Acknowledgments xiii About the Author xv Foreword xvii

Chapter One: History and Overview 1

Introduction 2

Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt 2

Space Planning, Furniture, and Design in Antiquity 4

Greece 14

Rome 21

Middle Ages 27

The Renaissance 34

The Baroque and Rococo 34

Neoclassic Period and 19th Century Revival Styles 41

Recent History—The Leap Forward 46

Chapter Two: Design Methodology 63

General Overview 64

Programming Phase: Creating the Brief or Program 66

Schematic Design Phase: Concept Development 82

Design Development Phase 90

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Construction Document Phase 90

Bidding (Tendering) Phase 92

Contract Administration: Execution and Supervision Phase 97

Feedback and Post-occupancy Evaluation 102

Additional Services 103

Chapter Three: Space Planning and Design Fundamentals 105

General Overview 106

Functional Aspects 108

Aesthetic Aspects 112

Design Principles 112

Elements of Interior Design 130

Chapter Four: Communication and Drafting Methods 143

General Overview 144

Lettering 150

Technical Drawing and Drafting Techniques 152

Perspective Drawing 164

Freehand Sketching 171

Presentation Techniques 171

Renderings 176

Building Models 177

Chapter Five: Human, Social, and Psychological Factors 187

General Considerations and Corporate Image 188

Environmental Considerations and Human Comfort 189

Lighting 198

Anthropometrics 207

Ergonomics 209

Psychological and Social Settings 216

Chapter Six: Project Cost Analysis 223

General Overview 224

Factors That Influence Project Costs 225

Methods of Estimating 233

Computer Aided Cost Estimation: Estimating Software Packages 242

Chapter 7: Furniture and Furnishings:

Assessment and Procurement 247

General Overview 248

Main Furniture Styles 248

The State of the Furniture Industry Today 255

Types of Furniture 281

Furniture Procurement 284

Fabrics 286

Fabric Selection 289

Flooring 289

Wall Treatments 292

Chapter Eight: Building Codes and Standards 295

General Overview 296

Historical Overview of Building Codes and Standards 297

Model Code Organizations 301

Institutes and Standards Organizations 305

Regulations 307

National Organizations 310

Occupancy Requirements, Classifications and Loads 311

Adjuncts to Building Codes 317

Test Ratings and Fire Resistant Materials and Finishes 318

Means of Egress 321

Miscellaneous Issues 332

Chapter Nine: Barrier Free Design—ADA Requirements 337

General Overview 338

Accessibility Guidelines 341

Accessible Routes 342

Doors and Doorways 343

Plumbing Fixtures and Public Lavatories 346

Stairs and Ramps 360

Floor Surfaces and Tactile Pavings (Detectable Warnings) 362

Public Telephones 362

Protruding Objects 365

Signage and Alarms 368

Miscellaneous Issues 369

Chapter 10: Computer Drafting and Software Systems 379

General Overview: Computer Drafting Developments 380

Going Online: Internet-enabled Design 381

Use of Color in Computer Aided Design 382

CAD Software Systems 383

System Requirements 413

Chapter Eleven: Technical Issues 415

General Historic Overview 416

Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Systems (HVAC) 417

Electrical Services 423

Plumbing Services 428

Fire Protection 438

Vertical and Horizontal Communications Systems (Conveyance) 440

Maintenance and Follow-Up 444

The Future—What Lies Ahead? 445

Chapter Twelve: Security Issues 447

The Security Equation 448

Types of Security Threats 450

Defining Security Needs and the Role of the Space Planner 452

Methods for Improving Safety and Security 454

Egress Planning and Emergency Management 460

The Parking Problem 460

New GSA (General Services Administration) Standards 461

Legal and Liability Issues 462

Chapter Thirteen: Specification Writing 463

General Overview 464

Specification Material Sources 465

Types of Specifications 466

Organizing the Project Manual 470

Writing and Coordination Guidelines 472

Specification Format and Organization 477

Specification Section Format 478

Furniture Specifications 486

Automated Specification Writing Systems 495

The Problem of Liability 497

Chapter Fourteen: Epilogue and Future Trends 499

General Overview 500

Glossary 505

Bibliography 517

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