Emile Duhart Architecte

Client: Foyer du fonctionnaire et de la famille. Built area: 31,000 m2. Design team: Ramon Collado, Patrick Genard, Peter Hodgkinson, Rogelio Jimenez, José-Maria Rocias, Bernard Torchinsky. Realization team - Ramon Collado, J.M. Dominguez, Hilario Pareja, I. Ducloux.

Construction firm: Bouygues S.A., Clamart. Key materials: precast architectural concrete with white portland.

Technology of interest: in situ casting of architectural concrete. Budget: standard French housing budget -2789 FF perm2.

Site characteristics: flat platform on hilltop. Bibliography

Bofill, Ricardo, L'Architecture d'un homme, Paris (Editions Arthaud), 1978

-, Los Espacios de Abraxas, El palacio, El teatro, El arco, Paris (Editions L'Equerre), 1981

Histoire et Technologie, Paris (Editions L'Equerre), 1981

Holz Kay, J., 'Developing Superscale Housing', The Christian Science Monitor, 2 Sept. 1983, p. 11

Ricardo Bo fi II Taller de Arquitectura, Global Architecture, Tokyo. 1985 Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura: Buildings and Projects 1960-84, New York (Rizzoli International), 1988

Bofill, Ricardo, Espaces d'une vie, Paris (Odile Jacob Editions), 1989

Mario Botta b. Mendrisio. Switzerland, 1943. From the age of 15 to 18, apprenticed as a building draughtsman in the architectural office of Carloni and Camenisch in Lugano. From 1964 to 1969, attended the Istituto Universitario di Architettura in Venice, then, in 1965, did practical work with Le Corbusier in Venice and Paris. Collaborated on setting up the exhibition of Louis Kahn in Venice in 1969, the same year he formed his own architectural practice. Has been Visiting Professor at Vale. In 1986 his work was exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. Project specifications House at Riva San Vitale (Ticino, Switzerland), 1971-73, pp. 64-67 Client: Carlo and Leontina Bianchi. Built area: c. 220 m2. Design team: Sandro Cantoni. Key material: cement blocks. Bibliography

Mario Botta. Architettura e progetti degli anni '70, Milan (Electa), 1979 Frampton, Kenneth, Modern Architecture, A Critical History, London (Thames and Hudson), 1985

Gilles Bouchez b. 1940. Received his architecture degree in 1967. In private practice since 1970. Project specifications Social Housing on the Boulevard Vincent Auriol (Paris, France), 1987-90, pp. 242-43 Client: Société de Gérance d'Immeubles Municipaux; Assistance Publique (City of Paris). Built area: 17,100 m2. Design team: Marcio Uehara. Construction company: Revert S.A. Metal work: SOMEAL.

Key materials: concrete structure poured on site, facades of panels of polished concrete and aluminium.

Technology of interest: polished concrete and aluminium panels. Cost: 720 million FF.

Site characteristics: located between the back of the Salpêtrière Hospital and the Métro Aérien in the 13th arrondissement. Blbliography

Lamarre. F. Boogey Woogey urbain', Revue d'Architectures, no. 10. Nov. 1990. pp. 12-13 Edelman, F., 'La ville laboratoire', Le Monde, 30 Apr. 1991. p. 19

Neave Brown b. Utica, New York, 1929. Graduated from the Architectural Association in London (1956). From 1965-78 Senior Architect for the London Borough of Camden, during which time the Alexandra Road housing scheme was built. Since 1986 has been in private practice with David Porter. Project specifications Alexandra Road Housing (London. Eng land). 1968-78, pp. 96-99 Client: London Borough of Camden. Built area: unmeasured. Includes 520 dwell ings, school for handicapped children, public park, community centre, building department depot, shops, youth club, play centre, supplementary car park.

Design team: Gordon Benson, Lynn Cohen, Alan Forsythe, Graeme Frost, Geoff Griffiths, Ophir Kölker, David Toppin. David Webb, Julian Feary (architects); Anthony Hunt Associates (structural engineers); Max Fordham and Partners (services engineers); Monk & Dunc-tone, Mahon and Sceers (quantity surveyors); Janet Jack (landscape). Construction company: Thomas Mclnerny & Sons Ltd.

Key materials: white in situ reinforced concrete, cast in rough sawn-timber faced steel shutters. Special secondary elements - steel balustrades, door frames, etc., and prefabricated plywood stairs.

Technology of interest: integral wall heating, noise and vibration reduction from adjoining mainline railway. Special foundations - deep-sleeved piles, trough-ground beams, anti-vib-ration steel interleaved bearing pads, precast concrete starter beams. Budget: £20 million.

