Client: City of Alençon. SEMIAVA, HLM.

Construction firm: Lucien Kroll claims. 'I have forgotten his name. It was the same contractor who had built the prefabricated buildings in the first place!' Key materials: 'all of them'. Budget: typical 'Papulos' budget for rehabilitations - 'cannot remember the exact cost'. Bibliography

Pehnt. W., Lucien Kroll, Stuttgart (Hatje). 1987

Daniel Libeskind b. Poland, 1946. Studied music in Israel; received his B. Arch, at the Cooper Union. New York, and post-graduate degree in History and Theory of Architecture at Essex University, England. Has taught and lectured at many universities in North America, Europe and Japan and was head of the department of Architecture at Cranbrook Academy of Art from 1978-85. Has been appointed Distinguished Visiting Professor at Harvard University, the Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, the University of Naples, the Lee Chair at UCLA and in 1991 the Bannister Fletcher Professorship at the University of London. From 1986-89, he was the founder and director of Architecture Intermundium in Milan, Italy. He has been invited by the John Paul Getty Foundation to become a Senior Scholar. Has exhibited extensively in Europe, Japan and the United States, and was one of the seven international architects selected for the 'Deconstructivist Architecture' exhibition (1989) at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. He has been awarded the National Endowment for the Arts Award: the Senior Fulbright-Hayes Fellowship; the Graham Foundation Fellowship; the Getty Center Visiting Fellowship; first prize of the Leone di Pietra at the Venice Biennale (1985). Project specifications Extension of the Berlin Museum with the Department Jewish Museum (Berlin, Germany) 1989-, pp. 290-93 Client: Land of Berlin, represented by the Administration for Construction and Housing. Built area: 15,507,000 m2. Design team: Bernhard von Hammerstein, Martin Buchner, Hannes Peter Freudenreich, Robert Choeff, Miller Stevens. Construction firm: subject to bidding. Key materials: facade in zinc panels with various directions of orientation; windows will have various and irregular shapes and will be constructed flush with the interior walls. Budget: 120 million DM. Site characteristics: 'The site is located in the district of Kreuzberg in an area characterized by various urban developments. The new building is to be constructed directly to the south and adjacent to the existing Berlin Museum, which was built by Philip Gerlach in 1734. The new building will be accessed via an underground connection from the old building.'


Libeskind, D., Line of Fire, Milan (Electa). 1988 (catalogue published in conjunction with the exhibition 'Daniel Libeskind: Line of Fire', organized by the Centre d'Art Contempor-ain, Geneva)

Archithdse, Zurich, 1989, pp. 5-89 Deconstruction II, Architectural Design, 'Daniel Libeskind, Selected Writings and Projects', London, vol. 58, no. 1/2, 1989 Daniel Libeskind. Countersign, London (Academy Editions. Architectural Monographs no. 16), 1991

Tagliabue, J., International Herald Tribune,

A+U, Tokyo, Sept. 1991 (special issue on


'Daniel Libeskind between the Lines', Assemblage, Cambridge. MA (MIT Press), vol. 12, pp. 29-51

Richard Meier b. in Newark, New Jersey, 1934. Architectural degree from Cornell University, 1957. Established own practice in New York, 1963. In 1973 he was Resident Architect at the American Academy in Rome. In 1974 and 1977 he was William Henry Bishop Visiting Professor of Architecture at Yale University, in 1977 Visiting Professor of Architecture at Harvard University and in 1980 Eliot Noyes Visiting Critic in Architecture at Harvard University. His work has been exhibited, among other places, at the ETH, Zürich (1982), and the Whitney Museum of American Art (1982, 1985). His awards include the Arnold Brunner Memorial Prize (1972); the American Institute of Architects' National Honor Award (1974); the Pritzker Prize (1984); the Royal Gold Medal from the RIBA (1988). Project specifications Museum for the Decorative Arts (Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany), 1979-85, pp. 136-37 Client: City of Frankfurt-am-Main. Built area: 10,197 m2.

