Presentation Techniques

Presentations as used by space planners, architects and designers are either to persuade a potential client to commission a project, or to get approval for design work already carried out. In the first instance, the prospective client has no obligation to the designer. Here, the presentation may be of a speculative nature, with no contract or fee, basically in an effort to obtain a commission. The second type of presentation relates to a project that is authorized by the client, and for which...

Types of Access Control Systems

Access control systems basically rely on one or a combination of four basic operating concepts personal recognition, unique knowledge, unique possession, and biometric devices. This depends on the ability of an individual to recognize employees and authorize access. A facility with small employee base along with a low turnover rate can make personal recognition very secure. The main disadvantages are that security staff turnover wipes out the access control database, and turnover of employees...

Types Of Specifications

One of the first things that a specifier has to decide upon when preparing a specification document is the format or method to be used to communicate the desired intent to the con-tractor.There are essentially two broad categories of specifications, Closed or Open, and most items can be specified by either method. Within these two broad categories, there are basically four generic types of specifications 1. Propriety Specifications 2. Description Specifications, 3. Performance Specifications,...

ArchiCAD

For nearly two decades, Graphisoft has been developing and evolving design solutions around its Virtual Building concept for architects, incorporating a leading-edge intelligent object that offers automatic documentation, instant visualization and maximum interoperability. The Virtual Building is a 3D digital database that tracks all components that make up a building and is at the core of all Graphisoft products. The Virtual Building model makes it possible to administer and manage a building...

The Square Foot or Comparative Method

The square foot or comparative method directly compares a building of known cost with the proposed building. Construction costs are reduced to an average cost per square foot of floor area (a cubic foot is sometimes used). By definition, a square foot estimate, due to the limited amount of detail required, involves a relatively lower degree of accuracy than a more detailed unit price based estimate. However, square foot costs make a useful starting point and are useful in the conceptual stage...

Elevators

In the 19th century, new iron and steel production processes revolutionized the construction industry as well as the way we lived. Architects and engineers now had the technology to build skyscrapers hundreds of feet in the air. But this would have meant little if not for another technological innovation that was introduced about the same time, the modern elevator (originally called hoists). Most early elevators were powered by steam engines, and the world's first power elevator was a freight...

Glossary

Abacus A slab of stone, marble, or wood, placed on the top of columns in the classical orders. accent lighting Directional lighting used to illuminate or emphasize specific objects or small areas. accessible A building or space that can be approached, entered, and used by persons with disabilities. acid rain Precipitation that has a pH below 5.6. Main contributors are sulfur dioxide from industrial burning of fossil fuel, and nitrogen oxides from automobile emissions, which is transformed into...

Part Of Second Floor Plan

FIGURE 2.15a An example of construction document electrical layout details. FIGURE 2.15b An example of construction document details. FIGURE 2.15b An example of construction document details. FIGURE 2.15c An example of construction document details. (Courtesy Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) FIGURE 2.15c An example of construction document details. (Courtesy Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) in the agreement. Note that the term tender is used in lieu of bidding in many countries around the world,...

PowerCADD

Power CADD is essentially a 2-D technical drafting package, designed for architects and engineers using the Macintosh operating system. It provides competent professional drafting capabilities within a user-friendly Macintosh interface that doesn't hamper your design capabilities (Figure 10.9). It also has enhanced color management capabilities, and added support for popular file formats as well as built-in direct translation for DesignWorkshop making for a powerful 2D 3D CAD combination for...

General Historic Overview

It is rather surprising that it wasn't until the 1920s that the public first became aware of the benefits of air conditioning, and only then because it started being used in public places like theaters and department stores. Mechanical and electrical systems have made tremendous strides during the last century Changes have been even more evident during the past two decades due to the use of computer-based design aids, which have radically transformed the design and operation of the comfort...

HVAC System Requirements

There are a number of important HVAC considerations that space planners and interior designers need be aware of when designing a particular space. One of these is incorporating adequate space for ducts and pipes. Small ducts and sanitary pipes are typically designed to run within the walls and floor joists in residential construction. Sometimes, circumstances necessitate that a horizontal duct run below the floor joists of a house and a suspended ceiling built to conceal it. Commercial...

General Overview

Integrating technology into the workspace helps make the cyber-experience appear less daunting and more friendly. Simultaneously, the built environment that we all share is becoming more interactive, more entertainment-oriented, and more colorful. Shopping malls, for example, used to consist of boxes where the retail store really was the thing to look at and now the mall itself is much of the entertainment. As modern civilization grows more complex, switching over from an industrial to a...

Project Cost Analysis

Click Here for Terms of Use. Cost estimating is one of the most important aspects of project management, as it determines the base line of the project cost at different stages of development. Establishing a budget early in the programming or design process can be critical to the project because it influences many of the design decisions and assists in deciding whether the project is even feasible.

