Hydroponics Simple System
A 1.7-square-kilometre (0.6-square-mile) 'arable kitchen-garden park' for the Copenhagen Port Authority espousing sustainable farming principles on a former industrial and ship-docking yard. More than 80 per cent of the ground is dedicated to vegetable farming, interspersed with grazing fields. Compact car-free suburb clusters are stitched together by an elevated ribbon of lawn draped with hydroponic curtains. Urban agriculture is not a new phenomenon its popularity and adoption has waxed and waned over the millennia, from the recycling of urban wastes and tunnel irrigation networks in ancient Persia for agriculture, to the stepped cities and farming terraces of Machu Picchu that can be considered as a precursor to hydroponics. Proposed intervention sites vary considerably in scale and context. Within dense urban areas, roof tops, windowsills, balconies and walls can be appropriated for the growth of edible crops, evoking the spirit of the Second World War victory garden when America...
3 With a conventional sprinkler system, the main objective is to apply water at a rate that the soil can accept, without causing runoff. Station timing can be adjusted according to the percolation rate of the soil and the precipitation rate of the sprinkler. With drip irrigation systems, it is important to determine the extent of the root zone to be irrigated and then to design the area of wetness to envelop that zone.
From dirty diapers and other laundry. It can be treated and recycled for uses like toilet flushing and filtered drip irrigation. Dark graywater comes from washing machines with dirty diaper loads, kitchen sinks, and dishwashers, and is usually prohibited by codes from being reused. If graywater contains kitchen wastes, grease and food solids are a problem. Currently, few communities allow the reuse of graywater and those that do tend to restrict its use to underground landscape irrigation for single-family houses. New York-based architect William McDonough has used gray and blackwater in designs for Eurosud-Calvission, a software research and development facility in southern France.
Rainwater stored in the cisterns to be tied into a recycling system for water in the house and fed into a drip irrigation system for the garden and terraces. Solar and thermal panels on the roof provide 80 percent of the hot water for the house with a boiler as backup. Cutting-edge lighting and audio control systems in the house further cut down energy consumption. Other sustainability features include spray-form insulation, whole-house fans, a radiant floor heating system, reused lumber, recycled glass countertops, energy-saving lighting, and a living roof as natural insulation.
Emitter In drip irrigation, a small device placed on a low-pressure pipe that allows water to be provided only in small droplet amounts, usually measured in gallons per hour or liters per hour instead of per minute as with sprinkler irrigation. (Compare with orifice emitter, turbulent flow emitter, pressure compensating emitter, vortex emitter, lami-narflow emitter, continuous flushing emitter.)
Drip irrigation Water distributed to plants slowly, usually at low pressure, through small emitters. Its possible virtues include decreased loss of water to wind, runoff, or evaporation a high uniformity of water distribution per plant usefulness in difficult terrain or where spray on adjacent areas or structures is undesirable increased leaching of salts as it keeps soil moist and in some plants, an improvement in growth and quality. The drawbacks of drip irrigation include difficulty of maintenance as emitters are not easily observed to check operation plants are not washed off the soft tubing is easily damaged by rodents, dogs, or excessive weight placed over it the tubing at or near the surface is easily displaced or vandalized filtering is necessary to prevent or reduce clogging and there is a possibility of salt buildup at the edge of the wetted area. drip line 1. A line drawn around a tree at the edge of the outermost ends of its branches. The line at the outside edge of a...
Polyethylene A low-cost, flexible plastic. In landscape work, it is most often useful in two forms. It is made into a somewhat bendable pipe, sheets, or rolls of plastic. As a pipe, it is useful because it generally does not break when frozen with water inside. As a sheet membrane, it is useful because it is waterproof. It has been used to line ponds, assist in roofing, and as a weed barrier. The difficulty of using it as a weed barrier is that it also is a barrier to gaseous exchange and water penetration. If it is watered by drip irrigation beneath the plastic it often develops anaerobic conditions detrimental to plant growth.
Laminar flow emitter In drip irrigation, an emitter that regulates water flow (usually into droplets) having a small narrow path, causing loss of pressure due to friction as water travels the path. Examples of laminar flow emitters are spiral paths, capillary tubes, and microtubes. Elevation differences, friction loss in pipe distribution, small particles that plug the small laminar flow tubes, and temperature differences (changing water viscosity and flow) can affect the output of these emitters. Used with proper application, they can be reliable, and are inexpensive. See also emitter.
In drip irrigation, it is important to determine the amount of water that each plant will use and then to select the number and flow sizes of the emitters that will apply the water within a specified period of time. An important rule of thumb regarding drip irrigation design is to always design water applications so that at least 50 percent of the plant root zone will be wet.
The percolation rate is an important characteristic influencing the design of conventional irrigation systems, and capillary action becomes important when lateral movement of water Is required as in drip systems and furrow flooding). In drip irrigation. the area of soil wetness Is commonly referred to as the onion since a soil profile In a loam soil will produce a wet area shaped like an onion. A sandy soil will produce a shape similar to a carrot.
Since clogging is sometimes a problem with drip irrigation systems, special attention should be given to filtration design. When the water source for an irrigation system is potable or otherwise clean and free of visible particulates, screen filters are usually adequate to protect the system from any pipe breaks upstream. Exceptions occur in some areas when diatomaceous skeletal remains occur in the form of a slime during certain seasons (usually late summer and fall).
The structure was timber frame and insulated with wood wool. An integral attached semicircular south-facing greenhouse was used to live in, grow food, collect rain and act as a heat source. It incorporated hydroponic beds and a fishpond fertilised with effluent from a methane digester. Warm, oxygenated air from the greenhouse could be vented to the
In order to raise humidity, plants require light for photosynthesis. Simple models to quantify the cooling and humidification attributes of plants are available. Among a number of interesting considerations is the comparison of temperatures on man-made and vegetative roofs and wall finishes. Work by Wood identified the ability of some plants to remove n-hexane and benzene from the indoor air. However, plants can also harbour insects, pests and insecticides, and fertilisers, if used, can also be a health risk. Hydroponic conditions highlighted a close relationship between
Pressure-compensating emitter or flexible diaphragm emitter In drip irrigation, an emitter that is able to keep the emission of water fairly constant with variations in pressure within pipe supply lengths. This is accomplished by deformation of an elastomeric disc, diaphragm, or water passage. The drawback to these devices is that elastomeric materials have a tendency to absorb water, lose their elasticity, or creep under prolonged stress, which will change the performance of the emitter over time. See also emitter. A valve that reduces pressure in a system, often adjustable to a range of pressure. They are used where pressure ranges for equipment (valves, heads) is excessive for proper operation, and on most drip irrigation systems.
The following procedure can be used to design and lay out drip irrigation systems for small commercial and residential projects. This procedure and the guidelines listed below are based upon the warmest part of the season, with irrigation occurring every day. Depending on the soil conditions, the exposure, and seasonal change, the frequency of irrigation may have to be altered. Figure 750-24 provides a simplified means to design a drip irrigation system. Table 750-9 provides the duration of drip irrigation (in minutes) for plants growing In containers. Table 750-10 provides information on the frequency of watering required for plants growing In containers.
This is an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide to growing organic, healthy vegetable, herbs and house plants without soil. Clearly illustrated with black and white line drawings, the book covers every aspect of home hydroponic gardening.