Site characteristics: low-lying old riverbed site - many layers of unreliable clay - including Victorian main sewer crossing site. Adjoining mainline railway - 95-100 dba frequent. Programmatic aims: integration of high-density social housing, and public buildings, into existing fabric, with regard for physical, social and cultural continuity. At 220 persons per acre, this is the highest (allowable) urban density scheme in London (except for one special Thames-side scheme in Chelsea). The plan' anticipated high-rise apartments. It was the architect's intention to produce a street. Bibliography

Brown, Neave, 'Housing, Alexandra Road, London NW8', Architectural Design, no. 39,1969 Maxwell, Robert, 'Housing, School and

Community Centre, Alexandra Road', Architectural Review, no. 166, 1979 Brown, Neave, 'A general article on my work in housing', A+U, Nov. 1980

Santiago Calatrava Vails b. Valencia, Spain, 1951. From 1959-60 attended evening courses at the local School for Arts and Crafts, then Art School in the same city. In 1979, received his degree in civil engineering at the ETH, Zürich, and in 1981 his doctorate in the Department of Architecture. After teaching at the same institution, opened his private practice in 1981 in Zürich. Among his awards are the Auguste Perret UIA Prize (1987); the Art Prize of the City of Barcelona (1988); the Fritz Schumacher Prize (1988); Fazlur Rahman Khan International Fellowship for Architecture in Engineering (1988); the Médaille d'Argent de la Recherche et de la Technique (1990); and the European Holzleimbau-Preis (1991). Project specifications Stadelhofen Railway Station (Zürich. Switzerland). 1985-90, pp. 254-57 Client: Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB). Area built: 10,000 m2. Design team: Arnold Amsler, Werner Rueger. Construction company: Fietz & Leuthold AG, ARGE Stahl ( Schneider AG, Geilinger AG. Meta-bau AG. Tobler + Co., ZWA). Key materials: concrete, steel, glass, granite. Budget: 50 million SF. Site characteristics: urban. TGV Railway Station of Lyon-Satolas ( Lyon. France), 1989-92, pp. 284-85 Client: Région-Rhône Alpes, SNCF. Design team: Hans-Pieter Mueller, J.C. Grosso. Chris Bartz, Nandy Gurprasad, Victor Rentes. Sebastien Memet, Frank Lorind. Construction company: Entreprise Industrielle. Key materials: concrete, steel, glass. Budget: 500 million FF. Site characteristics: generally flat terrain, existing airport & related buildings. Bibliography

Archithèse, no. 2, 1990 (monograph on Calatrava, Stadelhofen)

El Croquis, no. 20, 1990 (monograph on Calatrava)

Blaser, W. (ed.), Santiago Calatrava, Basel (Birkhauser), 1990

Harbison, R., Creatures from the Mind of the Engineer. The Architecture of Santiago Calatrava, Zürich (Artemis), 1992

Philippe Ctialx and Jean Paul Morel

Chaix and Morel were born in 1949 and have been associated since 1983.

Project specifications

Zenith of Montpellier (Montpellier, France),

Client: City of Montpellier.

Area built: 7400 m2.

Design team: Remy van Nieuwenhove.

ARCORA (structure).

Construction firm: SITRABA.

Budget: 48,626,000 FF.

Bibliography

Concert, Le Zenith, Milan (Motta), 1988

Paul Chemetov and Borja Huidobro

Chemetov: b. Paris, France. 1928. Studied at the ÉcolëNationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts with Lurçat, Vivien, Lagneau and Gillet. Graduated in 1959. Between 1968-72, Professor at the Architecture School of Strasbourg; from 1977-89, Professor at the École des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris. Since 1973, has been associated with Borja Huidobro. He is Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur, Chevalier de l'Ordre du Mérite and Officier des Arts et des Lettres.

Huidobro: b. Santiago, Chile, 1936. Studied architecture at the Catholic University in Santiago. In 1970-71, he was Professor at the Architecture Faculty of the University of Havana, Cuba. In 1983, became the associate of Paul Chemetov. He is Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur and Chevalier des Arts et Lettres. Project specifications Ministry of Economy, Finance and Budget (Paris, France) 1982-90, pp. 244-45 Client: French Ministry of Economics. Area built: 225,000 m2. Design team: Emile Duhart-Harosteguy, Yves Lietara, Roberto Benavente, Herve Chanson, Gerard Chauvelin, Louison Gorgiard, Jean-Pierre Degraef, Jean Chantalat (architects). Alexandre Chemetoff, with assistant Catherine Pierlet (landscaping); Marc Mimram, Sam Baruch, Pierre Diaz Pedregal, Jean Pierre Bar-ille (engineers); Andrée Putman (interior design for ministers' offices). Construction firm: SERETE. Mechanical engineers: SETEC (electricity), SGTE (Fluides), Sechaud et Bossuyt (structure), Technip SERI Construction. Key materials: stone, polished concrete slabs, curtain wall.

