Banco de Bilbao Madrid Spain 197178

pp. 100-03

Client: Banco de Bilbao.

Design team: Velles, Valdes, Alonso, Azofra.

Engineers - Fernandez Casado and J.



El Croquis, 32/33, 1988

Alain Sarfati b. 1937, educated at the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and in the studio of Tony Gamier. He is Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Mérite and Professor at the École d'Architecture de Paris-Conflans. He founded the review AMCin 1967. In 1969 with Philippe Boudon, Bernard Hamburger and Jean-Louis Venard founded a private firm which would engage in research and practice, the AREA (Atelier de Recherche et d'Études d'Amenagement). Project specifications 88 Housing Units in Savigny-le-Temple (Ville Nouvelle de Melun-Sénart, France). 1982-86. pp. 166-67 Client: Office Public d'Habitations à Loyer Modéré (OPHLM) de Seine et Marne. Area built: 6567 m2.

Design team: Michel Ferrand. Christian Laquerrière.

Construction firm: Drouet. Key materials: concrete, red brick, slate. Budget: 28,269,515 FF. Bibliography

Alain Sarfati, Paris (Editions du Moniteur). 1990

Matthias Sauerbruch: see Elias Zenghelis

Alvaro Siza b. Matosinhos, Portugal. 1933. Between 1949-55, studied at the School of Architecture, University of Porto. Taught at the School of Architecture from 1966-69; appointed Professor of Construction in 1976. Was awarded the prize for architecture by the Portuguese Department of the International Association of Art Critics and an award from the Portuguese Architects Association (1987). In 1988, was awarded a Gold Medal by the Colegio de Arquitectos of Spain; a Gold Medal from the Alvar Aalto Foundation; the Prince of Wales Prize; and the European Award of Architecture from the Economic European Community/Mies van der Rohe Foundation of Barcelona.

Project specifications

Bouça Social Housing (Porto, Portugal),

Client: Dwellers' Association of Bouça.

Design team: Antonio Madudeira, Francisco

Guedes Carvalho, Adalberto Dias, Miguel

Guedes Carvalho, Eduardo Souto Moura,

Manuela Sambade, Nuno Ribeiro Lopes, José

Paulo Santos.

Key materials: load-bearing blockwork walls with concrete bracing.


Cassirer, Brigitte, 'Die Operation SAAL in Porto', Bauergerbeteiligung in Portugal, Berlin, 1984

Celani, Mara, and Paulo D'Ugo, 'La vicenda di Bouça e Malagueira: Alvaro Siza', Spazio e Società, Sept./Dec. 1985 'Alvaro Siza 1954-1988', A+U, Jun. 1989

Luigi Snozzi b. Mendrisio, Switzerland, 1932. Graduated from the ETH, Zürich, in 1957; started a private practice in 1958 with Livio Vacchini.

His work has been exhibited at the Festival d'Automne (1983); the Milan Triennale

(1987); and the Hochschule für Angewandte

Kunst, Vienna.

Project specifications

Casa Kaiman (Locarno. Switzerland), 1974-

Client: Dr Paula Kaiman.

Area built: 500 m2.

Design team: Walter von Euw.

Construction company: Impresa Ing. D. Scaf-

Budget: 280.000 SF. Bibliography

Ackerman, James, The Villa, London (Thames and Hudson), 1990

Werner, F., Neue Tessiner Architektur, Berlin (DVA), p. 17

Alejandro de la Sota b. Pontevedra, Galicia, 1913, where he finished his schooling before going on to study mathematics for two years at the University of Santiago de Compostela. In 1941, graduated as an architect from the Escuela Superior de Madrid, which awarded him his doctorate in 1965 and where he worked as a teacher from 1965-72. Among his principal awards are the Premio Nacional de Arquitectura; the Medalla d'Oro al Mérito en Telecommunicaciones (1985); the Medalla d'Oro al Mérito en las Bellas Artes (1986); the Medalla d'Oro de la Arquitectura del Consejo Superior de Arquitectos de España (1988). Project specifications Post Office and Telecommunications Building (León. Spain), 1985, pp. 138-41 Client: Dirección General de Correos y Telecommunicaciones. Built area: 10.595 m2. Design team: Alejandro de la Sota. Construction firm: Fomento de Obras y Construcciones S.A.

