Elevators

In the 19th century, new iron and steel production processes revolutionized the construction industry as well as the way we lived. Architects and engineers now had the technology to build skyscrapers hundreds of feet in the air. But this would have meant little if not for another technological innovation that was introduced about the same time, the modern elevator (originally called hoists). Most early elevators were powered by steam engines, and the world's first power elevator was a freight...

Epilogue And Future Trends

Click Here for Terms of Use. The tremendous strides we have witnessed over the last few decades in the evolution of technology have demanded a new office environment one that necessitates an intelligent approach to technology management, products that support new work styles, and furniture that is characterized by total flexibility and capacity to support changing work functions.

General Overview

Building projects are typically developed with a ceiling placed on construction costs. The cost may be a fixed limit of an amount predetermined from the beginning, as with public buildings financed from appropriations or bond issues. Alternatively, the ceiling may be established during the design development phase when the scope of the client's program as well as the quality of construction, equipment, and materials are considered relative to the amount of money he is willing or able to spend....

Product Liability

Another zone of exposure is building product performance, that is, holding space planner-architect responsible for damages caused by faulty materials and components and sometimes for the cost of their replacement. This tends to place a heavy emphasis on the selection and specification of building products with long records of satisfactory performance, thus inhibiting the introduction of new materials and methods. Product liability is mainly concerned with negligence. And while it greatly...

TurboCAD

IMSI's latest TurboCAD Professional offers designers and CAD users, great flexibility and performance through a wide array of powerful 2D and 3D drawing tools. It also fully supports AutoCAD DWG DXF file formats, MicroStation and Microsoft Office file compatibility. It should satisfy the expectations of most CAD users, boasting features that are only found in its more expensive counterparts, and some that even they lack. TurboCAD previously had a hobbyist software tag this perception should be...

The Problem Of Liability

Space planners and architects, like other professionals, are expected to exercise reasonable care and skill in carrying out their work. Although this does not imply 100 percent perfection at all times, the level of performance should be consistent with that ordinarily provided by other qualified practitioners under similar circumstances. Law relating to professional responsibility and liability has become very active in recent years, and the zone of risk and exposure has expanded dramatically...

Architect Studio and Arris Cad Architect Studio

ARRIS Architect is a CAD program that is both powerful and flexible and provides the tools needed to create complete contract drawings. It extends the capabilities of ARRIS to automate the entire drawing process (Figures 10.12a, 10.12b). The program is easily customized, and the system lets you work with minimum constraints. Arris points out that some of its more prominent features include Smart structural elements eliminate tedious work. Many CAD systems continue to construct drawings line by...

Figure 322

Accessories like art work can add to a space's importance. (Courtesy David-Carter-Scott, architects) Proportion and scale are two distinct terms. Unfortunately, many people, even designers, do not differentiate and use the two interchangeably When we think of proportion, we think of good and bad whereas scale implies large or small.Scale generally refers to the human being as a unit of measurement or to a part of an element as related to another part or to the whole. Moreover, the casual...

Glossary

Abacus A slab of stone, marble, or wood, placed on the top of columns in the classical orders. accent lighting Directional lighting used to illuminate or emphasize specific objects or small areas. accessible A building or space that can be approached, entered, and used by persons with disabilities. acid rain Precipitation that has a pH below 5.6. Main contributors are sulfur dioxide from industrial burning of fossil fuel, and nitrogen oxides from automobile emissions, which is transformed into...

Part Of Second Floor Plan

FIGURE 2.15a An example of construction document electrical layout details. FIGURE 2.15b An example of construction document details. FIGURE 2.15b An example of construction document details. FIGURE 2.15c An example of construction document details. (Courtesy Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) FIGURE 2.15c An example of construction document details. (Courtesy Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) in the agreement. Note that the term tender is used in lieu of bidding in many countries around the world,...

Design Development Phase

During the design development phase, the planner refines the approved schematic design so that the size, scope, and character of the project are generally fixed. Drawings, color boards, samples, furniture selections, and other specifics of the job are presented to the client for final approval or modification before starting work on the contract documents phase. Design development documents usually include detailed plans showing partition and door locations, furniture and fixture layout,...