Design team: Günter R. Standke, Michael Palladino. Project partner-Günter R. Standke. Collaborators - Hans Goedeking, John Eisler, Manfred Fischer. David Diamond, Margaret Bemiss, Geoffrey Wooding. Construction company: F.A.A.G., Frankfurt. Key materials: structure - reinforced concrete (frame); reinforced concrete, masonry (walls); reinforced concrete (floors); reinforced concrete (roof). Surface - porcelain enamelled metal panels and stucco (exterior wall); plaster (interior walls); gypsum board (ceiling); white oak, Sarizzo granite, carpet (floor). Budget: 43 million DM. Bibliography

Lampugnani, Vittorio Magnago, 'The Jewel with all Qualities', Lotus International, 28, 1980, pp. 34-38

Frampton, Kenneth, 'II Museo come Mesco-

lanza', Casabella, Jul./Aug. 1985, pp. 11-17 Cook, Peter. 'White Magic', Interiors, Jul. 1985, pp. 202-05, 217-18, 231 Papadakis, Andreas (ed.), 'Richard Meier: A Personal Manifesto'; 'Museum for the Decorative Arts, Frankfurt, West Germany', Architectural Design, vol. 55, no. 1/2, 1985, pp. 56, 58-69

Enric Miralles and Carme Pinos

Miralles: b. Barcelona, 1955. Received architectural degree from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona (1978). In 1980 he was a Visiting Scholar at Columbia University in New York and won a Fulbright Scholarship. He received his doctorate from the ETSAB in 1988, where he has been teaching since 1983. He was Visiting Professor at Columbia University in 1989. Pinôs: received her degree from ETSAB in 1979. In 1983 founded a private practice with Miralles. Among their awards and prizes are the FAD prize (1983, 1987). Project specifications 'La Pista* Civic Centre of Hostalets (Els Hostalets de Balenya, Spain), 1987-91, pp. 260-63

Client: Servei de Cooperacio, Diputacio


Built area: 900 m2.

Design team: Arienja (eng.), Edecto S.A.. Se Doch. Eva Prats; Moya-Brufau-Obiol (engineers); Edecto S.A. (quantity surveyors). Construction firm: Constructadora San José. Key materials: concrete, metal trusses, wood finishing.

Technology of interest: at the time of assembling, the use of the beams as part of the scaffolding.

Budget: 125 million pesetas. Site characteristics: it was necessary to destroy an existing building on the site in order to keep the trees. It is on the periphery of a very small town. Bibliography

The Architecture of Enric Miralles and Carme Pinôs, New York (Sites Lumen Books), 1990. Texts by Peter Buchanan, Dennis Dollens. Lauren Kogod, Josep Maria Montaner. Archithèse, Zurich, Jan. 1990 (special edition on 'Dirty Realism', ed. L. Lefaivre) Buchanan, P., Arquitectura Viva, no. 13, Jul. 1990

El Croquis, no. 49-50. 1991

Rafael Moneo b. Spain, 1937. Received from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Madrid architecture degree (1961) and doctorate (1963). From 1980-84 was Professor of Composition, again at the ETSAM, and from 1985-90 Chairman of the Department of Architecture, Harvard University. Since 1990, he has returned to private practice in Madrid but retains a professorship at Harvard. Project specifications Bankinter (Madrid, Spain), 1973-76, pp. 78-79

Client: Bankinter.

Design team: Roman Béseos, Francisco Gonzalez Peiro: Oficina Tecnica FOCSA (engineering). Construction firm: FOCSA. Key materials: brick, travertine, olive wood. Museo Nacional de Arte Romano (Merida, Spain), 1980-86, pp. 148-51 Client: Ministry of Culture. Built area: 10,380 m2.

