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FIGURE 2.2 Diagrams showing one of the approaches used to define and structure collected data.

flexibility and adaptability into a design's infrastructure to be able to respond to changing conditions logically and promptly. In the absence of built-in flexibility and adaptability, any required spatial reconfiguration resulting from changes in business strategies, workforce composition and technology applications can be costly and disruptive.

Data Collection

Once the goals and objectives are defined, the planner proceeds with the task of information gathering. The collected data should be organized in a manner that is both methodical and easily accessible. A successful program needs the collection of information that answers pertinent questions about the following:

1. Personnel: what are the demographics of employees within the facility, what are their work habits, characteristics, and how do they interact with each other?

2. Work function: defining the tasks that are to be performed, and how they fit into the organization hierarchy. What are the needs for privacy? What special equipment is required to function efficiently, and are there specific criteria for individual workstations?

3. Departmental and interdepartmental communication: the primary focus is to establish spatial relationships or adjacency requirements between the various elements to determine placement in the space (Figure 2.3). The first task is to conduct a communication analysis starting with a study of individual communication patterns. This is then expanded into task-related groups, and then to larger groups or departments (Figures 2.4a, 2.4b). The analysis should determine the personnel relationships and priorities relevant to the work flow and the types of interdepartmental contacts required, whether contacts are made by telephone, in person, or in writing, their frequency of communication, and their need for shared facilities as shown in these examples.

4. Communication with the public: determine the frequency and nature of the contact, how much interaction there is with personnel, and whether there are special facilities or services needed for this contact such as waiting rooms, dining facilities, or auditoriums. Special facilities and services needed for contact with the public include easily understood graphics.

5. Communication and information relevant to paper flow: determine the procedure for document distribution, and the requirements for administrative personnel, typists, etc. to function efficiently (Figure 2.5).

6. Archives and record storage: determine the type and size of archive and record storage facilities needed, their preferred location, and whether any of these facilities will be shared.

7. Special facilities and equipment: determine what they are, what their primary function is, who uses them, and whether their function entails special requirements. Also, what furniture and equipment is needed for areas like mailrooms, conference rooms, lounges and

FIGURE 2.3 Adjacency matrix identifies proximity requirements for a residence and communications for a counseling center.


FIGURE 2.3 Adjacency matrix identifies proximity requirements for a residence and communications for a counseling center.

interdepartmental libraries. Also determine the spatial and technical requirements for items like vaults, computers, food service, and communications systems. 8. Existing equipment: prepare an inventory of all equipment and its condition for re-use.

The accumulated information should give the planner a comprehensive and pristine picture of the client's organization, culture and mode of operation. Additionally, it should clarify questions like the type of spaces envisaged, how they will be used, their relationships to each other, the number of people and equipment to be housed, code requirements, total budget available, building security needs, and the anticipated expansion rate of the company. Typical approaches to compiling information include the following.

Review of Existing Documents

In-depth reviews and analysis of relevant documents including organizational brochures, charts and records showing growth patterns, human resource and technology policies, business and management plans and vision gives planners the necessary insight into the organization's operating procedures, business strategies and objectives, and management style. It also puts the organization within a context for interpreting its past, present and future facilities needs.

Interviews and Field Surveys

The space planner is also required to conduct field surveys and interviews at different levels of key personnel within the organization, because the review of existing documents alone is rarely sufficient to achieve a satisfactory solution (Figures 2.6a, b, c). In addition, this type of data collection helps quantify and clarify the requirements for work flow, equipment, and special facilities. Questionnaires, personal interviews, and field surveys are vital investigative tools, and also help to identify problems possible solutions within an organization. Normally, an executive or senior staff member of the organization will accompany the interviewer on a guided walk-through of the facility.

A field survey of an existing building may consist of photographs and field measurements. The field measurements are used to prepare scaled drawings (preferably '/4 inch or !/> inch scale) that will form the basis for the final design. Where the building is still under construction, the information can be taken from the contract documents or, when the building is completed, from the as built drawings. Field surveys are an integral part of the programmatic process, especially where existing buildings are concerned, because they can furnish essential information including:

• Location and size of the various elements, both structural (exterior walls, columns, interior bearing walls, structural core), and non-structural (non-bearing partitions, built-ins)




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