Intellectual Property Loss

The American Society for Industrial Security indicates that intellectual property losses could surpass a quarter of a trillion dollars annually in the United States alone. Although a recent survey showed that 56 percent of respondents have had one or more incidents of attempted or suspected information misappropriation, 62 percent of the companies surveyed had no procedures in place for reporting information loss. No organization can afford continuous theft and loss of productivity that occurs...

PowerCADD

Power CADD is essentially a 2-D technical drafting package, designed for architects and engineers using the Macintosh operating system. It provides competent professional drafting capabilities within a user-friendly Macintosh interface that doesn't hamper your design capabilities (Figure 10.9). It also has enhanced color management capabilities, and added support for popular file formats as well as built-in direct translation for DesignWorkshop making for a powerful 2D 3D CAD combination for...

The Renaissance

As seen in relation to the Gothic style, the architecture of the Renaissance represents a complete break with tradition, even though the two styles coexisted for a long time. In Italy the memory of classical antiquity had never died and so it is not surprising that we should see in the early 15th century a rebirth of classical art and learning. Architects and designers sought to rediscover the essence of Roman architecture, both by looking at its monuments, and above all by studying Vitruvius's...

Freehand Sketching

To be able to sketch out one's visual ideas accurately and rapidly is a powerful creative and communication tool that only comes with continuous practice. Figure 4.22 shows the practical use of annotated freehand sketches in the design development of computer tables for an internet caf . Moreover, freehand sketches are often helpful not only in developing one's drawing skills and awareness of the environment (Figure 4.23), but also facilitate analyzing many of the esthetic aspects of a project...

Design Methodology

Click Here for Terms of Use. Today's contemporary office environment is often a sophisticated and intricate ecosystem of many interrelated elements and sub-systems, in which various individuals occupy space. These individuals have special needs, and the diligent space planner is required to address these needs. In doing so, it is essential to recognize such influencing factors as evolving computer and communications technologies, psychosocial elements of the...

Communication And Drafting Methods

Click Here for Terms of Use. Although today's design office relies less on manual drafting than it did in the past, the ability to prepare drawings manually remains an integral part of the design process, essential to a designer's growth. Indeed, those who master the language of drawing will likely find themselves capable of communicating with their clients and peers with greater spontaneity, expressiveness, confidence and sophistication.

Building Models

Models typically fall into two main categories the study model and the presentation model. The purpose of this chapter is more to give an overview of model making and their relevance to the space planning process than to explain in detail how they are constructed. The study model is made to help clarify and define spatial relationships, as well as how a building project relates to the site. It is a creative tool and is made more quickly and with inexpensive materials. Presentation models, on...

The Futurewhat Lies Ahead

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the desire to develop innovative technologies with the aim of reducing emissions through improved combustion and environmental controls. This is apparent in HVAC systems in particular, and there is a real need for the development of a thermal strategy in design. In fact, we already have sufficient product technology to achieve the principal thermal goals. The question is, how can we achieve its optimum application at the design stage to...

Telecommunication System Requirements

A structured cable system is the infrastructure of any communication, computer and information network. Copper and or fiber cables are linked together to carry all of the voice, data, video and Internet traffic throughout a building. Usually hidden within building walls and ceilings, the cable infrastructure should be designed, or structured, to maximize data rates and optimize network efficiency. It is the foundation on which all the other technologies will run. Telecommunication systems...

New Gsa General Services Administration Standards

Planners can find federal government standards for security requirements for their buildings on line, providing a good resource on the subject. In the United States, several design firms like Gensler have taken the initiative in convening a series of regional dialogues regarding strategic planning and ways to balance security with openness. These seminars covered a number of topics including topics such as facility audits, circulation diagrams, and strategies for integrating security procedures...

General Historic Overview

It is rather surprising that it wasn't until the 1920s that the public first became aware of the benefits of air conditioning, and only then because it started being used in public places like theaters and department stores. Mechanical and electrical systems have made tremendous strides during the last century Changes have been even more evident during the past two decades due to the use of computer-based design aids, which have radically transformed the design and operation of the comfort...

HVAC System Requirements

There are a number of important HVAC considerations that space planners and interior designers need be aware of when designing a particular space. One of these is incorporating adequate space for ducts and pipes. Small ducts and sanitary pipes are typically designed to run within the walls and floor joists in residential construction. Sometimes, circumstances necessitate that a horizontal duct run below the floor joists of a house and a suspended ceiling built to conceal it. Commercial...