Design team: Nieves Laroche, Juan José Echeverría, Enrique de Teresa, Francisco Gonzalez Peiro. Georges Mylon, Charles Meyer, Stanley Alien, Pedro Feduchi; Jesus Jimenez Canas, Alfonso Garcia Pozuelo (engineering). Construction firm: Cubiertas y M.Z.O.V. S.A.; Manuel Jaén Garcia. Key material: brick. Budget: 450 million pesetas. Bibliography

La obra arquitectónica de Rafael Moneo, 1962-74, Nueva Forma no. 108, Jan. 1975 Moneo, R., 'On typology', Oppositions, no. 13, summer 1978, pp. 23-45

-, Kahn. Padre Común.', Arquitecturas BIS, no. 41-42, Jan./Jun. 1982, pp. 46-50 'II progetto di Rafael Moneo per il Museo Arqueológico di Merida', Lotus International, no. 35, II, 1982, pp. 86-92 'Rafael Moneo', El Croquis, no. 20, Apr. 1985 José Rafael Moneo, Obras y Proyectos. 1981-1986, Monografías de arquitectura contemporánea, no. 1, Madrid (Ed. Idea Diseño), 1986

Oscar Niemeyer Soares Filho b. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1907. His name, he maintains, could 'really have been Oscar de Almeida Soares'. His ancestry is 'predominantly Portuguese: Ribeiro de Almeida on the maternal side and Soares on the father's. Much more distant are the Niemeyers of Hanover.' His education began under Herminia Lyra, in Laranjeiras, in primary school - the only teacher he acknowledges in his curriculum vitae. He graduated from the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in 1934. In 1936 he was a member of the design team for the Ministry of Education and Health under Le Corbusier. His prolific career is marked mainly by his projects in Brasilia between 1957 and 1979. Among his many international awards and honours are: membership of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1949): Medalha do Tra-balho (1959); the Lenin Prize (1963); the Premio Benito Juarez to celebrate the centenary of the Mexican Revolution (1964); Médaille Joliot-Curie (1965); Légion d'Honneur (1970); the Lorenzo il Magnifico Prize of the Accademia Internazionale Medicea

(1980); honorary member of the Academy of Arts of the USSR (1983); the Pritzker Prize (1988); gold medal, awarded by the Colegio de Arquitectos de Barcelona (1990); Cava-liero Comendador da Ordern de Sao Gregorio Magno, granted by Pope John Paul II (1990). Project specifications Communist Party Headquarters (Paris. France). 1965-1980, pp. 106-09 Data unavailable from the architect's firm. Bibliography

Niemeyer, O. Mensia Experiencia em Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro (Civilisaçào Brasiliera), 1960

-, Quase Memorias, tempos de entusiasmo e révolta, Rio de Janeiro (Civilisaçào Brasiliera). 1966

-, A Forma na Arquitetura, Rio de Janeiro

(Avenir), 1978

La maison du Parti Communiste à Paris, Paris (Imprimerie du Lion), 1981 Niemeyer, 0., Oscar Niemeyer, Sào Paolo (Editora Aimed), 1985

-, Como se faz Arquitetura, Rio de Janeiro

(Editora Voces), 1986

Jean Nouvel b. Fumel, France, 1945. Ranked first in the entrance examination to the École des Beaux-Arts, graduated from there in 1971. Is co-founder of the movement of French architects called 'Mars 1976' and co-founder of the Syndicat de l'Architecture. Chevalier de l'Ordre du Mérite and Chevalier des Arts et Lettres (1983). Received the Médaille d'Argent de l'Académie d'Architecture and is a doctor honoris causa of the University of Buenos Aires. Has received the Grand Prix de l'Architecture (1987); a special mention for the Aga Khan Prize (1987); the Équerre d'Argent (1987); and the Architectural Record Prize (1990).