Budget: 1.845 million FF. Bibliography

Chemetov, P., 'Big is beautiful', Techniques et Architecture', no. 351, Dec. 1983-84

Lluis Clotet and Ignacio Pariclo

Clotet: b. Barcelona, Spain, 1941. Received his degree in architecture from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona (1965), where he was Professor of Drawing between 1977 and 1984. In 1964 founded Studio PER with Pep Bonet, Cristian Cirici and Oscar Tusquets, which was dissolved in 1983. He collaborated in the 15th Milan Triennale (1973); 'Transformations in Modern Architecture' at the Museum of Modern Art, New York (1979); the Venice Biennale (1980); 'Lluis Clotet* in Frankfurt (1986); and 'Contempor ary Spanish Architecture' at the Architecture League of New York (1986). Since 1983, he has been working in association with Ignacio Paricio.

Paricio: architecture degree from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura de Barcelona (1969). Chair of Construction since 1981. Has been an editor at Editorial Gustavo Gili since 1980. In 1981 won the FAD prize for the best restoration project of the year (for his work on Gaudí's Park Guell). Since 1983, has been associated with Lluis Clotet. (See a/so Oscar Tusquets.) Project specifications Belvedere Georgina (Gerona, Spain), 1972, pp. 54-55

Architectural firm: Studio Arquitectos PER (Clotet & Tusquets). Client: Regas family.

Banco de España Headquarters (Gerona, Spain), 1982-85, pp. 132-33 Architectural firm: Clotet, Paricio & Assoc., S.A. Client: Banco de España. Area built: 1100 m2.

Design team: Joan Sabate (associate architect); Jesus Jimenez. Alfonso Garcia (engineers); Maribel Correa, Edgardo Manino, Dolors Andreu, Angel Orbananos, Jordi Ruiz, Pilar Cárceles (architects). Construction firm: AGROMAN. Key material: structural brickwork. Technology of interest: combination of traditional craftsmanship and modern techniques. Brick arches with stainless steel skeleton.

Budget: 712 million pesetas. Bibliographies Belvedere Georgina

'Introducir una vivienda funcional en un Belvedere Palladino', Domus, Milan, no. 522. 1973

El Croquis, no. 23 (undated) Banco de España Headquarters

'Clotet-Paricio & Assoc., S.A.', Documentos de Arquitectura, no. 13. Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Andalucía Oriental

Coop Himmelblau

Coop Himmelblau is the name of the office established in 1968 by Wolf Prix (b. Vienna, 1942) and Helmut Swiczinsky (b. Poznan, Poland, 1944). They have been working on a series of study and building projects in architecture, design and fine arts. They established a second office in Los Angeles in 1988. In spring 1990. Wolf Prix became Professor of the Master Class of Architecture at the Akademie für Angewandte Kunst. Vienna. Their work has been shown on many occasions, including 'The Dissipation of Our Bodies in the City' exhibition at the Storefront Galerie in New York (1988); 'Deconstructivist Architecture' at the Museum of Modern Art. New York (1988); and 'Architect's Art' at the Gallery of Functional Art,

Los Angeles (1990). Among their awards are the Berliner Forderungenspreis für Baukunst (1982); the Bauherrenpreis der Zentralvereinigung des Architekten Österreichs (1985); the City of Vienna Prize for Architecture (1988); the Progressive Architecture Award (1989, 1990). Project specifications Rooftop Remodelling (Vienna, Austria), 1983-89, pp. 220-23 Client: Dr Walter Schuppich, Dr Werner Sporn, Dr Michael Winischhofer, Dr Martin Schuppich, Lawyers.

Built area: 400 m2.

Design team: Dieter Helml, Max Pauly, Markus Pillhofer, Franz Sam, Michael Spies, Sepp Weichenberger.

Construction firm: Metallbau Treiber, Fa. Uniprojekt/Innenbau GesmbH, Fa. Baumann-Glas.

Key material: glass.

