1 Hell / Dante Alighieri, ed. Steve Ellis (London, 1994).

2 Peter Buchanan, 'Reviving Lingotto', Architectural Review, CC/11 (1996), pp. 62-7. 1 Factory as Image

1 Francis Spufford, I May be Some Time (London, 1996), p. 40. Thomas Carlyle, who knew Manchester in the 1830s from his study of Chartism, chose a very similar metaphor when he compared the sound of the pounding mill machinery to 'the boom of an Atlantic tide . . . sublime as a Niagara, or more so'.

2 The others had been for John Wilkinson's Coalbrookdale forge and for Coates's and Jarrett's oil mill in Kingston upon Hull. John Mosse, 'The Albion Mills 1784-1791', Transactions of the Newcomen Society, XL (1967-8), pp. 47-54.

3 Ibid.

4 Robert Barker's and Frederick Birnie's panorama of London from the south bank of the Thames was drawn in the winter of 1790-91 from the roof of the Albion Mill. Thomas Girtin's version, of 1797-8, was taken from the west side of Albion Place and therefore showed the gaunt skeleton of the mill in the foreground. Panoramania!, exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery, London (1988).

5 Adrian Forty, Words and Buildings: A Vocabulary of Modern Architecture (London, 2000), pp. 188-92.

6 Stephen Daniels, Humphry Repton (New Haven and London, 1999), pp. 247-50.

7 R. Offor, The Papers of Benjamin Gott (1931), p. 182.

8 'The Gott Papers', Thoresby Society, XXXII [Leeds] (1931), p. 241.

9 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, The English Journey, ed. D. Bindman and G. Riemann (New Haven and London, 1993), p. 4.

10 Ibid., p. 208, note 546. See also Adriaan Linters, Industria: Industrial Architecture in Belgium (Liège, 1986).

11 Arnold Bennett describes the processes within a 'model three-oven bank' at a small pottery employing around 100 workers in his novel Anna of the Five Towns (1902).

12 Essay by Hans-Ulrich Kilian in Kurt Ackermann, Building for Industry (Godalming, 1991), pp. 30-31.

13 John Evelyn was concerned by the smoke levels of seventeenth-century London, and wrote Fumifugium (1661) to argue his case, which was supported by King Charles II. It is still in print, reissued by the National Society for Clean Air.

14 Jenny Uglow, Elizabeth Gaskell (London, 1993).

15 Anthony Beever, Stalingrad (London, 1998), pp. 393-4, quoting Alexander Werth. The major, but inconclusive, attack on the Tractor Factory was undertaken between 9 and 12 October 1942.

2 Factory as Model: Early Versions

1 Thomas Markus, Buildings & Power (London, 1993), p. 250.

2 Arthur Young, Travels in France during the Years 1787, 1788 & 1789, ed. Constantia Maxwell (Cambridge, 1929), p. 199. Wilkinson's brother John sat at an iron desk and planned to be buried in a cast-iron coffin.

3 Bernard Clement, 'Le Creusot: From Foundry to Town', Rassegna, XIX, 70 - 1997/ II (Company Towns issue).

4 Anthony Vidler, Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1990), p. 75. See also my Chapter 3.

5 Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, L'Architecture considerée sous le rapport de l'art, des moeurs et de la législation (1804).

6 James Nasmyth, Autobiography, ed. Samuel Smiles (1883), is quoted as having 'rarely seen a more faithful and zealous set of workmen'.

7 Simon Sebag Montefiore, The Life of Potemkin (London, 2000), p. 301.

8 Ian Christie, The Benthams in Russia, 1780-1791 (Oxford, 1993), pp. 177-8.

9 For two accounts of Samuel Bentham's efforts, see Mechanics Magazine (13 March 1849), pp. 294-9, and Civil Engineer and Architects Journal, XIV (1853), p. 453.

10 Sidney Pollard, The Genesis of Modern Management (London, 1965).

11 Ian Donnachie and George Hewitt, Historic New Lanark (Edinburgh, 1993).

12 Gregory Claeys, ed., Selected Works of Robert Owen, vol. I (London, 1993).

13 Gillian Darley, Villages of Vision (London, 1975), p. 81.

14 Southey speculated that Owen had been influenced by Moravian settlements. The community had established Fairfield, at Droylsden outside Manchester, as a self-sufficient village in 1785, and Owen, like Dale, must have known of the progressive, if religious, experiment.