Project specifications Institut du Monde Arabe (Paris, France), 1983-87, pp. 174-77 Architects: Jean Nouvel, Gilbert Lezènes, Pierre Soria, Architecture Studio. Client: Institut du Monde Arabe. Design team: M. Robain, J.F. Galmache, R. Tisnado, J.F. Bonne, J J. Raynaud, A. Robain, A. Rispal, P. Debard, J.L. Besnard. J. le Marquet and F. Seigneur (consultant for scenography -interiors). Fruitet (engineer). ARCORA (structure). P.M. Jacot (serigraphy on the northern facade).

Architect: Jean Nouvel et Associés.

Built area: 10.300 m2.

Design team: J.M. Ibos, Jean-Remy Negre,

Frédéric Chambon, Arnault de Bussière, Anne

Forgia. Polychromy - Sabine Rosant (facades and parking); artists - Daniel Buren, Anne

Fremy, François Seigneur.

Construction firm: UTEAC.

Budget: 36.5 million FF.

Profile: 'Who lives in Némausus? Mostly young people. 80 per cent of the tenants are under

35 years old, the oldest is 51. Many single-

parent households. Unemployed: 20 per cent;

few worker households (3 per cent), more employed (22 per cent), white-collar workers

(31 percent) and 19 percent students. 50 per cent have a junior college degree.'


Powell, N., 'An Institute Built on Arab History', Wall Street Journal, 8 Jan. 1987 Duroy, L.. 'Nîmes, le Quartier Némausus', Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 247, Sept. 1987, pp. 2-10

'Jean Nouvel', A&V, no. 31, 1991 Lucan,J.,'Jean Nouvel', Quaderns, no. 181-82 (undated), pp. 174-81

Antonio Ortiz: see Antonio Cruz Villalon

Ignacio Paricio: see Uuis Clotet leoh Ming Pel b. Canton, China, 1917. Emigrated to the USA, 1935. Received his B. Arch from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1940) and his M. Arch from the Graduate School of Design of Harvard University (1946). Instructor, then Assistant Professor, there from 1945-48. Established his private practice in 1955. Among his many awards are the Arnold Brun-ner Award (1961); the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Medal for Architecture (1976); Gold Medal, the American Institute of Architects (1979); La Grande Médaille d'Or of the Académie d'Architecture, France (1981); the Pritzker Prize (1983); the Medal of Liberty (1986); Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur ( 1988); the National Medal of Art ( 1988); the Praemium Imperiale for lifetime achievement in architecture (Japan, 1989); and the UCLA Medal (1990). Project specifications Grand Louvre (Paris, France), 1981-89, pp. 226-229

Client: Établissement Public du Grand Louvre. Built area: public spaces (total), 17,639 m2; technical space and support, 8801 m2. Design team: project direction - I.M. Pei (partner in charge), Leonard Jacobson, Yann Weymouth, C.C. Pei. New York office - Norman Jackson. Arnaud Puvis de Chavannes, Beatrice Lehman, Chris Rand, Andrezej Gorczynski, Steven Rustow, Masakazu Bokura, Vincent Wormser, Robert Crepet, Claude Lauter, Ion Ghika, Svein Edvardsen, François Boillat, Elizabeth Cordoliani, Caroline Voss, Steven Elmets. Mihai Radu, Roland Nomikossoff, Elizabeth Mahon, Margaret Sobieski, Kristof Pujdak, Rijk Rietveld, Marco Penanhoat. Architectes en charge du Louvre - Georges Duval. Guy Nicot. Consultants - pyramid structure design con cept - Nicolet Chartrand Knoll Ltd.; pyramid construction - Rice Francis Ritchie; fountains -S.E.P.T. and Jacques Labyt; lighting-Claude E. Engle; safety exit grilles prototype - MATRA transport. Technical consultants - SEGELERG (structural); SERETE (mechanical and electrical); SEEE for Dumez (structural). Construction firm: Quillery, Dumez, C.F.E.M. Industries. St. Gobain, NAVTEC, I.C. Entreprise. FORCLUM. Central du Granit et Granitière du Seine, Croiseau, Otis, ERCO, Delattre. Budget: 620 million FF (Cour Napoléon) and 1.1 million FF (Grand Louvre, including partial conversion of Ministry of Finance wing, reconstruction of Cour Carrée, and underground connections to existing Louvre). Key materials: colourless glass, concrete, aluminium, stainless steel, French marble. Technology of interest: cast-in-place reinforced concrete mat with soldier beams and rock-anchor tie-backs. Post-tensioned and normal cast-in-place reinforced concrete with columns and coffered slabs. Stainless steel bar and cable support frame for pyramid. Colourless laminated glass, flush aluminium mullions with organic coat of lead grey colour. Bibliography