Project Cost Analysis

Click Here for Terms of Use. Cost estimating is one of the most important aspects of project management, as it determines the base line of the project cost at different stages of development. Establishing a budget early in the programming or design process can be critical to the project because it influences many of the design decisions and assists in deciding whether the project is even feasible.

Professional Liability

One of the most significant areas of exposure relates to the liability of the space planner-architect-engineer to third parties unconnected with the contract for claims of negligence or errors in design that lead to alleged injury of persons using the building.The legal bases for the majority of current liability suits include professional negligence, implied warranty or misrepresentation, implied fitness warranty, breach of contract, joint and several liability and liability without fault for...

Vector Works and Vector Works Architect

VectorWorks (formally MiniCAD), is a product of Nemetschek N.A., a recognized leader in CAD technology. The firm marked the new millennium with the release of VectorWorks ARCHITECT, its first architecturally specific add-on module and claims it is the CAD industry's first definitive integration of CAD and project management for architecture professionals. ARCHITECT is an add-on module, powered by VectorWorks, a general purpose, object-based CAD software engine. Together, the two maximize...

Elements Of Interior Design

Space is the distance, interval, or area between, around, or within things, and is either two or three-dimensional. It is the most essential element in space planning.There are basically three kinds of space flat space, perceptual or implied space, and actual space. Flat space is an implied two-dimensional space, consisting of height and width. It is ideally suited to two-dimensional expression where there is no illusion to depth (Figure 3.23). Perceptual space is also an implied space...

Construction Document Phase

During this phase of the operation, all the necessary documents needed to execute the project are prepared, and upon getting approval for the design development submissions, the designer is responsible for preparing detailed drawings, specifications, and other documents necessary to construct the project. Products that vendors need to supply are also defined in this phase. The contract documents may include the work for both construction and furniture purchasing, or they may be developed...

Figures 419

Figure Perspective

Two examples of one-point perspective. (Drawings by Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1998) FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley...

Figure 428

Examples of professionally made presentation models. (Courtesy Howard Models, Toledo, Ohio) FIGURE 4.29 A simple block model by the author for a competition in Perugia, Italy Balsawood was used for the proposed buildings, painted thin card for the roads, and cork for the site contours and existing buildings. FIGURE 4.29 A simple block model by the author for a competition in Perugia, Italy Balsawood was used for the proposed buildings, painted thin card for the roads, and cork for the site...

Electrical System Plans

Electrical, telephone and communication outlets can be shown on one of several plans. With residential construction, they can be drawn on the construction floor plan because installation is fairly simple. On commercial projects on the other hand, the floor plan may be crowded with other unrelated information, and so a separate power plan is usually needed. In addition to showing the outlets themselves, exact dimensions are given when their location is critical. Outlets can also be shown on...

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Middle Ages

The fall and breakup of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity also marked the collapse of the Roman classical traditions of design.Weak central governments left Europe in a state of political confusion and social distress. Religion became a dominating focus and motivator in the life of the ordinary citizen. During this period, design was predominantly at the service of the church. The Middle Ages can be divided into four stylistic periods. Art and architecture continued to develop...

Types of HVAC Systems

HVAC systems are often classified by the carrying mediums used to heat or cool the building. The two main transfer mediums for this purpose are air and water. On smaller projects, electricity is often used for heating. Steve Millnick, of Gerard Engineering, adds that areas having milder climates also utilize electricity for most of their heating systems. He states that this is due to power rate structures and the fact that most buildings in milder climates are in a cooling mode for most of the...

Escalators and Walks

Seeberger (inventor of the forerunner of the modern escalator) with Otis installed the first step-type escalator made for public use in the Paris Exhibition, where it won first prize. Escalators are suited to moving large numbers of people through a limited number of floors, particularly in department stores, airline terminals and public concourses (Figures 11.13, 11.14). Moving walks are increasingly being used at airports, train stations and major department stores to...

East West Section

Cross Section Notre Dame

Plan and section of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople built by Justinian 532-537. Plan shows the reconstructed atrium. This church which represents a totally new architectural development was designed by the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus. (Courtesy Cyril M. Harris. (Ed.) Historic Architecture Sourcebook, McGraw-Hill) FIGURE 1.34 Byzantine Period. Plan and section of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople built by Justinian 532-537. Plan shows...