15 Dolores Hayden, Seven Communitarian Experiments (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1976); also Gillian Darley, 'The Moravians: Building for a Higher Purpose', Architectural Review, CLXXVII (April 1985), pp. 45-9.

16 Thomas Bender, Towards an Urban Vision (Baltimore and London, 1975), p. 23.

17 Bender, Towards an Urban Vision, p. 28.

18 Anthony Trollope, North America (London, 1986), I, p. 254.

19 Spiro Kostoff, The City Shaped (London, 1991), p. 169.

20 Markus, Buildings & Power, p. 299, quoting from Godin's publication of 1871.

22 Polly Toynbee's A Working Life (London, 1971) recounts her harsh experiences there. In Hard Work (London, 2003) she returns to find a smaller workforce and improved conditions.

3 Modern Models

1 Robert Beevers, The Garden City Utopia: A Critical Biography ofEbenezer Howard (New York, 1988), pp. 7-8, quoting Howard's words in the mid-1920s.

2 Mervyn Miller, Letchworth: The First Garden City (Chichester, 1989), p. 145.

3 Nikolaus Pevsner and Edward Hubbard, Buildings of England: South Lancashire (London, 1969), p. 405: 'The area is very large; the architecture, however, calls for no comments . . .'. Although Trafford Park is generally credited with being the world's first industrial estate, the Scottish Co-operative Workers' Society set one up at Shieldhall in 1887. See Michael Stratton and Barrie Trinder, Twentieth Century Industrial Archaeology (London, 2000).

4 Carroll Pursell, The Machine in America (Baltimore and London, 1995), pp. 210-13; also by the same author, White Heat (London, 1994), especially chap. 4.

5 Pursell, White Heat, p. 115.

6 Jean-Louis Cohen, Scenes of the World to Come: European Architecture and the American Challenge, 1893-1960, exh. cat., Canadian Centre for Architecture, Montreal (1995), p. 80.

7 Andrew Saint, Image of the Architect (New Haven and London, 1983), p. 80, note.

8 Brian Carter, ed., Albert Kahn: Inspiration for the Modern, exh. cat., University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor (2001), pp. 48-9.

9 Jean-Louis Cohen, 'Zlin: An Industrial Republic', Rassegna, XIX, 70 - 1997/ II (Company Towns issue), pp. 42-5. Also Jane Pavitt, 'The Bata Project: A Social and Industrial Experiment', Journal of the Twentieth Century Society, I: Industrial Architecture (Summer 1994), chap. 9.

11 Thomas Bata, How I Began (East Tilbury, 1934).

12 See Zlin, exhibition catalogue, Le Creusot Montceau (2002), pp. 70-77

13 Pavitt, 'The Bata Project'.

14 Jolyon Drury and Derek Sugden, 'Briefing: Factories', Architectural Design, XLIX/2 (1974), pp. 92-4.

15 Victoria Perry, Built for a Better Future: The Brynmawr Rubber Factory (Oxford, 1994); see p. 11, foreword by Andrew Saint.

16 Perry, Built for a Better Future, pp. 29-30.

17 Ironically enough, the towers, although ruined and periodically threatened with demolition, have outlived the Brynmawr factory.

18 Perry, Built for a Better Future, p. 56.

19 Elain Harwood, '"Prestige Pancakes": The Influence of American Planning in British Industry since the War', Journal of the Twentieth Century Society, I: Industrial Architecture (Summer 1994), chap. 4.

20 Leland Roth, American Architecture (Boulder, CO, 2000), pp. 543-5; see also Balthazar Korab, Columbus, Indiana (Kalamazoo, MI, 1989).

21 The Darlington plant was for sale and sadly run down by 1998; see Architectural Review, CCIV (November 1998), p. 18. See also Elain Harwood, England: A Guide to Post-war Listed Buildings (London, 2000), no. 1.84.

22 Deyan Sudjic, 'Six Factories, One Design, No Dogma', Design, 387 (March 1981), pp. 54-5.

23 Martin Pawley, Terminal Architecture (London, 1998), p. 184.

4 Factory as Innovator

1 Cited in P. Morton Shand, 'Iron and Steel', Architectural Review, LXXII (November 1932), p. 169.

2 Cited in Markus, Buildings & Power, p. 263.

3 Markus, Buildings & Power.

4 Etruria was designed by Joseph Pickford, a local architect working to a detailed brief and plan provided by Wedgwood and his business partner Thomas Bentley. See Wedgwood of Etruria and Barlaston, exh. cat., City Museum and Art Gallery, Hanley (1980).

