I | 11 Tsiiniln-r

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FIGURE 2.6b Typical questionnaire form used in the information gathering process. (Courtesy Herman Miller, Inc.)


Tcnti: Name__Nunihcr of Icjiii Mrmhtn__

Dupji Innrril_

I Wliai pcrccnte^e Óf tnmí do you spïml will) ^Viir li-im?

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17, Is I'll ere any topic roí previonií-ly cHLTrtül fliïi wftild iiiiprnvc yugrliani spacc.-'

FIGURE 2.6c Typical questionnaire form used in the information gathering process. (Courtesy Herman Miller, Inc.)

• Location and size of architectural elements like windows, doors, stairs

• Heights of ceilings, doors, windows, openings

• Location, configuration, and condition of electrical, plumbing, and mechanical outlets and systems

• Location and configuration of telephone lines and other communications outlets

• Amount of available natural light, views, and noise problems

• Potential environmental (asbestos, lead paint and radon) and other problems that may exist

• When existing furniture and equipment is to be reused, a detailed inventory and dimensioning is necessary

Observe the Prevailing Conditions

Analysis of existing conditions and space plans supplements and verifies information obtained from interviews, questionnaires, and field surveys. It also gives greater insight to the client's organization, facilitates, and corporate culture, identifying strengths as well as weaknesses within the organization and their impact on the final program. In addition to compiling information reflecting the organization's goals and objectives, the development of a set of preliminary space standards needs to be initiated and addressed at this point.

Data Analysis: Programmatic Concepts

Upon substantial completion of the data gathering process, one proceeds with a comprehensive analysis of the information collected. Conventional configurations of space criteria have changed dramatically over the years.Today, the most critical factors that impact the size and configuration of the space are area and spatial adjacencies. Another important factor is the influx of new technology, which has necessitated the provision of additional space for equipment. Other influencing factors include identifying future needs, defining working relationships, including traffic flow of personnel, visitors, and goods; grouping of various systems (plumbing, HVAC, electrical); need for natural light and ventilation; identifying public and private zones and functions; and other issues such as security, etc. The analysis process may require revising the existing organization charts, grouping of functions, and scheduling when the facility is to be used or moved into.

An organization's space needs may be determined in a variety of ways. The client may furnish the planner with a pre-prepared list of existing or perceived space needs. Such a list may be arbitrary and would be subject to on-going review and development, based on current corporate space standards. Space area requirements may also be determined by studying the numbers of persons to be accommodated and multiplying this number by the needs of a single person's requirements, the size of equipment needed, and the space needs for the activity being designed for.

General space standards guidelines have been developed and updated over time for different functions and activities, and are discussed in greater detail in Chapter Six. It is sufficient here to mention that computer software and computer programming now play a major role in programming analysis and data tabulations.

Interpretation of the Data: Articulating Client's Needs

Once the information is compiled, organized, and analyzed, the planner can begin to interpret the data for the final report. The client's needs are defined and balanced against the resources available for the project.This allows the planner to devise a budget that will accommodate as many of the client's needs as possible. Most CEOs recognize that space generally represents their second largest expenditure after staffing. Recent studies show that the average Fortune 500 company has approximately 25 percent of total assets tied up in real estate. It is not surprising therefore, that corporations are constantly looking for ways to reduce real estate costs by utilizing their existing space to the maximum.

While the effective use of space is essential, space flexibility and adaptability to change is becoming increasingly more important than space efficiency. The planner should ensure that the client is made aware that an office infrastructure which supports change can reap long term dividends for the firm.

Statement of Problem: Defining the Program

The final statement of the problem is the sum total of what is agreed upon by the client and the programmer, and reflects the most important aspects of the project, serving as the basis for initiating the design process. In small projects, the program document may be produced in an informal format that is mainly intended for use by the designer as an internal tool. However, particularly in larger and more complex projects where a formal designer/client relationship exists, the program is generally produced as a bound document and presented to the client for formal approval. Moreover, it serves as the criteria by which the results are evaluated. The program in its final form, should address issues like:

• Goals and objectives of the organization. These consist of both functional goals (e.g., greater operational efficiency, or a larger space), and aesthetic goals (e.g., enhancing corporate image).

• Organizational structure, including primary, secondary, shared and part-time activities such as conference/meeting rooms, copy areas, kitchen/tea areas and reception areas.

• User requirements, including determination of user characteristics and demographics (age, sex, physical disabilities), number and function of employees and groups—current and future—personal preferences and location of user or activity space.

• Square footage requirements. Space is an increasingly valuable and costly resource. Space allocation and square-footage needs should be determined by activity areas for each user group, equipment, and type of support function, as well as for non-assigned space needs (circulation space, storage rooms, toilets and other amenities). These space standards should reflect flexibility and be driven by technology and new work habits, but when you plan for technology, you plan for change (Figure 2.7). Offices today may include various types of work stations, These can vary from static and cluster formations to high-churn, flexible team or mobile temporary environments. This mix typically evolves as the organization itself evolves.