Technology of interest: a delicate system of reinforced concrete and steel is arranged to allow the distribution of structural loads into the existing building, while circumventing the transfer of concentrated vertical and lateral loads into the unreinforced main brick walls between the chimneys. The main truss forms the visual and structural spine of the construction. The spatially slanted and laterally supported prestressed 'Gerber cantilever' truss transgresses the existing roof lines and encloses the conference room by spanning the rooftop. The side trusses define and differentiate the glazed canopy spatially and structurally. Structural glazing of clear thermal glass is spatially curved to form the main glass plane. Louvred blinds control sunlight, and folding and sliding windows regulate ventilation.

Additional statement: (poem by Coop Himmelblau. 1989)

When we speak of ships, others think of ship wreckage. We, however, think of wind-inflated white sails.

When we speak of eagles, the others think of a bird.

We, however, are talking about the wing span.

When we speak of black panthers, the others think of predatory animals. We, however, think of the untamed dangerousness of architecture.

When we speak of leaping whales. Others think of saurians. We. however, think of 30 tons of flying weight. We won 7 find architecture in an encyclopedia. Our architecture can be found where thoughts move faster than hands to grasp it.

Bibliography

Wigley, M., Deconstructivist Architecture, New York (Museum of Modern Art), 1988

Antonio Cruz Villaion and Antonio Ortiz Garcia b. Seville, Spain, in 1948 and 1947 respectively. They graduated from the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Madrid in 1971 and 1974. Among their awards are the National Prize for Urba-nism (1981) and the Architectural Prize awarded by the City Hall of Madrid (1989). They have been Professors of Design at the Escuela Tecnica Superior de Sevilla (1974-75), and Visiting Professors at the Polytechnic School in Zürich (1987-89) and the Graduate School of Design at Harvard (1989-90). Project specifications Housing Block on Dona Maria Coronet Street (Seville, Spain), 1974-76, pp. 82-83 Area built: 1765 m2. Key material: brick. Budget: 14,027,000 pesetas. Bibliography

Quaderns, Barcelona, no. 160, Jan./Feb./ Mar. 1984

Lefaivre, L., and A. Tzonis, 'El regionalismo critico y la arquitectura espanola actual', A&V, Madrid, no. 3, 1985, pp. 4-19 El Croquis, Madrid, no. 24. Apr. 1986

Giancarlo De Carlo b. Genoa, Italy, 1919. Studied at the Politécnico of Milan and the Istituto Universitario d'Architettura in Venice, then established himself as an architect in Milan in 1950. Appointed Professor of Town Planning at the Architectural School in Venice in 1955. A member of CIAM from 1952 to 1960, then of Team X from its inception. His first important and most influential commission, which went on to become prototypical of inserting new buildings into a traditional urban fabric, was the Students' Residence in Urbino (1962-66). From 1970 to 1983 he was Professor at the University of Venice and since 1983, Professor at the Architecture School in Genoa. He has been Visiting Professor at Yale, MIT, Cornell and the University of California at Berkeley. Founded the Laboratorio Internazio-nale di Architettura e Urbanística (ILAUD) in 1976 and has been its director since. Also director of the architectural review Spazio e Societá ('Space and Society'). Among his honours and awards: Cittadino Onorario della Cittá di Urbino; the Wolf Prize (1988); the Fritz Schumacher Prize (1990). Project specifications Mazzorbo Housing Project (Venice. Italy), 1980-85, pp. 198-201 Client: Istituto Autonomo delle Case Popolare della Provincia di Venezia. Built area: 2600 m2.

Design team: Alberto Cecchetto, Daniele Pini. Connie Occhialini, Paolo Marotto, Renato Trotta.

Programme: 36 housing units.

Bibliography

De Carlo, G. Tra Acqua e Aria, Genoa (Sagep), 1989

Lluis Domenech: see Roser Amado

Raymond Erith: seeQuinlan Terry

Ralph Ersklne b. London, 1914; moved to Sweden in 1939. Educated at the Friends School. Saffron Waiden. Essex, 1920-32, and at the Regent Street Polytechnic, 1932-37. Since 1936 has been in private practice in Sweden. Has been a guest professor at the Polytechnic of Zürich (1964-65) and at McGill University. Montreal (1967-8). He has won many prizes, including the award of the Union International des Architectes (1980); Litteris et Artibus Royal Gold Medal. Sweden (1980); Gold Medal, Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (1982); Wolf Foundation Prize, Israel (1984); the Fritz Schumacher Medal (1984); and the Prince of Wales Prize (1988). Project specifications Byker Wall (Newcastle upon Tyne, England), 1968-74, pp. 68-71