5 Pollard, Genesis of Modern Management, p. 304.

6 R.J.M. Sutherland, ed., Structural Iron, 1750-1850, Studies in the History of Civil Engineering, IX (Aldershot, 1997), especially chap. 2.

7 Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men: The Friends Who Made the Future (London, 2002), is an illuminating account of these interconnections.

8 Markus, Buildings & Power, p. 125.

9 Sutherland, Structural Iron, Introduction.

10 John Newman, Buildings of England: North East and East Kent (London, 1976), p. 453.

11 Especially by Sigfried Giedion in Space Time and Architecture (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1941).

12 A. W. Skempton, 'The Boat Store, Sheerness and its Place in Structural History', in Structural Iron and Steel, 1850-1900, ed. Robert Thorne, Studies in the History of Civil Engineering, X (Aldershot, 2000).

13 Fairbairn's memoirs, completed by N. Pole, were published in 1877.

14 Peter Collins, Concrete (London, 1959).

15 David P. Billington, Robert Maillart and the Art of Reinforced Concrete (Cambridge,

16 David Billington, Maillart (Cambridge, 1997). Maillart's firm built numerous reinforced concrete factories in Russia and the Baltic States from 1912 onwards; they included a rubber factory at Riga, a steel mill in Kamemskaya, a cold store in St Petersburg and, largest of all, the Kharkov factory for GEC of Russia - a massive enterprise involving 1,000 concrete workers and engineers. By October 1916 the job was complete; by the time of his forced departure a few months later, he had lost everything.

17 Florence Dempsey, 'Nela Park', Architectural Record, XXXV/6 (June 1914), pp. 469-504.

18 Federico Bucci, AlbertKahn (Princeton, NJ, 1993), pp. 37-8; also Grant Hildebrand, 'Beautiful Factories', in Albert Kahn: Inspiration for the Modern, ed. Brian Carter, exh. cat., University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor (2001).

19 Peter Collins, Concrete (London, 1959), p. 235.

20 Gavin Stamp, ed., Sir Owen Williams, 1890-1969, exh. cat., Architectural Association, London (1986). The comment is from Frank Newby's piece on Williams.

21 In W. J. Cameron, A Series of Talks (Dearborn, MI, 1937).

22 The famous glazed diagonal conveyor belts were added the following year, a reminder of the criss-crossed conveyors that Charles Sheeler celebrated in one of his photographs of 1927 of the Ford Rouge Plant.

23 Until 2000 the company organized regular tours within their public relations programme; these have been cancelled as an economy measure - somewhat shortsightedly it might seem, viewed against the efficacy of such publicity.

24 For a full discussion of this, see Joel Davidson, 'Building for War, Preparing for Peace', in World War II and the American Dream, exh. cat., National Building Museum, Washington, DC (1994). See also Martin Pawley, Theory and Design in the Second Machine Age (London, 1990), chap. 6.

25 Kenneth Frampton, Modern Architecture: A Critical History (London, 1992), p. 231.

26 Architectural Review, CXVI (1954), pp. 9-19.

27 Chris Wilkinson, Supersheds, 2nd edn (London, 1996), p. 50.

29 Anthony Hunt, 'The Future', in Wilkinson, Supersheds, p. 152.

30 Architects' Journal (29 July 1999), pp. 33-7.

5 Factory as Icon

1 Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture (London, 1927), p. 41.

2 A point illustrated with three photographs, the Val Nelle factory, 1928-30, and the Kolb soap factory in Zurich by Kellermuller & Hofmann and the Konigsgrube Mine Works at Bochum by Theodor Merrill, both of 1930.

3 Reyner Banham, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age (London, 1960) emphazises how the modernist agenda was already intact in the pre-war writings of the Futurists, but shorn of any pretensions to social purpose.

4 Jean-Louis Cohen, Scenes of the World to Come: European Architecture and the American Challenge, 1893-1960 (Paris, 1995), pp. 63-8.

5 H.-R. Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style (New York, 1932), p. 44.

6 Annemarie Jaeggi, Fagus: Industrial Culture from Werkbund to Bauhaus (New York, 2000), p. 86.

7 Stanford Anderson, Peter Behrens and a New Architecture for the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA, and London), chap. 7 on AEG. Later, between 1929 and 1938, Behrens designed the Linz state tobacco factory, a banded and curved six-storey steel-framed building with continuous strip windows.

9 Reyner Banham, The Glass Paradise', Architectural Review, CXXV (February 1959), pp. 87-9; see also his Concrete Atlantis (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1986).