Allain-Dupré, E., Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 253, Oct. 1987, pp. 63-69 Weatherhead, Peter, 'Crystal Palace Connection', Building, 8 Apr. 1988, pp. 49-52 Russel, James S., 'There and Not There', Architectural Record, May 1988, pp. 142-49 Vigezzi. Marie-Jeanne, 'Musée du Louvre: un Chantier d'Exception', Cahiers Techniques du Bâtiment, Sept. 1988, pp. 45 ff.

Gustav Pelchl b. Vienna, 1928. Graduated from the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, 1953. Since 1973 has been professor there, and from 1987-88, its rector. Has been awarded the Prize of the City of Vienna (1969); the Grosser österreichischer Staatspreis (1971); the Reynolds Memorial Award (1975); the Steirischer Architekturpreis (1984); the Mies van der Rohe Prize (1986); and the Berliner Architekturpreis (1989). Project specifications ORF-Studio (Graz, Austria), 1978-81, pp. 110-11

Client: ORF-Österr. Rundfunk. Design team: R. Just, R. Weber, P. Nigst, W. Rudolf. Wolfdietrich Ziesel (structure); Architekturbüro Haidvogel-Oratsch-Andree (project management). Bibliography

Davey, P., 'Austrian Nautical', Architectural Review, no. 173, Feb. 1983, pp. 23-28 Scalvini, M.L., 'Medium and Message', Domus, no. 626,1992, pp. 8-13

Dominique Perrault b. Clermont-Ferrand, France. 1953. Gra duated from the Unité Pédagogique 6, Paris, in 1978 and received a certificate of advanced studies in urbanism from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris. 1979. In 1980, he earned a Master's degree in Historical Studies at the École des Hautes Études, Paris. Among his awards and prizes are first prize for 'Architecture et lieu du travail' (1990) and the Équerre d'Argent (1990). Project specifications ÉSIÉÉ, École d'Ingénieurs en Électronique et Électrotechnique (Cité Descartes. Marne-la-Vallée, France), 1985-87, pp. 188-89

Client: Chambre de Commerce et d'Industrie de Paris.

Built area: 25,000 m2.

Design team: B. Ropa, A. Lauriot-Prevost (assistants); F. Jacquiod, Ph. Merle, G.G. Roquelaure, Y. Bour, J. Read, M. Alluin, Ch. Legillon, P.Y. Schultz (collaborators). Engineers - M. Mimram, D. Allaire. J.P. Boitel; BEFS SA. Coordination - Setec-Planitec. Control -Veritas.

Construction firms: Dumez (TP construction). Barbot (roof, metal structure). Chamebel (facades in glass). Weisrock (gymnasium). VSO (roofs). CRSM (flooring). CGEE (electricity). TNEE (heating). Giffard (carpentry). SPR (paint). La Manutention (elevators). Remag (kitchens).

Key materials: polyester panels (Barbot), glazing (Saint-Gobain and Solar-Siv); Alucobond coverings; PVC sheets, Taraflex. Budget: 160,000 FF.