Key materials: metal structures and Robertson panels.

Budget: 480 million pesetas. Site characteristics: located in a transition zone between the old city and the modern district called ensanche in Spanish. Bibliography

Monográfico Alejandro de la Sota', Quaderns d'Arquitectura iUrbanisme, no. 152. May/Jun. 1982, pp. 14-43

'Centro de Telecommunicaciones en León', El Croquis, no. 19, Jan. 1985, pp. 30-41 Sota, Alejandro de la, Alejandro de la Sota, Madrid (Ed. Pronaos), 1989

Otto von Spreckelsen b. Denmark, 1929. Educated at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen, where he was director at the time of his death in 1987. Project specifications La Grande Arche de la Défense (Paris, France), 1982-89, pp. 224-25 Data unavailable from the architect's firm. Bibliography

Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 252, Sept. 1987, pp. 68-71

Ramirez, J.A., 'New Ritual Buildings'. A&V, no. 17, 1989. pp. 8-12

Chaslin, F., 'Paris, Capital of the Republic of Pharaohs', A&V, 17, 1989, pp. 4-8

James Stirling b. Glasgow, 1926. Architecture degree from the Liverpool School of Architecture (1945-50). Has been in private practice since 1956, first with James Gowan, then with Michael Wilford (since 1971). Taught at the Architectural Association in London (1957), Cambridge University (1961), Vale University (1960, 1962). Project specifications New State Gallery (Stuttgart, Germany), 1977-84, pp. 126-31

Client: Land Baden-Württemberg. Staatliche Hochverwaltung. Built area: 15.300 m2. Design team: Ulrich Schaad. Russell Bev-ington, Peter Ray. Alexis Pontvik. John Tuomey. John Cannon, Markus Geiger. Paul Keogh, John Cairns, Ulrike Wilke. Alfred Munkenbeck. Peter Schaad, Shinichi Tomoe, Chris Macdonald. Stuttgart Office - Siegfried Wernick, Tommi Tafel, Rudolf Schwartz. Pia Riegert. Laszlo Glaser, Jochen Bub. Heribert Hamann, Christian Ohm. Consultants - Staatliches Hochbauamt 1 and Davis, Belfield and Everest (quantity surveyors); Boll and Partner in conjunction with Ove Arup & Partners (structural engineers); Eser Dittman Nehring and Partner in conjunction with Ove Arup & Partners (mechanical and electronic engineers). Building physics and acoustics consultants - Oskar Gerber and Partner. Site management - Staatliches Hochbauamt 1 Stuttgart (Leader) Klaus Wilkens and Hermann Reichnecker. Bauleiter-Hans Eckenreiter. Cost: 89 million DM.

Programme: new building for the State Gallery, New Chamber Theatre, extension to the Music School. Bibliography

Architectural Design, vol. 47, no. 9/10.1977 Architectural Design, vol. 49, no. 8/9, 1979 Architectural Design, vol. 51, no. 3/4, 1981 Stirling, J., James Stirling, Michael Wilford & Associates, London (Academy Editions), 1990

Studio PER: see Lluis Clotet and Oscar Tusquets

Quinlan Terry b. London. 1937. Studied at the Architectural

Association. In 1962 joined Raymond Erith; for the next eleven years they worked together developing the classical tradition on a number of buildings. After Erith's death in 1973. Terry continued in the classical tradition.

Project specifications

Richmond Riverside (Richmond. England),

Client: Haslemere Estates PLC.

Design team: Quinlan Terry.

Construction company: Sir Robert McAlpine &

Sons Ltd.