Client: Newcastle upon Tyne Metropolitan District Council Housing Committee. Built area: (a) Pilot scheme - total area of buildings, including dwellings, public and private circulation areas, calorifer station etc., 3500 ma; 20 car parking spaces, (b) Perimeter block, phase 1 - total area of buildings, including dwellings, public circulation areas, public and landlords' stores, etc., 13,850 m'; 244 car parking spaces, (c) Grace Street. Perimeter block - total area of buildings including dwellings, public and private circulation areas, including storage, etc., 8123 ma. Tail block, 2027 m2. Car parking spaces for both blocks -196. (d) Kendal Street. Low-rise and link blocks - total area of buildings, including dwellings, public and private circulation areas, 15,829 m2. (e) Grace Street low-rise/Gordon Road, 16,640 m2. Design team: Vernon Gracie, Bengt Ahlquist, Mike Drage, Bettan Gateson. Por Gustafsson, Per Helderus, Dave Hill, Ken McKay, Arne Nilsson, Tony Smith, Roger Tillison. Consultants: Gardiner & Theobald (quantity surveyors); White-Young & Partners (structural and civil engineers); National Industrial Fuel Efficiency Services (service engineers). Key materials and special techniques of construction: structure. (1) ln-situ concrete cross-wall - perimeter block (stage 1), Grace Street (perimeter block). Perimeter block - concrete strip foundations to each cross-wall with ground beams to support external walls. Precast cantilever brackets cast into cross-walls. Steel shuttering and tabling system used and rapid-hardening cement. Grace Street 3 storey perimeter block - in-situ concrete cross-

walls with precast wide slab floor units. Precast cantilevers for balconies and access decks built into cross-walls. (2) Block work cross-wall with precast concrete flooring units - Kendal Street and Grace Street (low-rise) link blocks. Kendal Street and Grace Street (low-rise) link blocks - cross-walls in high-density thermalite blocks with party floors in precast flooring units. Floors within maisonettes of timber construction. Precast cantilevers for balconies and access decks built into cross-walls. (3) Low-rise housing - standard timber frame.

Budget: total, £197,688 (as fixed tender, July 1970).

Site characteristics: 1 mile east of the centre of Newcastle, with view of the Tyne valley. Bibliography

Architectural Review, no. 155, 1974. pp. 346-62

Aldo van Eyck b. Driebergen, the Netherlands, 1918. Received his architectural education at the ETH, Zûrich, graduating in 1942. Opened his practice in 1952. Was associated with Theo Bosch (1971-82) and (since 1983) Hannie van Eyck. Was Professor at the Technological University at Delft from 1967-84, and Paul Philippe Cret Professor of Architecure at the University of Pennsylvania from 1978-83. Was co-editor of the Dutch architectural periodical Forum (1959-63) and a member of Team X since 1953 and De 8 en Opbouw. Represented Holland at the CIAM (Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne) from 1947. Among his many awards and prizes is the RIBA's Royal Gold Medal for Architecture (1989).

Project specifications

Hubertus (Amsterdam, Holland). 1982-87, pp. 196-97

Architect: Aldo van Eyck. Area built: 1704 m2. Budget: 3,202,850 DFL. ESTEC, European Space Research and Technology Centre (Noordwijk, Holland), 1986-89, pp. 230-33 Architects: Aldo and Hannie van Eyck. Client: European Space Research and Technology Centre. Area built: 5000 m2. Construction firm: De Nijs. Key materials: exterior facades and window frames - untreated iroko, narrow coloured glass panes in spandrils. Semicircular spaces around the perimeter - overlapping waterproof panelling painted light grey with, along with the overlap, vertical coloured lines in spectral sequence. Sills and base elements all around -precast concrete. Roofs - PVC. Trimmings -copper. Interior - steel structure painted in rainbow sequence. All partitions and ceilings -Oregon pine plywood self-colour. Floor - burl ington black with mosaic inlay in two blues and carpet in same shade.

Budget: 12.1 million DFL.

Programme: large conference room for 180

people, small meeting room for future video-

conferences, staff restaurant for 550 people,

3 dedicated lunch corners with a capacity of

20 people each for working lunches, large technical documentation centre (570 m2).

Bibliographies

Hubertus

Eyck, A. van, Hubertushuis, Amsterdam (Van Loghum Staterus), 1982 ESTEC, European Space Research and Technology Centre

Lefaivre, L., and A. Tzonis, 'Dragon in the Dunes', A +U, no. 247, Apr. 1991, pp. 70-74

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