Analytical approach

Condition survey of masonry ruins has the same foundations as condition surveys to any form of building or structure. That is, to gain an understanding of

Elevation: - South Elevation of the Poroh Drawing No: - 3S0.56/ELV/03 Survey Issue/Revision: - A

Data: - IS Match 2002

Elevation: - South Elevation of the Poroh Drawing No: - 3S0.56/ELV/03 Survey Issue/Revision: - A

Data: - IS Match 2002

Item Grid Defect and Location Repair Size (mm) / Quantity (m1) Comments Repair REV'

Item Grid Defect and Location Repair Size (mm) / Quantity (m1) Comments Repair REV'

MG

55

A4

Widened/open lead caulked joint to the cornice

GR

1200 girth

1

A

56

A4

Open and failing mortar joints to the face of the cornice

GR +- RP

4no. 1200 2no, 300

1

A

57

A4

Minor decay of an isolated ashlar stone next to a perpend joint above the aculus

MR

50 x 400

2

A

53

A4/5

Open and fractured mortar joints with minor displacement of the masonry; fracturing located on the ashlar masonry and oculus

□ R

6Lm x <12rnm

Masonry to be grouted using a hand pump following the guidance given on sketch IC/SLC/GR-01. Location of grouting holes to be agreed on site wrth conservation advisor

1

A

59

A5/6

Decay of mortar Joints with displacement of ashlar

GR

4Lm

Masonry to be grouted using a hand pump following the guidance given on sketch ICVSLC/GR-OI. Location of grouting holes to be agreed on site with conservation advisor

1

A

60

A6

Diagonal fracture In the ashlar masonry where movement and displacement have occurred

GR

400

1

A

61

A6

Minor spelling of perpend joint of door entablature

L

2no, 100 X 20

-

-

62

A6

Minor spalling to fascia of door entablature

MR

140 x 70

3

A

63

A6

Redundant fixings in ashlar with minor surface spelling

REM + MR

150x 250 7E x 75 50 x 50

2

A

64

A6

Minor pinch spalling of ashlar masonry

L

100 x100 BO x 50

65

A6

Redundant iron ring bolts In ashlar masonry

REM + MR

70 x 70 90 x 70

2

A

66

A4

Iron fixing in the head of the oculus

REM + MG

20 x 5

2

A

67

A4

Failing cement mortar filling to spalling along the rear arris of the oculus surround

MR

100x30 200x30

2

Ingram Consultancy

Figure 3.12 St Luke's Church in London. An example of a tabulated 'schedule of defects' from a detailed condition survey. The schedule formed the basis for a phased programme of conservation work.

SCHEDULE OF DEFECTS

Ei«vat«jn - North end and West face of the West Front

Architectural Description Defect and location

Drawing No - IC/22flO1£lV01 Repair type Quantity Si» {mm} Comment»

Syvay Issue'Revi von ■ A Date -12 June 2002

Newstead Priory Church West Front

Photograph and Drawing Details

Architectural Description Defect and location

Drawing No - IC/22flO1£lV01 Repair type Quantity Si» {mm} Comment»

Façade Element: Pinnacles and Buttress Gab lets

Grid Areas: A6/7 to J6Í7

Architectural Description:

Rising from each oí the four buttresses are pinnacles, hexagonal in plan, ornamented with crockets. gablets with trefoil blind tracery and grotesques Figurai masks form head slops at the terminus of the pinnacle corner ribs to the front face of the parapet The buttresses are terminated by simple geblelS with poppy head finíais

Defects and Locations:

1

A6/7 to J6/7

Pinnacles [soiling]: Extensive organic growths of lichen, moss and other microflora conceal and disguise the condition oí the masonry and mortar joints. Atmospheric soiling (Mack soil crusts) is not evident Surfaces are likely to be fragile in areas where contour scaling has developed. Ongoing fracturing and detachment of crockets and weathered detaü Is evident

SCI

4 no

Approx. overall size ol each pinnacle 1.3 x 1.3 * 1.7m

The pinnacles include the buttress gablets and figural masks down to the parapet string course to both front and back faces. Cleaning of the grotesques and figural masks is described as separate items, Note; some pinning and grouting of fractures may be required during the course of deaning lo stabilise failing detail

Î

J6/7

Pinnacles [decay): the true condition of the pinnactes is masked by heavy organic growth and >s unclear Visual mspedion indicates that Tine fissures and fractures have developed on some of the ornamented detail, which has resulted in detachment and loss. Detachment of contour scales <3 to 5mm thick) and thinner papery scales a ongoing, Erosion oí soil beds to the face of many of the gablets has resulted in the loss of detail, although a significant amount remains The finials to many of the pinnacle gablets have been lost with the resulting shelf encouraging water lo pond and migrate into the stone The apex stones of all four pinnacles are replacements with crude, simplified detail. Many of the morlar joints have been repointed with cement mortars. A corroding iron band projects from pinnacle P2 in the bed »oint below the replacement apex stone.

