Power System Requirements

Electrical systems provide power for lighting, convenience outlets, and fixed equipment, and their installation requires considerable expertise. It is no surprise therefore that, except for very small projects, the space planner rightly turns to the electrical engineer or electrical contractor to design, specify and determine the exact type of circuiting, wire sizes, cable routing, and other technical related issues of these systems. However, interior designers and space planners are often...

Plumbing System Criteria

Plumbing generally includes water supply and sewerage piping for potable water, drains, waste piping, and vent piping. It also includes plumbing fixtures, pipe supports, and other accessories that may be needed to provide a complete plumbing system. Water supply consists essentially of cold and hot water, and in all plumbing installation and design, residential or commercial, certain design criteria need to be taken into account.These include assessment of demand (since generally not all...

Neoclassic Period And 19th Century Revival Styles

Wassily Chair Technical Analysis

The Neoclassic Period represents the last phase of European classicism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Western Europe and the United States. The period is characterized by monu-mentality, sparing application of ornament and a stricter use of the orders (Figure 1.43). The movement was basically a reaction to Rococo and Baroque design, and was a period of reminiscence in which architecture and design turned to a variety of historical sources for inspiration mainly Greek, Roman, and...

Environmental Considerations And Human Comfort

Optimum comfort is subjective, and the criteria for achieving it varies from person to person and culture to culture. Nevertheless, these criteria are all interlinked and share basic environmental factors that include Thermal radiation and surrounding surface temperatures FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and disciplines that need to be considered for their impact on the design process. FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and...

An Innovative Approach To Space Planning And Design

An understanding of the use and allocation of space is a cornerstone in the many design disciplines that shape our built environment today. Knowledge of space planning and programming are essential tools in conceiving a successful project. Programming and space planning, once considered pre-design services by architects, have now taken their roles as an integral part of the entire design process from conception of the project right through to the analysis of how the occupants use the new...

Factors That Influence Project Costs

There are a number of important factors that influence a project's final cost, not just construction costs and furnishing expenses (Figure 6.1). The client often prepares a budget that includes anticipated cost schedule. Below are some of the major elements that will impact the projects final costs. Building Type The type of occupancy is considered one of the major cost variables. It defines what features the building is likely to have. For example, a townhouse has entirely different cost...

Technical Drawing And Drafting Techniques

Home Drawing For Engineering

Pragmatically, architectural drawings are essentially one of two types. The first type is a technical format, e.g. working drawings (also called construction or production drawings). The second type of drawing is graphic and artistic in nature and tends to be more creative, such as design, presentations or concept drawings.Working drawings will typically contain much more data and information than graphic drawings (Figure 4.6). Such information would likely include dimensions, material and...

Computer Aided Cost Estimation Estimating Software Packages

The possibilities for automating and controlling your estimating spreadsheets are unlimited, and there are many tools that developers and contractors can use to estimate more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, there are currently many computer aided cost estimation software systems on the market. These range in sophistication from simple spreadsheet calculation software packages to integrated systems involving design and price negotiation over the Internet. While these proprietary packages...

Perspective Drawing

Ching Interior Design Drawings

Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. The general principle behind it is simple, and shares many features with the way people actually perceive space and objects in it. It depends essentially on four interconnected criteria that will invariably affect the final image the level of our eyes when viewing the scene or object, and thus determining the horizon line, the distance from the picture plane to the object, the distance from the station...

The Security Equation

The Oklahoma City bombing and World Trade Center disasters highlighted the lack of adequate security in public facilities as well as in the workplace. But today's disasters come in different shapes and forms, from inside or outside the building. Even disgruntled employees can become potential time bombs. Planners must, therefore, study all aspects of security including the new challenges they face today, whether it concerns employees, the building's structure, or the business. Following the...

Psychological And Social Settings

Office Chair Design Section Drawing

Innovative space planning and interior design should offer solutions that enhance communication and teamwork, support business processes and improve staff welfare and morale. Indeed, well-designed interior spaces should respond to the psychological, social and physical needs of the people using them. Often, a basic understanding of these human needs are easily determined and action taken to achieve a design solution. In other cases the particular needs are determined during the programming...

Micro Station

Microstation Rendering

MicroStation is the keystone of Bentley's solutions for building, civil engineering, transportation, process plants, discrete manufacturing facilities, utilities and telecommunication networks. Microstation PowerDraft provides industry-recognized tools for 2D and simple 3D production drafting. Bentley View is a powerful viewing and printing application that extends the programs accessibility of engineering data, and Bentley Redline combines easy-to-use markup tools with the viewing and printing...

Loss from Natural Disasters Fire Floods and Earthquakes

Space planners and facilities professionals must ensure that disaster preparedness programs are put in place to combat the potential toll of natural forces such as floods, fires and earthquakes. Security expert Larry Chase says, Flood waters often carry debris that can ram and rupture flammable liquid tanks or piping. These liquids, generally lighter than water, can float into areas where they might come into contact with an ignition source. Electric short circuits and broken gas lines are...

General Overview

Odd Agles Drawing

Drawing is a creative and cognitive process involving perceptive observation and thinking in images.The purpose of this chapter therefore, is to encourage readers, whether professional space planners, designers, architects or aspiring students, to achieve these goals, as well as attain a fluent command of the language of architectural drafting. Although in the final analysis, it is the designer's own hand and mind that determines the finished drawing, the use of appropriate equipment and...

Herman Miller

Herman Miller, Inc., is a Zeeland, Michigan, based firm, and is a leading global provider of office furniture and services that support work environments. Its rise to acknowledged international leadership in the production of progressively designed furniture began in 1946, when its design director George Nelson recruited Charles Eames. The firm has been one of the dominating forces in the international furniture market over the last thirty years and has contributed greatly to the widespread...

Ergonomics

Time Saver Standards For Interior Design

Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data. It is basically a user-centered approach that FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001 FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for...

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Figure 148

Quickborner Team Burolandschaft

Famous chair and ottoman by Charles and Ray Eames. Courtesy Herman Miller, Inc. Cranbrook, which had much in common with the Bauhaus, also had a major impact on American design, art, and architecture of the 20th century. Saarinen's son Eero studied architecture at Yale and then went to Cranbrook to work with is father. In 1941, Eero Saarinen won first prize with Charles Eames in the International Functional Furniture Competition conducted by New York's Museum of Modern Art. Saarinen discounted...

Plumbing Plans

Plumbing Abbreviations Drawings

Except for small projects like residences, plumbing plans are normally executed by the mechanical engineer. Planners and designers should be familiar with standard plumbing plan symbols, examples of which are shown in Figure 11.10. FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From Massey, Howard, C, Estimating Plumbing Costs, Craftsman Book Company, Carlsbad, CA FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From...