch. The absence of viable low-temperature air-source heat-pump (LTHP) technology has left the geothermal heat pump as the only practical alternative for people who wish to use heat pumps in cold climates. The first-costs for these systems is higher than it is for fossil-fueled heaters because they are complex, and the systems that draw heat from natural sources can be difficult to install....


Architectural Variation

A furnace is an indoor unit that incorporates a source of heat and an air circulating fan into a single metal box. The source of heat may be a gas burner, an oil burner, an electric resistance coil, or a heat pump coil. Cooling coils may also be incorporated if desired. The capacity of furnaces is limited to such an extent that they are used mostly in single-family houses and other very small buildings multiple furnaces are sometimes used to heat and cool somewhat larger buildings. For a more extended discussion of furnaces, see pages 203-205.

Types of systems

Ventilation systems with an efficient exhaust air heat recovery only need a small booster heater to provide sufficient heating power. Several solutions are available heat pumps that extract heat from the exhaust air after the heat exchanger or solar thermal systems backed up by electric or fossil-fuelled furnaces. Natural and propane gas-fired condensing heaters can supply this backup today. Small and highly efficient oil boilers with low emissions are still under development. Several systems developed for fossil fuels have been adapted to burn renewable fuels, such as oil from sunflower seed. Combined systems that produce both heat and electrical power (combined heat and power, or CHP) are attractive, given the high primary energy value of electricity. Because of their high investment costs they are not interesting for high-performance single family houses because their demand for heat is too small. Where buildings and loads can be aggregated, over a micro heating network to create a...


Geosourced heat pumps tap the heat that is present in which 2. Which do heat pumps compress in order to achieve desirable temperatures 3. As temperatures fall, typical heat pumps do which 4. Geothermal heat pumps are not used in urban areas for which reason 5. When the refrigerant in a heat pump is changing from liquid to gas, it is doing which 9. A heat pump is differentiated from an air conditioner by which 10. The low-temperature heat pump is more efficient than other heat pumps below which temperature


Near-surface geothermal systems, in which a heat pump can achieve nearly constant heat fluxes throughout the year, are a much more promising approach. Such systems can also be used for preheating cooling outside air before it enters the air heating unit (AHU), and may thus significantly reduce the heat losses of the ventilation system. Such a configuration also avoids the freeze-up problem of high-efficiency ventilation air-to-air heat exchangers, as shown in Figure 12.10.2. Heat from near-surface layers can be taken from groundwater directly by using a fountain technology. Heat can also be extracted from near-surface earth layers by means of horizontally or vertically installed heat exchangers (see Figure 12.10.3). The extracted heat will be transformed by heat pumps to a higher temperature level. The lower the temperature of the heating system, the higher the efficiency of the heat pump. The heat pumps normally run in a monovalent mode, using buffer storage to harmonize the...

Refrigeration Cycles

The refrigeration cycle, which is used for cooling, is also used in heating. The mechanical refrigeration equipment in HVAC systems uses two types of heat transfer processes the compression cycle and the absorption cycle. Both of these cooling cycles have a hot side and a cold side. The cold side is used for cooling, while the hot side can provide supplemental heat in cold weather by being used as a heat pump. In large buildings, the perimeter areas may need to be heated in cool weather, while the interior spaces may need ventilation and cooling.

Lifecycle analysis

Electricity, heat pump Air-water heat pump for space heating and DHW If no PV system were built, the electricity mix used for the building operation would amount to about 20 per cent of the total impact of the house. The impact of the electricity need by the heat pump with the Swiss electricity mix (high amount of hydro energy and low share of fossil fuels) is nearly offset by the output of the PV system. For the European electricity mix (Union for the Coordination of Transmission of Electricity, or UCTE), the house with a PV system clearly has an advantage and reduces the total impact by 25 per cent. In this case, the impact payback time for the amorphous PV cells would be four years.

