## Perspective Drawing

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Perspective drawing is a system for representing three-dimensional space on a flat surface. The general principle behind it is simple, and shares many features with the way people actually perceive space and objects in it. It depends essentially on four interconnected criteria that will invariably affect the final image: the level of our eyes when viewing the scene or object, and thus determining the horizon line, the distance from the picture plane to the object, the distance from the station point to the object and cone of vision, and the angle of object to the picture plane (Figure 4.15).

The law of perspective—parallel lines that lie in the same plane will appear to converge at a point on the horizon (at the eye level).The point of apparent convergence is called the vanishing point (VP). This is true whether we view an object placed at an angle, such as a building seen from the corner or look into a space, such as a room, (Figures 4.16, 4.17). In essence, there are three basic forms of perspective drawings, they are:

• One-point perspective

• Two-point perspective

• Three-point perspective

One-Point Perspective (Parallel Perspective)

The one-point perspective depicts a building or interior space with one side parallel to the picture plane (perpendicular to the observer's line of sight). All vertical and horizontal lines within these planes remain vertical and horizontal, while the receding parallel sides are formed by converging lines to a single point, called the vanishing point (VP), which is usually positioned within the view. Illustrations in Figures 4.18 and 4.19 are examples of typical one-point perspectives.

To set up a one-point perspective, connect the corners of the elevation to the vanishing point and mark off the depth via the lines of sight in the plan. One-point perspectives are often used to draw interiors, as they give an accurate depiction of the facing wall, in addition to observation of both receding side walls.

FIGURE 4.15 Perspective drawing depends essentially on the level of our eyes when viewing a scene or object (the horizon), and our distance from the object.When viewing an object that is below the horizon line, the top side of the object will be visible. When viewing an object that is divided by the horizon line, neither top nor bottom will be visible. Where the object is above eye level, the bottom of the object will be visible. (From Ching, Francis D.K., with Juroszek, Steven P, Design Drawing, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1998)

FIGURE 4.15 Perspective drawing depends essentially on the level of our eyes when viewing a scene or object (the horizon), and our distance from the object.When viewing an object that is below the horizon line, the top side of the object will be visible. When viewing an object that is divided by the horizon line, neither top nor bottom will be visible. Where the object is above eye level, the bottom of the object will be visible. (From Ching, Francis D.K., with Juroszek, Steven P, Design Drawing, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1998)

### Two-Point Perspective

In two-point perspective, the verticality of vertical lines is maintained, but both major sets of horizontal lines are oblique to the picture plane, and both sets have their own vanishing points (Figure 4.20). Our distance from an object seen at an angle determines where the vanishing points lie on the horizon. To set up a two-point perspective, connect the corner height line to the right and left vanishing points and with the lines of sight in the plan, mark off the depth of the object. Constructing a two-point perspective view is basically the same as that for a one-point perspective except that you're required to establish two vanishing points. Shade and shadow are often used in perspective drawings to give us a better perception of the depth and form of a space or object. The drawing of shadows and reflections both follow the same immutable rules of perspective.

FIGURE 4.16 Lines that are parallel to each other in a scene converge toward a common point at eye level. The point at which these lines converge is called the Vanishing Point. (From Montague, John, Basic Perspective Drawing: A Visual Approach, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1998)
FIGURE 4.17 The height of the station point determines how a building or object is seen. (From Ching, Francis D.K., with Juroszek, Steven P, Design Drawing, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1998)
FIGURE 4.18 Two examples of one-point perspective. (Drawing 4.18B from Ching, Francis D.K., with Juroszek, Steven P, Design Drawing, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1998)

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### Responses

• carmela
What is prespective in interior designing?
2 years ago
• Delfio Napolitani
How to draw architectural interior perspectives?
2 years ago
• Hagos
How to draw a 2 point perspective interior design?
9 months ago
• ville-veik
How to draw a house in two point perspective pdf?
9 months ago