Programme: library, amphitheatres, restaurant, teaching units, administration offices. 350 parking spaces. Bibliography

Chaslin. F., 'L'atmosphère est à la pluie de météores', Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 11, 1987, pp. 77-78

Meede, N., 'Flight of Science', Architects' Journal, 21 Sept. 1988, pp. 43-53 Perrault, D., École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs en Électrotechnique et Électronique, Paris (Demi-Cercle), 1990

Renzo Piano b. Genoa, Italy, 1937, into a builders' family. Graduated from the Politécnico of Milan in 1964, then worked with his father in Genoa. From 1962-64, worked with Franco Albini, from 1965-70 with Louis Kahn and Z.S. Makowsky in London. His collaboration with Richard Rogers dates from 1971, with Peter Rice from 1977. and with Richard Fitzgerald in Houston from 1980. He is now associated in Genoa with Shunjii Ishida and Flavio Maraño, in Paris with Bernard Plattner, in Osaka with Noriaki Okabe. Has been a Visiting Professor at Columbia University, the University of Pennsylvania and the Architectural Association in London. In 1984 was awarded Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres, in 1985 the Légion d'Honneur. In 1981 he was awarded the Compasso d'Oro and an AIA Honorary Fellowship: in 1986. the RIBA Honorary Fellowship in London; and in 1989. the RIBA Gold Medal.

Project specifications

Centre Culturel d'Art Georges Pompidou

(Paris, France), 1971-77. pp. 84-89 Architect: Renzo Piano & Richard Rogers. Client: Centre National d'Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou.

Area built: each of the major floors is 170 m by 48 m by 7 m high. 5 large open-plan floors. Design team: Walter Zbinden with Hans-Peter Bysaeth. Johanna Lohse, Peter Merz, Philippe Dupont. Laurie Smith with Shunjii Ishida, Hir-oshi Naruse, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Eric Holt with Michael Davies, Jan Sircus, Gianfranco Fran-chini, Alan Stanton with Michael Dowd, William Dowd, William Logan, Noriaki Okabe. Rainer Verbizh, Cuno Brullman. Bruno Plattner. Engineers - Ove Arup & Partners with Peter Rice. Lenart Grut, Rob Pierce (structure). Tom Baker. Bernard Legrand, Bryan James (air conditioning), Alain Bigan, Vincent Randozzo (electricity), Daniel Lyonnet (plumbing). Cabinet Trou vin (consultant), Marc Espinoza, Denis Stone (cost control), Frazer Macintosh, Malek Grund-berg, Michael Sargent (transportation), Harry Saridjin (project planning). Construction firm: G.T.M. (Grands Travaux de Marseilles). Main firms - Krupp, Pont & Mousson, Pohlig (structure), CEEM (facades), Otis (lifts and escalators), Voyer (secondary structure), Industrielle de Chauffage (sen/ices), Saunier Duval (services), Alsthom (service equipment), CETEK (fluorescent lighting). Concord (museum lighting systems). Key materials: main cladding of the building is formed from a series of 7-metre-high suspended curtains, each fixed to the edge of the floor above. The curtain consists of external steel lattice mullions and transoms which are designed to accept a wide range of infill materials. Infills include clear single or double glazing, fire-resistant glazing, insulating metal sandwich panels and metal-faced, fire-resistant solid panels.