Warm Air Heating

Electric heating systems became popular at this time, as they eliminated combustion, chimneys, and fuel storage. Horizontal electric furnaces were located in shallow attics or above furred ceilings. Air was delivered down from the ceiling across windows, and taken back through door grilles and open plenum spaces. Heat pumps have mostly replaced less-efficient electric resistance systems. Energy-saving designs for warm air systems start with insulated windows, roof, walls, and floors, reducing the amount of heat needed. Warming the windows directly is less essential when they are well insulated, so a central furnace or heat pump connects to short ducts to the inner side of each room. Air is returned to the central unit through open grilles in doors and the furnace, or to a heat pump enclosure.

Environmental impact

At a guess, geothermal-boosted ground-source heat pumps will lead the field in low-energy technology for buildings. It is relatively low cost, economical to run, insulated from the vagaries of weather and climate and changes in temperature and reliably produces heat in winter and cooling in summer. If PVs with battery backup provide the power for pumps and compressors then it really is a zero-energy system in operation. Heat pumps are an offshoot of refrigeration technology and are capable of providing both heat and cooling. They exploit the principle that certain chemicals absorb heat when they are condensed into a liquid and release heat when they evaporate into a gas. The most efficient is the geothermal heat pump (GHP), which originated in the 1940s. This is another technology which goes back a long way but which is only now realizing its potential as a technology for the future. Most ground-coupled heat pumps adopt the closed-loop system whereby a high-density polyethylene pipe...


The center relies on a variety of systems for thermal comfort, beginning with natural ventilation, enabled by operable windows in all occupied spaces. For the offices, heating and cooling are decoupled from ventilation air. Ventilation is provided to each office through enthalpy wheels, which recover heat from the exhausted air. A hydronic valence convector system provides radiant cooling and heating of the offices using significantly less energy than fan coils units would. The lab and assembly areas have separate water-to-air heat pump systems.The research center's new home optimizes the use of natural lighting for both energy efficiency and aesthetics with abundant daylight reaching all interior spaces. In the addition, the windows are clear, triple-glazed, argon-filled insulating units. In the existing building, the windows use high-performance glass but are double-glazed.

Sensitivity analysis

The following sensitivity analysis is made for solution 1b conservation with outdoor air to water heat pump. Because, even in this cold climate, the annual space and domestic water heating demand is very low (4875 kWh a for solution 1a and 6150 kWh a for solution 1b), the capital investment in the heating system must be kept small. Two example solutions have been presented. The first solution presented (solution 1a) is based on direct electric resistant heating in an extremely well-insulated house. The second solution (solution 1b) is based on an outdoor air to water heat pump for each house. This is already common in Scandinavian countries. Another way can also be a borehole heat pump system with a local district heating system serving a group of houses. Table 8.2.9 Solution 1b Conservation with outdoor air to water heat pump - building envelope construction Table 8.2.9 Solution 1b Conservation with outdoor air to water heat pump - building envelope construction

I34 Heat production

The most prevalent solution is a heat pump, using as its heat source the exhaust room air directly or, in temperate climates, a ventilation heat exchanger. Its limitation is that in very cold weather, it must switch to resistance heating. However, during most of the heating system it can deliver from 1 kW of electricity up to 3 kW of heat. If it is coupled to a ground heat exchanger (an anti-freeze solution circulated through a buried pipe circuit), an even higher output is possible. For ecological reasons, an obvious solution is a solar thermal system. With only 1 m2 to 2 m2 of collector per person, this proven technology can cover half the water heating demand. While, economically, it can be argued that if the heat production is by a heat pump or wood pellet stove,


Figure 13.10 Air and Heat Flow in a Heat Pump System (California Heat Pump) flows to the compressor, which further warms and pressurizes it by performing mechanical work on it. The hot gas then flows through a coil where a fan blows air over it and into the occupied space. The gas gives off heat in the exchange and condenses into a liquid. The liquid is then forced under pressure through the capillary tube where it expands and is returned to the heat exchanger. The cooling cycle is just the reverse of this process and is enabled by changing the direction of flow of the reversing valve. Noise generated by heat pump units can be greater than fan coils since the compressor is located in the same unit as the coil.