Vector Works and Vector Works Architect

VectorWorks (formally MiniCAD), is a product of Nemetschek N.A., a recognized leader in CAD technology. The firm marked the new millennium with the release of VectorWorks ARCHITECT, its first architecturally specific add-on module and claims it is the CAD industry's first definitive integration of CAD and project management for architecture professionals. ARCHITECT is an add-on module, powered by VectorWorks, a general purpose, object-based CAD software engine. Together, the two maximize...

Elements Of Interior Design

Amazing Architectural Sketching Drawing

Space is the distance, interval, or area between, around, or within things, and is either two or three-dimensional. It is the most essential element in space planning.There are basically three kinds of space flat space, perceptual or implied space, and actual space. Flat space is an implied two-dimensional space, consisting of height and width. It is ideally suited to two-dimensional expression where there is no illusion to depth (Figure 3.23). Perceptual space is also an implied space...

Construction Document Phase

During this phase of the operation, all the necessary documents needed to execute the project are prepared, and upon getting approval for the design development submissions, the designer is responsible for preparing detailed drawings, specifications, and other documents necessary to construct the project. Products that vendors need to supply are also defined in this phase. The contract documents may include the work for both construction and furniture purchasing, or they may be developed...

Figures 419

Figure Perspective

Two examples of one-point perspective. (Drawings by Ibtesam Sharbaji, Kubba Design) FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1998) FIGURE 4.20 General procedure for setting up of a one-point and two-point perspective. (Based on a drawing by Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley...

Figure 428

Examples of professionally made presentation models. (Courtesy Howard Models, Toledo, Ohio) FIGURE 4.29 A simple block model by the author for a competition in Perugia, Italy Balsawood was used for the proposed buildings, painted thin card for the roads, and cork for the site contours and existing buildings. FIGURE 4.29 A simple block model by the author for a competition in Perugia, Italy Balsawood was used for the proposed buildings, painted thin card for the roads, and cork for the site...

Electrical System Plans

Electrical, telephone and communication outlets can be shown on one of several plans. With residential construction, they can be drawn on the construction floor plan because installation is fairly simple. On commercial projects on the other hand, the floor plan may be crowded with other unrelated information, and so a separate power plan is usually needed. In addition to showing the outlets themselves, exact dimensions are given when their location is critical. Outlets can also be shown on...

Types of HVAC Systems

HVAC systems are often classified by the carrying mediums used to heat or cool the building. The two main transfer mediums for this purpose are air and water. On smaller projects, electricity is often used for heating. Steve Millnick, of Gerard Engineering, adds that areas having milder climates also utilize electricity for most of their heating systems. He states that this is due to power rate structures and the fact that most buildings in milder climates are in a cooling mode for most of the...

East West Section

Cross Section Notre Dame

Plan and section of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople built by Justinian 532-537. Plan shows the reconstructed atrium. This church which represents a totally new architectural development was designed by the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus. (Courtesy Cyril M. Harris. (Ed.) Historic Architecture Sourcebook, McGraw-Hill) FIGURE 1.34 Byzantine Period. Plan and section of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople built by Justinian 532-537. Plan shows...

Power System Requirements

Electrical systems provide power for lighting, convenience outlets, and fixed equipment, and their installation requires considerable expertise. It is no surprise therefore that, except for very small projects, the space planner rightly turns to the electrical engineer or electrical contractor to design, specify and determine the exact type of circuiting, wire sizes, cable routing, and other technical related issues of these systems. However, interior designers and space planners are often...

Plumbing System Criteria

Furnace Parts

Plumbing generally includes water supply and sewerage piping for potable water, drains, waste piping, and vent piping. It also includes plumbing fixtures, pipe supports, and other accessories that may be needed to provide a complete plumbing system. Water supply consists essentially of cold and hot water, and in all plumbing installation and design, residential or commercial, certain design criteria need to be taken into account.These include assessment of demand (since generally not all...

Neoclassic Period And 19th Century Revival Styles

Einmachglas Zeichnung

The Neoclassic Period represents the last phase of European classicism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Western Europe and the United States. The period is characterized by monu-mentality, sparing application of ornament and a stricter use of the orders (Figure 1.43). The movement was basically a reaction to Rococo and Baroque design, and was a period of reminiscence in which architecture and design turned to a variety of historical sources for inspiration mainly Greek, Roman, and...

Environmental Considerations And Human Comfort

Optimum comfort is subjective, and the criteria for achieving it varies from person to person and culture to culture. Nevertheless, these criteria are all interlinked and share basic environmental factors that include Thermal radiation and surrounding surface temperatures FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and disciplines that need to be considered for their impact on the design process. FIGURE 5.1 The space planner trying to juggle some of the many issues and...

An Innovative Approach To Space Planning And Design

An understanding of the use and allocation of space is a cornerstone in the many design disciplines that shape our built environment today. Knowledge of space planning and programming are essential tools in conceiving a successful project. Programming and space planning, once considered pre-design services by architects, have now taken their roles as an integral part of the entire design process from conception of the project right through to the analysis of how the occupants use the new...