• Adjacency requirements (and degree of adjacency). Spatial relationships for employees, user groups, and support activities (zoning of related activities, functional groups and departments, where close proximity to one another enhances efficiency) are defined.

• Staffing needs. Current and projected staffing needs are established, based on projected company growth and the impact of advances in communications technology.

• Revision of traditional design standards for various activities, support functions, and equipment, taking into account emerging trends in communication technologies and its impact on the individual's needs and work habits (Figure 2.8).

• Furniture and equipment requirements: these should be carefully selected to incorporate built-in mechanisms that give it flexibility, and adaptability. Good seating is essential to high performance. Furniture should also be capable of reconfiguration when required, and equipment should include upgrading options whenever possible (Figure 2.9).

• Sound control, taking into account the result of emerging voice recognition technologies on reporting and communication procedures and the effect of noise on privacy and production levels (Figure 2.10).

• Environmental requirements for the design of electro-mechanical systems such as lighting, acoustics, ventilation, heating and cooling.

• Security issues and requirements. The importance of security has increased dramatically following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing and the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, with new security guidelines now in place. Security related issues are discussed in some depth in Chapter Twelve. It should be noted, however, that traditional office buildings rarely address security needs adequately. Moreover, lobbies and entrances, particularly those of the federal government and other institutions, were not designed to accommodate the cumbersome security equipment that current circumstances dictate, and which is likely to be with us for the foreseeable future. The planner can capitalize on evolving advances in technology to make security stations less imposing and more reassuring. The need for increased security should be balanced and not hamper a building's efficiency.

• Aesthetic objectives, and goals. The internal aesthetic requirements as seen by employees from within the organization are not identical to those viewed by visitors and clients from without. Surveys have consistently shown that aesthetics can significantly impact an employee's health and emotional well being within the workplace; on the other hand, the primary importance of a firm's corporate image is reflected in how the public perceives the corporation.


As we proceed to design for today's working environment, we often find new criteria evolving in tandem with traditional ones. The global competitive marketplace coupled with rapidly rising real estate costs is placing increasing pressure on many American and European firms to reorganize, downsize, and maximize space and, in the process, formulate new space standards. In practice, this has resulted in a more innovative approach to space planning, witnessing a general departure from the historically closed space environment to a greater acceptance of open space work and multi-functional environments that downplay office hierarchies and instill a sense of community in its members, while simultaneously allowing for better communications and encouraging the continuous flow of ideas and creativity. This has been further facilitated by the fact that open spaces offer greater flexibility and are generally easier to handle than cellular or partitioned ones.

During the earlier programming phase, data was collected, analyzed, interpreted, and finally executed in the form of a written project brief that was approved by the client. Functional solutions reflecting the client's needs and goals are clearly articulated in this document. This facilitates the transition from gathering and analysis of data to its utilization in the development of a schematic design, which can now begin. It should be noted that this phase of the space planning process is actually a two and three-dimensional translation of the project program. During this phase of the project, a schematic space plan is developed in parallel with the interior designer's preliminary design concepts for finishes and furniture. If the project is not very large or complicated, the same individual (or team) can do both the schematic space plan and the schematic design.

The first task is to generate an environmentally friendly layout that effectively addresses the client's previously stated needs, goals and objectives. Regardless of the complexity of the program, there is a methodical approach to the development of a space plan which is generally achieved through the following:

Selecting and Evaluating the Space

Many preliminary space planning decisions are developed within the context of the organization's prevailing conditions. Diagrams showing the general functional relationships required

FIGURE 2.7 An example of workstation flexibility in today's office environment. (From TeKnion Corp., Furniture for the Future of Business)




Average Spate per Lmployee IBlsq. fl.

258 sq ft

U.K. ufïïtc standards are qinie similar in the U.S. and lend io bd smaller (falui en the Furopwn cnntirtcnl-



Seder MatuigjcrninccUir Manager/Head d" DepI

fio feisiojial

Sctrciari aEf'Adniini iirauen

Clerical Dealer (Trader)

Type of Spsce PnVsli Qfiici Privale Ofiicc Private OfBeç (msup UoujjL'Open Plan Opett Flan Open Plan finuup Room/Upcn Pian

Typical Offioc Size

in the U.S., oPTucs arc trending Iflwuds downai/Jn^ fur pmfcsiional and managt ria I job grades per the tauïl tetetil 1FMA surveys,


Job runction Upper Martii^CWiiilt Senior Management Middle MaraganUSt Sthrftr Professional TEchfliCal.'Prfl fcniinttjll Senior Cterieal Clerical

Space per Employee - J 994

ÎS9 KJ. ft.

26* in

200 sq. ft.

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