Key materials: solid load-bearing brick construction in lime mortar without expansion joints or cavities. Bibliography

Architectural Design, vol. 58. no. 1/2. 1988 (profile)

Peters. P., 'Brentwood, Baroque and the Bible man', Evening Standard, 3 June 1991, p. 19

Oscar Tusquets b. Barcelona, 1941. Architecture degree from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona in 1965. Founded Studio PER with Pep Bonet, Cristian Cirici and Lluis Clotet. In 1975, he points out, he designed the Mae West Room in the Salvador Dali Museum of Figueras and remained a close friend of Dali's. He collaborated in the Milan Triennale (1973, 1983,1985); in the Venice Biennale (1980); in Transformations in Modern Architecture' at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1979); Europalia in Brussels (1985); and Documenta in Kassel (1987). Among his awards are the National Design Prize (1988); FAD prize (1965,1972,1979,1983); and the Iberdis-efio '90 Prize for the best Spanish design of the 1980s. (See also Lluis Clotet.) Project specifications and bibliography Belvedere Georgina: see Lluis Clotet

Oswald Matthias lingers b. Kaiseresch, Eifel, Germany, 1926. Received his architectural diploma from the Technical University of Karlsruhe and established private practice in Cologne in 1950. In 1963, appointed Professor at the Technical University in Berlin with the Chair in Urban Design. In 1965 and 1967, was Visiting Critic at Cornell University and was appointed Dean of the Faculty of Architecture and Senator of the Technical University in Berlin. From 1969-75 was Chairman of the Department of Architecture at Cornell University. Since 1986 has been Professor of Architecture at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. Project specifications Architectural Museum (Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany), 1981-84, pp. 134-35 Client: City of Frankfurt. Design team: K.L. Dietzch, Barbara Taha, Kathrin Napel.

Construction firm: Aufbau AG. Hochbauamt Frankfurt, Roland Burgard. Budget: 11.4 million DM. Bibliography

Niemeyer, F., et al., Oswald Matthias Ungers: Architektur 1951-1990, Berlin (DVA), 1991

Robert Venturi b. Philadelphia, USA. Bachelor of Arts (1947) and Master of Fine Arts (1950) from Princeton University. As recipient of the Rome Prize in Architecture was in residence at the American Academy in Rome from 1954-56, returning there in 1966 as Architect-in-Residence. During his early career worked for Louis Kahn and Eero Saarinen, was a faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania and was named Charlotte Shepherd Davenport Professor of Architecture at Yale University. Among his prizes and awards are Commendatore of the Order of Merit. Republic of Italy (1986); the President's Medal, the Architectural League of New York (1985); Arnold Brunner Award (1973); and the Pritzker Prize (1991).

Projects specifications The National Gallery, Sainsbury Wing (London, England). 1986-91, pp. 272-75 Client: N.G. Services Ltd., a charitable company formed to administer the project and directed by representatives of the National Gallery Trustees and the Donors. Area built: 11,150 m2. Design team: Robert Venturi (principal in charge); David Vaughan (project director); Denise Scott Brown, John Rauch, Steven Ize-nous, William Algie, Ed Barnhart, Britt Brewer, Andrew Erstad, Steve Glascock, James Kölker, Jeff Krieger, Perry Kulper, Brian LaBau, Robert Marker, Richard Möhler, Tom Purdy, Nancy Rogo Trainer, George Ross, Mark Schlenker, Carreth Schuh, David Singer. Rich Stokes, Maurice Weintraub. Mark Wieand (project architects); Sheppard Robson Architects (associated UK architect). Principal consultants - Ove Arup & Partners (structural engineers); Ove Arup & Partners with Jaros, Baum and Bolles (services engineers); Gardiner and Theobald (quantity surveyors); Mott, Green and Wall (services quantity surveyors). Construction firm: Sir Robert McAlpine Construction Management Ltd (construction manager). Over 45 separate trade contractors.