10 Later in his working life, Poelzig carried out a huge project for I. G. Farben, under the aegis of Albert Speer.

11 Oskar Beyer, ed., Eric Mendelsohn: Letters of an Architect (London, New York and Toronto, 1967), p. 46.

12 Regina Stephan, ed., Erich Mendelsohn, Architect, 1887-1953 (New York, 1999), pp. 65-6.

13 Banham, Concrete Atlantis, p. 6.

14 Forty, Words and Buildings, p. 184.

15 William C. Brumfield, ed., Reshaping Russian Architecture (Cambridge, 1990).

16 Cass Gilbert, designer of a flamboyant Gothic skyscraper for Woolworth in Manhattan, had built a US Army Supply base in Brooklyn in 1918.

17 Murray Fraser, 'Eero Saarinen and the Boundaries of Technology', The Oxford Review of Architecture, 1 (1996), p. 59.

6 Factory as Sales Tool

1 Howard Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840, 3rd edn (New Haven and London, 1995), p. 142, note correcting the dates given in Architectural Review, CXXVII (1960), pp. 280-82.

2 W. G. Rimmer, Marshalls of Leeds (Cambridge, 1960).

3 The Penny Magazine, XII (30 December 1843), pp. 501-8.

4 Inspiration of Egypt, exh. cat., Brighton Museum (1983).

5 Benjamin Disraeli, Sybil (Oxford, 1970), pp. 183-5. Disraeli also added that Mr Trafford had built them a model village, supplied with gardens, schools, public baths and church, paid them well and gave them a half-day on which they could go to market.

6 Cited in Andor Gomme and David Walker, The Architecture of Glasgow (London, 1968), p. 226.

8 Paul Collins and Michael Stratton, British Car Factories from 1896 (Godmanstone, Dorset, 1993). The founder died in 1914 and at the outbreak of war the building became a munitions factory. It remained a defence establishment until the 1970s.

9 Vicky Richardson, 'Production Line', RIBA Journal, CVII (July 2000), pp. 36-42.

10 Les Usines Citroën, exhibition at Bibliothèque des Arts Decorative, Paris, 1999. In the early 1920s the thrilling potential offered by cheap automobile manufacture inspired Le Corbusier to call his prototype house for mass production the Citrohan.

11 David L. Lewis, The Public Image of Henry Ford (Detroit, 1976).

12 Grant Hildebrand, 'Beautiful Factories', in Albert Kahn: Inspiration for the Modern, ed. Brian Carter, exh. cat., University of Michigan Museum of Art, Ann Arbor (2001).

13 Jaeggi, Fagus, see chapter on Fagus and Photography. Renger-Patzsch was commissioned to take another series of photographs in 1952, presumably to record how the plant had fared during the war.

14 Julian Holder, 'Reflecting Change: Pilkington as a Patron of Modern Architecture and Design', Journal of the Twentieth Century Society, I: Industrial Architecture (Summer 1994), chap. 7. Maxwell Fry built a glass tower block as their headquarters building at St Helens in 1953.

15 Joan S. Skinner, Form and Fancy: Factories and Factory Buildings by Wallis, Gilbert

6 Partners (Liverpool, 1997).

16 Gavin Weightman, The Making of Modern London (London, 1984), p. 59.

17 Skinner, Form and Fancy, p. 125.

18 Brian Carter, Johnson Wax Administration Building and Research Tower (London, 1998), p. 22, quotation from Sam Johnson.

19 Frank Lloyd Wright, Autobiography (London, 1945), p. 408.

20 Rowan Moore, ed., Structure, Space and Skin: The Work of Nicholas Grimshaw & Partners (London, 1993), pp. 158-75.

21 Jonathan Glancey, 'Dream Factory', The Guardian (7 January 2002).

7 Factory as Laboratory or Laboratory as Factory?

1 Harry Miller, Halls of Dartford, 1785-1985 (London, 1985).

3 Kyung Park, 'Inner City Borders in Detroit', Architectural Design, LXIX/7-8 (1999), pp. 80-81.

4 Architects' Journal, CCXVI (31 October 2002).

5 James Nasmyth, inventor of the steam hammer, began his business in just such a building, which he illustrated fondly in his autobiography. The Greater London Council commissioned Yorke Rosenberg & Mardall to build the Ada Street Workshops in Hackney in 1965-6; see Elizabeth Robinson, Twentieth Century Buildings in Hackney (London, 1999).

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