Power System Requirements

Electrical systems provide power for lighting, convenience outlets, and fixed equipment, and their installation requires considerable expertise. It is no surprise therefore that, except for very small projects, the space planner rightly turns to the electrical engineer or electrical contractor to design, specify and determine the exact type of circuiting, wire sizes, cable routing, and other technical related issues of these systems. However, interior designers and space planners are often...

Plumbing System Criteria

Plumbing generally includes water supply and sewerage piping for potable water, drains, waste piping, and vent piping. It also includes plumbing fixtures, pipe supports, and other accessories that may be needed to provide a complete plumbing system. Water supply consists essentially of cold and hot water, and in all plumbing installation and design, residential or commercial, certain design criteria need to be taken into account.These include assessment of demand (since generally not all...

Neoclassic Period And 19th Century Revival Styles

Wassily Chair Technical Analysis

The Neoclassic Period represents the last phase of European classicism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Western Europe and the United States. The period is characterized by monu-mentality, sparing application of ornament and a stricter use of the orders (Figure 1.43). The movement was basically a reaction to Rococo and Baroque design, and was a period of reminiscence in which architecture and design turned to a variety of historical sources for inspiration mainly Greek, Roman, and...

Environmental Considerations And Human Comfort

Optimum comfort is subjective, and the criteria for achieving it varies from person to person and culture to culture. Nevertheless, these criteria are all interlinked and share basic environmental factors that include Thermal radiation and surrounding surface temperatures FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and disciplines that need to be considered for their impact on the design process. FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and...

An Innovative Approach To Space Planning And Design

An understanding of the use and allocation of space is a cornerstone in the many design disciplines that shape our built environment today. Knowledge of space planning and programming are essential tools in conceiving a successful project. Programming and space planning, once considered pre-design services by architects, have now taken their roles as an integral part of the entire design process from conception of the project right through to the analysis of how the occupants use the new...

Factors That Influence Project Costs

Factors That Influence Construction Cost

There are a number of important factors that influence a project's final cost, not just construction costs and furnishing expenses (Figure 6.1). The client often prepares a budget that includes anticipated cost schedule. Below are some of the major elements that will impact the projects final costs. Building Type The type of occupancy is considered one of the major cost variables. It defines what features the building is likely to have. For example, a townhouse has entirely different cost...

Technical Drawing And Drafting Techniques

Facade Elevation Oblique Projection

Pragmatically, architectural drawings are essentially one of two types. The first type is a technical format, e.g. working drawings (also called construction or production drawings). The second type of drawing is graphic and artistic in nature and tends to be more creative, such as design, presentations or concept drawings.Working drawings will typically contain much more data and information than graphic drawings (Figure 4.6). Such information would likely include dimensions, material and...

Computer Aided Cost Estimation Estimating Software Packages

The possibilities for automating and controlling your estimating spreadsheets are unlimited, and there are many tools that developers and contractors can use to estimate more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, there are currently many computer aided cost estimation software systems on the market. These range in sophistication from simple spreadsheet calculation software packages to integrated systems involving design and price negotiation over the Internet. While these proprietary packages...

Perspective Drawing

One Point Perspective Drawing Interior

Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. The general principle behind it is simple, and shares many features with the way people actually perceive space and objects in it. It depends essentially on four interconnected criteria that will invariably affect the final image the level of our eyes when viewing the scene or object, and thus determining the horizon line, the distance from the picture plane to the object, the distance from the station...

The Security Equation

The Oklahoma City bombing and World Trade Center disasters highlighted the lack of adequate security in public facilities as well as in the workplace. But today's disasters come in different shapes and forms, from inside or outside the building. Even disgruntled employees can become potential time bombs. Planners must, therefore, study all aspects of security including the new challenges they face today, whether it concerns employees, the building's structure, or the business. Following the...

Psychological And Social Settings

Office Chair Design Section Drawing

Innovative space planning and interior design should offer solutions that enhance communication and teamwork, support business processes and improve staff welfare and morale. Indeed, well-designed interior spaces should respond to the psychological, social and physical needs of the people using them. Often, a basic understanding of these human needs are easily determined and action taken to achieve a design solution. In other cases the particular needs are determined during the programming...