Key materials: the structure is primarily reinforced concrete, with structural steelwork used for the glazed wall of the east facade and the upper portion of the top floor, including the roof and rooflights. Foundations employ bored piles, with the basement perimeter wall of interlocking secant pile construction. Interior basement construction was of top-down sequence concurrent with construction of the superstructure. Structural acoustic isolation is used to separate the loading bay from public functions below. Exterior materials include Portland stone and brick; aluminium roof-lights, window wall, windows, louvres and doors; cast aluminium decorative colonettes; oak entry doors; granite and yorkstone paving; laser-cut painted steel grates; and specially selected and trimmed plane trees. Interior materials include Chamesson limestone, pie-tra serena stone. Cold Spring granite, burl-ington slate, fumed oak flooring, oak panelling and interior windows and doors, painted hardwood trim, lacquered hardwood counters, veneer plaster over plasterboard, cast fibrous plaster profiled sections, metal and fibrous acoustic ceiling panels, ceramic tile, carpet, stainless steel railings, display cases and revolving door housings, bronze gallery guard rails, and cast aluminium colonettes. Technology of interest: tight control of gallery environment for constant temperature and humidity. Control of amount and direction of UV-filtered natural light through sensor-oper-ated system of louvre blinds, before its indirect admission to the galleries through high cleres tories. Coordinated control and colour balance of artificial light to augment the changing daylight. All these systems are automatically operated by an electronic building management system. Natural and artificial lighting systems were developed, tested and revised using both a 1:5 and full-scale gallery mock-up. An extensive electronic security system is integrated with that of the old building. Programme: brief required provision of the following functions (a) primarily, new day-lit galleries for the early Renaissance collection, to be contiguous to the existing galleries: (b) suite of galleries for changing temporary exhibitions and an adjacent cinema for film/video presentations; (c) lecture theatre for various media presentations to a public of 350; (d) restau rant/coffee bar; (e) gallery shop; (f) series of conference rooms; (g) computerized art information room for the public; (h) series of support functions, including loading bays (one structure), a picture storage vault, exhibition packing and preparation spaces, and an entrance foyer. Bibliography

Venturi, R., Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture, New York (Museum of Modern Art), 1966

-, and Denise Scott Brown, Learning from

Las Vegas, Cambridge, MA (MIT Press), 1972

Vetges tu i Medlterrània: see Héctor Fernández Martín / Vetges tu i Mediterrània, Arquitectos

Myrto Vitart b. 1955; received architectural degree in 1984. Between 1985 and 1989 she was a founding member of Jean Nouvel et Associés. In 1989 she went into private practice in association with Jean-Marc Ibos. Her work has been exhibited at the Institut Français d'Architecture in Paris; the Salon International de l'Architecture de la Villette. Paris (1988-90); the Tepia Building in Tokyo; Gallery 9H. London: the Venice Biennale (1991). Project specifications ONYX Cultural Centre (Saint Herblain. France), 1987-88, pp. 214-17 Client: City of Saint Herblain. Built area: 4000 m2.

Design team: Myrto Vitart for Jean Nouvel et Associés. Frédérique Montanel (main architect). Jacques le Marquet (scenography). B&C Barto (artists).

Construction firm: SOGEA ATLANTIQUE. Key materials: concrete structure, metallic skeleton. Floors - granite, rubber, polished concrete; walls - perforated PVC, galvanized tin.

Technology of interest in the operation of the building: the void.

Budget: 17 million FF, plus 7 million FF (for the scenography).

Site characteristics: ONYX is located on a 10-hectare-parking lot on the edge of important commercial facilities, overlooking a water retention pool.

Additional information: 'The parking lot was under construction when we won the commission. We obtained from the city hall of Saint Herblain the right to prolong it in the form of a point submerged in the water retention pool'. Bibliography

Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 263Jun 1989 Arquitectura Viva, no. 13. Jul./Aug. 1990

Weber, Brandt and Partners

Jürgen Kurz was responsible for the design of the Medical Faculty of the Technical University of Aachen. B. Hessia (Federal Republic of Germany), 1944, he studied at the Technical University of North-Rhine-Westphalia in Aachen (1968). There have been exhibitions including his works in Paris (Septième Biennale de Paris, and at the Centre Pompidou in 1987); and Aachen (1980). Project specifications New Medical Faculty, Technical University of Aachen (Aachen, Germany), 1968-86, pp. 168-71

Client: Government of North Rhine-Westphalia. Area built: 200,000 m2 floor area, base area 38,000 m2, volume 1 million m3. Design team-. Jürgen Kurz with P. Troger and W. Weber.