Technology of interest: the structural concept of the building is that of two principal main structural planes 50 m apart, which support a series of free-span decks between them. Each deck provides an uninterrupted clear space. The flanking structural blades carry all vertical and horizontal circulation, one blade being dedicated to people-movement systems and the other to services support. The foundations are a series of 28 diaphragm wall sections of 12 to 20 m depth, each carrying two vertical loads of 5000 tons compressed and 1000 tons in tension on two column lines. A 13-bay. 6-floor-high superstructure is constructed of 16,000 tons of cast and fabricated steel with reinforced concrete floor sections. The two main structural support planes comprise a series of 800mm-diameter spun steel hollow columns, each of which supports a 10-ton cast rocker beam known as a gerberette. The toe of each gerberette is connected to an outer tension column and its heel supports a 48-metre-span lattice beam. All main joints are pin or free joints, the stability of the building being gained by diagonal bracing in the long facades and by stabilized end frames on the cross-section ends of the building, to which lateral wind loads are transferred by the composite reinforced concrete and fabricated steel floor plates. The 7-metre-wide zone provided by the gerberettes in the main structural framework is occupied on the piazza facade of the building by lifts, horizontal walkways, escape stairs and entrance zones. Suspended from the outer skin of the framework is a 150-metre-long multiple escalator system, climbing diagonally up the facade and serving all levels at a peak rate of over 3000 people per hour.

Budget: the Centre was built in six years, on time and at a budget of $100 million, with an average attendance of approximately 7 million people per year.

Schlumberger Industrial Site (Paris. France), 1981-84, pp. 120-23 Architect: Building Workshop Renzo Piano. Client: Schlumberger Ltd. Built area: 79,000 m2.

Design team: N. Okabe. B. Plattner, M. Dowd. Assistants-A. Alluyn, S. lshiba,T. Hartman, J.F. Schmit, J. Lohse, G. Petit, G. Petit, G. Saint-Jean, Ch. Susstrunk. Engineer - Peter Rice (for the distended structure), assisted by H. Bards-ley. Landscape design - Alexandre Chemetoff, M. Massot, C. Pierdet.

Construction company: GEC, GTM, Albaric, Bateg, Roc, Rontaix.

Technology of interest: skin of the structure -teflon.

S. Nicola Football Stadium (Bari, Italy), 1987-90, pp. 246-47 Architect: Building Workshop Renzo Piano. Client: City of Bari.

Design team: S. Ishida, F. Marano, 0. di Blasi, L. Pellini. Landscape architect - M. Desvigne. Structures - Peter Rice and T. Carfrae of Ove Arup & Partners. Construction firm: Bari 90 s.r.l. Bercy II Shopping Centre (Paris, France), 1987-90, pp. 248-51 Architect: Building Workshop Renzo Piano. Client: G.R.C. Ermin, Jean Renault. Built area: 104,740 m*. Design team: Alain Vincent, associate engineer. Architects - Noriake Okabe (associate), Jean François Blassel (chief architect), Bernard Plattner (associate), with Maria Salerno, Renaud Roland, Susan Dunne, Marie Henry, Nicolas Westphal, Ken McBryde, Anna O'Car-roll, Djenina llloul, Marco Bojovic, Patrick

Senne. Interior - Crighton Design Management. Landscape - Michel Desvigne. Structures - J.L. Sarf. Roofing - Robert Jan van Santen, Peter Rice, A. Lenczner of Ove Arup & Partners. Computer work on the roof - Oth S.I., J. Herman.

Construction firm: Tondela Nord-France, Cos-

Remere, C.M.S., AFfa, Baumert, Ascinter Otis,

Key materials: reinforced and prestressed concrete: wood: PVC and polyurethane; sati-

nized stainless steel tiles.

Programme: a hypermarket, 10 medium-size shops, 120 boutiques, 1 restaurant, 2000

parking units.

Housing, rue de Meaux (Paris, France). 1988-91, pp. 264-67 Architect: Building Workshop Renzo Piano. Client: Les Mutuelles du Mans. Built area: 15.600 m2.

Design team: Bernard Plattner, associate architects, Florence Canal. Ulrike Hautch, Joanna Lhose, Robert Jan van Santen, Jean-François Schmidt, Catherine Clarisse. Tom Hartman. Engineering collaboration - GEC Ingénierie, Paris. Study - Dumez France. Site management - Cabinet Durand. Préfabrication- Betsinor. Terracotta - Woestland. Plumbing and ventilation-Cochet. Electricity-M2 E. Blinds - Le Store Français. Cost: 115,742,230 FF. Key materials: terracotta tiles, fibreglass reinforced concrete. Bibliographies

Centre Culturel d'Art Georges Pompidou

Architectural Design, vol. 47. no. 2, 1977 Schlumberger Industrial Site

Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 233, Jun.