Micro Station

Microstation Rendering

MicroStation is the keystone of Bentley's solutions for building, civil engineering, transportation, process plants, discrete manufacturing facilities, utilities and telecommunication networks. Microstation PowerDraft provides industry-recognized tools for 2D and simple 3D production drafting. Bentley View is a powerful viewing and printing application that extends the programs accessibility of engineering data, and Bentley Redline combines easy-to-use markup tools with the viewing and printing...

Anthropometrics

The famous Greek mathematician Pythagoras once wrote that, Man is the measure of all things.This was restated many years later by Euclid in a mathematical formula, and later illustrated by Leonardo Da Vinci in the 15th century with a diagram of a man's body inside a circle and square, and became known as The Golden Rule (Figure 5.12). Indeed, if an object, an environment or system is intended for human use,then its design should be based on the characteristics of its human users. This is where...

Loss from Natural Disasters Fire Floods and Earthquakes

Space planners and facilities professionals must ensure that disaster preparedness programs are put in place to combat the potential toll of natural forces such as floods, fires and earthquakes. Security expert Larry Chase says, Flood waters often carry debris that can ram and rupture flammable liquid tanks or piping. These liquids, generally lighter than water, can float into areas where they might come into contact with an ignition source. Electric short circuits and broken gas lines are...

Herman Miller

Herman Miller, Inc., is a Zeeland, Michigan, based firm, and is a leading global provider of office furniture and services that support work environments. Its rise to acknowledged international leadership in the production of progressively designed furniture began in 1946, when its design director George Nelson recruited Charles Eames. The firm has been one of the dominating forces in the international furniture market over the last thirty years and has contributed greatly to the widespread...

Acknowledgments

A book of this scope would not have been possible without the active and passive support of many friends, colleagues, and scholars who have contributed greatly to my thinking and insights during the writing of this book, and who were instrumental in the crystallization and formulation of my thoughts on many of the subjects and issues discussed within. To them I am heavily indebted, as I am to the innumerable people and organizations that have contributed ideas, comments, photographs,...

Ergonomics

Smallest Dimensions For Kitchen

Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data. It is basically a user-centered approach that FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001 FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for...

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Lettering

Drawings are a means of communication of information to others, and generally contain two basic types of information, graphic or artistic and text in the form of notes, titles, dimensions, etc. Legibility and consistency are the key ingredients to good lettering. Lettering should enhance a drawing by making it easy to interpret and pleasant to look at it should not detract from the drawing or be illegible and unsightly to look at. Skill in freehand lettering adds style and individuality to a...

Figure 148

Quickborner Team Burolandschaft

Famous chair and ottoman by Charles and Ray Eames. Courtesy Herman Miller, Inc. Cranbrook, which had much in common with the Bauhaus, also had a major impact on American design, art, and architecture of the 20th century. Saarinen's son Eero studied architecture at Yale and then went to Cranbrook to work with is father. In 1941, Eero Saarinen won first prize with Charles Eames in the International Functional Furniture Competition conducted by New York's Museum of Modern Art. Saarinen discounted...

Plumbing Plans

Plumbing Abbreviations Drawings

Except for small projects like residences, plumbing plans are normally executed by the mechanical engineer. Planners and designers should be familiar with standard plumbing plan symbols, examples of which are shown in Figure 11.10. FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From Massey, Howard, C, Estimating Plumbing Costs, Craftsman Book Company, Carlsbad, CA FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From...

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Iflf HAB d fit M Mb nf bt- iifiMtd kff 'pmtAdpifl Hi tk VQl tKf cJ Bl loi fl 1 Tin Hi bi riiw hA miif mi n vt H M itM ih i cit n 'i if il 11 gt mAdw I. Iflf HAB d fit M Mb nf bt- iifiMtd kff 'pmtAdpifl Hi tk VQl tKf cJ Bl loi fl 1 Tin Hi bi riiw hA miif mi n vt H M itM ih i cit n 'i if il 11 gt mAdw FIGURE 8.9 Summary chart of tests. From The Codes Guidebook for Interiors by S.K. Harmon and K.G. Kennon The Radiant Panel Test ASTM E-648, NFPA 253, NBS IR75-950 rates interior floor finishes...