Construction company: Ph. Holzmann and others.

Key materials: main structure - prefabricated concrete, mostly prestressed. Auxiliary constructions - steel and aluminium. Ceilings -fire-protected sandwich constructions of steel plates.

Technology of interest: complete separation between structural and finishing works to allow for alterations. Extremely comprehensive means for safety, especially fire protection.

Project budget: 2000 million DM. Site characteristics: situated in an expansion area of the university near the Dutch border, but just ten minutes from the city centre. Bibliography

Buchanan, P., Appraisal'. Architectural Review, London, no. 1076. Oct. 1986. pp. 96-101

Ellas Zenghelis and Matthias Sauerbruch

Zenghelis: b. Athens. 1937. Graduated from the Architectural Association, London (1961). In 1975, he went into partnership with Rem Koolhaas and founded OMA (Office for Metropolitan Architecture) in London. From 1980-85 was a partner of OMA Rotterdam and senior partner in charge of OMA London. In 1982, he was founder of OMA Athens. In 1985, he went into partnership with Eleni Gigantes and founded the firm Gigantes Zenghelis Architects in Athens and London. He is currently partner at Gigantes Zenghelis Architects (Athens, London) and sole partner of OMA Athens. Has been Visiting Professor at Princeton, Columbia and Syracuse Universities and Unit Master at the A.A.. London. Sauerbruch: b. Konstanz, Germany, 1955. Architecture degrees from the A.A. (1984) and the Hochschule der Künste (1984). Worked at OMA London, 1984-1988. Unit Master at the A.A., 1985-1990. Among his awards are the Eternity Prize for European Architecture. 1990: finalist, Mies van der Rohe Award. 1990. Project specifications Apartment House at Checkpoint Charlie (Berlin. Germany), 1983-90, pp.236-37 Client: Berliner Eigenhaimbau GmbH. Area built: residential part, 1850 m2; Allies' part, including underground garage, 19,000 m2.

Design team: Dirk Alten, Barbara Burren, Eleni Gigantes, Reni Keller, Alex Wall. Polonyi & Fink (engineers).

Construction firm: main concrete contractor. Voigt GmbH. Different companies for different trades.

Key materials: main structure of reinforced concrete slabs. Sheer walls and facades (all load-bearing) which come down on 4 pairs of columns only.

Budget: approx. 8 million DM.

Site characteristics: 'Checkpoint Charlie!'


Zenghelis, E., 'The Aesthetics of the Present', in A. Papadakis et al. (eds). Deconstruction, London (Academy Editions). 1989. pp. 239-43

Peter Zumthor b. Basel. 1943. Studied furniture design; graduated from the Schule für Gestaltung, Basel (1963) and the Pratt Institute, New York, in Architecture and Interior Design (1966). Set up private practice in Haldestein. Graubunden. Has been Visiting Professor at the Southern California Institute of Architecture (1988) and at the Technische Universität in Munich (1989). Received the Heinrich Tessenov-Medaille in Hanover in 1989. Project specifications Protection Shed over Roman Ruins (Chur, Switzerland). 1985-86, pp. 160-63 Client: AMT für Bundesbauten, Lugano. Design team: Reto Schaufelbuhl and Jurg Buchli.

Key materials: wood. Structure of members, glue-lam. technique. Exterior screen, larch. Technology of interest: building functions as an open shelter. Inside and outside climate are the same. The wind breezes through. Budget: 1.15 million SF. Site characteristics: periphery of the old city, site of Roman excavations. Bibliography

Wang. W.. 'On the work of Peter Zumthor', Ottagono, Milan, no. 97, pp. 50-61

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