Techniques et Architecture, no. 359, Apr./M ay

1985, pp. 42-53 Baumeister, Jun. 1986, pp. 37-43 S. Nicola Football Stadium

Architects' Journal, vol. 191, no. 23, 6 Jun. 1990, pp. 50-53

Moniteur Architecture AMC, no. 12, Jun. 1990, pp. 32-39

Bercy II Shopping Centre

Techniques et Architecture, no. 386, Oct./Nov.

Architectural Review. no. 1112. Oct. 1989, pp. 70-73

Architecture d'Aujourd'hui, no. 269. Jun.

Arquitectura y Vivienda - Monograph, 199a, no. 23, 1980-90, pp. 52-57 Housing, rue de Meaux

Rail! and Reima Pietila

Raili Pietila: b. 1926. She was educated at the Institute of Technology, Helsinki (1955) and at the Architectural Association in London. Worked at the Atelier Alvar Aalto; has been in private practice with Reima Pietila since 1960.

Reima Pietila: b. Turku, Finland, 1923. He was educated at the Institute of Technology, Helsinki (1953). Has been Professor of Architecture since 1973 and Dean of the Department of Architecture since 1978 at the University of Oulu, Finland. Project specifications Tampere Main Library (Tampere. Finland), 1978-86, pp. 152-55 Client: Tampere City. Area built: 11,230 m2.

Design team: A-lnsinoorit Ky (structural engineer). Inststo Erkki Leskinen (mechanical engineer). M. Nappila Ltd (electrical engineer).

Construction firm: Tampere City. Housing Construction Department.

Key materials: concrete in situ structure with element ribbing and infill areas cast in situ. External walls sheathed in copper with rough-hewn granite base, black felt roofing, wooden window mullions with copper outside. Founda tions - reinforced concrete piling. Expansion joints: the building is divided into 4 expansion joint areas. Basement floors-these are mainly of in situ reinforced concrete. The projecting parts in the main library area are of prestressed concrete. Upper floors - constructed according to conventional construction methods together with some special arch and dome structures. The main hall roof is arched with a ribbed membrane construction of prefabricated arch units and in situ concrete vaulting envelopes. The main foyer hall dome is constructed of small inner circumferential ring beam and a larger circumferential ring beam. Between these two beams are 24 sectors consisting of dome segmental units made of reinforced concrete. The dome is thus framed by the conjunction of two in situ circumferential beams with the prefabricated units between. Roof construction: roofing materials are bitumen felt and copper sheeting. On the flat roofs the insulation is generally of thermal chippings and water-resistant bitumen felt. The arch and other roofing areas are insulated with mineral wool and wind-resistant sheeting. Water insulation is achieved through a normal timber cavity substructure and also copper flashing for various arched sections of roofing and the dome. Exterior walls: interior skin is mainly of reinforced concrete, with a mineral-wool layer for insulation and the elevation material of either natural stone or copper.

Budget: c. 80 million FMK. Site characteristics: a sculptural harmony of exterior shapes and materials with the immediate surrounding park trees and foliage. Programme: main lending and reference library, school lending library, reading rooms, lecture facilities, language laboratory, cafés and kitchen facilities. Natural science museum, exhibition spaces, children's department, hobby rooms, puppet theatre and administrative area. Bibliography

Stevens, Wallace, 'Thirteen ways of looking at a Blackbird', Collected Poems, 1954 Pietilá, R., Intermediate Zones in Modern Architecture, Helsinki (Alvar Aalto Museum), 1985

Connah, R., Writing Architecture: Fantomas Fragments Fiction, Cambridge, MA (MIT Press), 1990

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