2

• Contour scaling and papery scales to flat masonry detail

ne

4no

Approx overall size of each pinnacle 1,3x1.3x17m

2

3

• Contour scaling and papery scales to ornamented detail

SR CS

4no

Approx. overall size of each pinnade

1.3*1.3* 1.7m

a

4

# Fracturing of ornamented detail

ST* GR

20no

200mm each

Provisional item

2

5

• Missing gablet apex stone and finial (ind. lno heavily decayed)

RPL CS

19no.

350x350* 500

Provisional item

2

6

* Cement morlar joints

REM • RP

25QLm

2

1

• Corroding iron band

REM » P)

tno

2

B

* Existing poorly carved replacement pinnacle apex stones

L

9

A6/7 to J6/7

Grotesques [soiling]: Extensive organic growth, as described for the pinnactes. is present on an grotesques and masks their true condition Inspection indicates that many ol the grotesques, whilst structurally stable at present, have numerous bands ol erosion and surface fracturing along the natural stone bed The surface detail to many grotesques is fragüe with detachment of th<n surface layers oí stone and paper scales which threatens loss oí remaining detail

700 x 500 x 300 each

Eacti pinnacle is hexagonal in plan with a grotesque protecting from aach corner rib below each gablet Grouting and consolidslion of contour scaling and surface fractures wHI be required in advance and during cleaning to conserve detail

t

J 6/7

Grotesques [decay]: Inspection of the heavily soiled surfaces indicates thai whilst structurally stable at present, many of the grotesques have quite fragile surfaces with ongoing loss of detail through detachment of contour scales and thin papery scales Ongoing erosion of soft beds is causing

700 x 500 x 300 each

Allow Provisional Sim of S Hours ft* aacn grotesque for furttwr conservation end repair following cleaning and consolidation or

2

Figure 1: Pinnacle and buttress gablet

Figure 2: Detail of pinnacle ornament

Figure 2: Detail of pinnacle ornament

ïi-

V.

V. i-

À

&

■ »

j

Figure 3: View of pinnacle P1 looking north

Figure 3: View of pinnacle P1 looking north

Appendix 3 - page 3

Figure 3.13 The West Front of the Priory Church at Newstead Abbey. For structures with complex decay mechanisms requiring a variety of conservations and repair solutions, tabulated schedules of defects can be illustrated with drawings and photographs to assist in conveying information and understanding.

Table 3.3 Information contained in a schedule of defects record

Item

The defect number to permit easy referencing

Location or grid reference

Element and defect description

Recommended repair

Size and quantity

Comments/additional information Photo reference Repair priority

Condition surveys can frequently identify hundreds or thousands of defects so it is important that the location of each individual defect can be easily found by future users of the condition survey report. See Survey drawings

Describe briefly the architectural element, possibly its construction if this adds to the understanding of the decay character or the method by which it will be repaired and then a description of the defect and its cause. The description should be succinct and relevant. See

Report format

A schedule of defects should always include repair recommendations. It is easier to identify a repair approach at the time of a survey with an informed mind than at a later date when the report has been submitted and subsequent users are trying to identify a repair type The size of the defect, or the repair, and the quantity should always be included. Unfortunately, many surveys seem to lack this information, reducing their accuracy and worth, creating uncertainty in planning for subsequent work

It is always good to include this extra column for any information that may be relevant to the individual item

Include the reference number of photographic illustration

Include the priority — for example, immediate, within 2 years, within 5 years, within 10 years the condition, the rate of decay and relative performance of the materials over time by a process of visual analysis. Additional analysis can be undertaken using a combination of techniques, such as laboratory testing and comparison of data from a series of condition survey reports, but condition assessment will largely be based on visual inspection of the building fabric on site.

An analytical approach leads to a comprehensive understanding of the monument, its condition and its conservation requirements.

The starting point is an understanding of the form and function of the monument. Ideally, this should include both architectural and social form and function, its construction, and its history of disuse and decay. Often, monuments are in a ruined condition and gaining an understanding of the original form and function is necessary to interpret their condition and establish the range of conservation measures that are appropriate. It is often the case that much of the original evidence has been lost or radically reduced by decay. Cross-referencing similar sites is often necessary.

Analysis of the structural condition of a ruined building requires a detailed understanding of its original complete form and how the loss of elements such as roofs, vaults, buttresses and towers has influenced its current state. Condition survey may determine that some reinstatement of collapsed or missing masonry is necessary to provide critical support, or wall head protection to ensure the sustainability of the monument.

An analytical approach will provide a detailed, considered awareness of the conservation and repair requirements. Within the report should always be a summary of the short-, medium- and long-term needs. If sacrificial treatments are to be used, the expected life of those treatments and the future requirements for inspection, monitoring and maintenance should be set out.

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