Factors That Influence Project Costs

Factors That Influence Construction Cost

There are a number of important factors that influence a project's final cost, not just construction costs and furnishing expenses (Figure 6.1). The client often prepares a budget that includes anticipated cost schedule. Below are some of the major elements that will impact the projects final costs. Building Type The type of occupancy is considered one of the major cost variables. It defines what features the building is likely to have. For example, a townhouse has entirely different cost...

Technical Drawing And Drafting Techniques

Facade Elevation Oblique Projection

Pragmatically, architectural drawings are essentially one of two types. The first type is a technical format, e.g. working drawings (also called construction or production drawings). The second type of drawing is graphic and artistic in nature and tends to be more creative, such as design, presentations or concept drawings.Working drawings will typically contain much more data and information than graphic drawings (Figure 4.6). Such information would likely include dimensions, material and...

Computer Aided Cost Estimation Estimating Software Packages

The possibilities for automating and controlling your estimating spreadsheets are unlimited, and there are many tools that developers and contractors can use to estimate more effectively and efficiently. Moreover, there are currently many computer aided cost estimation software systems on the market. These range in sophistication from simple spreadsheet calculation software packages to integrated systems involving design and price negotiation over the Internet. While these proprietary packages...

Perspective Drawing

One Point Perspective Drawing Interior

Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. The general principle behind it is simple, and shares many features with the way people actually perceive space and objects in it. It depends essentially on four interconnected criteria that will invariably affect the final image the level of our eyes when viewing the scene or object, and thus determining the horizon line, the distance from the picture plane to the object, the distance from the station...

The Security Equation

The Oklahoma City bombing and World Trade Center disasters highlighted the lack of adequate security in public facilities as well as in the workplace. But today's disasters come in different shapes and forms, from inside or outside the building. Even disgruntled employees can become potential time bombs. Planners must, therefore, study all aspects of security including the new challenges they face today, whether it concerns employees, the building's structure, or the business. Following the...

Psychological And Social Settings

Office Chair Design Section Drawing

Innovative space planning and interior design should offer solutions that enhance communication and teamwork, support business processes and improve staff welfare and morale. Indeed, well-designed interior spaces should respond to the psychological, social and physical needs of the people using them. Often, a basic understanding of these human needs are easily determined and action taken to achieve a design solution. In other cases the particular needs are determined during the programming...

Micro Station

Microstation Rendering

MicroStation is the keystone of Bentley's solutions for building, civil engineering, transportation, process plants, discrete manufacturing facilities, utilities and telecommunication networks. Microstation PowerDraft provides industry-recognized tools for 2D and simple 3D production drafting. Bentley View is a powerful viewing and printing application that extends the programs accessibility of engineering data, and Bentley Redline combines easy-to-use markup tools with the viewing and printing...

Loss from Natural Disasters Fire Floods and Earthquakes

Space planners and facilities professionals must ensure that disaster preparedness programs are put in place to combat the potential toll of natural forces such as floods, fires and earthquakes. Security expert Larry Chase says, Flood waters often carry debris that can ram and rupture flammable liquid tanks or piping. These liquids, generally lighter than water, can float into areas where they might come into contact with an ignition source. Electric short circuits and broken gas lines are...

Herman Miller

Northern Research Station Directors

Herman Miller, Inc., is a Zeeland, Michigan, based firm, and is a leading global provider of office furniture and services that support work environments. Its rise to acknowledged international leadership in the production of progressively designed furniture began in 1946, when its design director George Nelson recruited Charles Eames. The firm has been one of the dominating forces in the international furniture market over the last thirty years and has contributed greatly to the widespread...

Ergonomics

Time Savers Anthropometrics

Ergonomics is the science of making the work environment safer and more comfortable for workers using design and anthropometric data. It is basically a user-centered approach that FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001 FIGURE 5.13 Anthropometric data kitchen clearance dimensions. From De Chiara, Joseph, Panero, Julius, Time-Saver Standards for...

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Figure 148

Quickborner Team Burolandschaft

Famous chair and ottoman by Charles and Ray Eames. Courtesy Herman Miller, Inc. Cranbrook, which had much in common with the Bauhaus, also had a major impact on American design, art, and architecture of the 20th century. Saarinen's son Eero studied architecture at Yale and then went to Cranbrook to work with is father. In 1941, Eero Saarinen won first prize with Charles Eames in the International Functional Furniture Competition conducted by New York's Museum of Modern Art. Saarinen discounted...

Plumbing Plans

Plumbing Abbreviations Drawings

Except for small projects like residences, plumbing plans are normally executed by the mechanical engineer. Planners and designers should be familiar with standard plumbing plan symbols, examples of which are shown in Figure 11.10. FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From Massey, Howard, C, Estimating Plumbing Costs, Craftsman Book Company, Carlsbad, CA FIGURE 11.9 Illustrates plumbing and drainage layout for a single family residence. From...

Carpet Nbs Ir75-950 Tested

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