Hydraulic Elevators

In a plunger hydraulic elevator, a plunger attached to the bottom of the car pushes against oil that is under pressure. Hydraulic elevators do not need penthouses. Because of the lower speeds and piston length limit, hydraulic elevators are used only in buildings up to six stories in height. A machine room containing the hoisting equipment, control equipment, and sheaves for raising and lowering the car is located at or near the bottom landing. The elevator has no cables, drums, traction...

Acoustic Privacy in Bathrooms

Residential bathrooms are inherently reverberant spaces (which is why we sound so good when we sing in the shower) that demand acoustic privacy. The sounds of flushing toilets, spraying showers, running water, and whirring fans can be difficult to isolate inside a bathroom. In addition, we prefer to keep our bathroom activities acoustically private and separate from adjacent spaces. Separating the bathroom from bedrooms by intervening closets and hallways isolates the sound. The construction of...

Schools

Schools have a variety of spaces and a variety of acoustical environments. Auditoriums need sound systems for some activities. Integrating loudspeakers into the design without creating large obstructions can be architecturally difficult, and they should be designed early in the process. Some schools use a modified gym or cafeteria for musical and theatrical presentations. If the space includes large areas of sound-absorbing materials, it will work poorly for use as an auditorium. Classrooms are...

Exit Signs

Exit signs (Fig. 43-2) are usually required wherever two or more exits are mandated by code. Exit signs are located at the doors of all stair enclosures, exit passageways, and horizontal exits on all floors. An exit sign is placed at an exterior exit door and at any door exiting a space or area when the direction of egress is unclear. An exit sign is usually required at a door, with directional signs at other places. Some smaller occupancies may not require exit signs. Within an exit access,...

Vertical Lifts

Vertical lifts are related to elevators. They include freight elevators, dumbwaiters, and ejection lifts. Design factors for freight elevators include the amount of weight that must be transported per hour, the size of each load, the method of loading, and the distance of travel. The type of load, type of doors, and speed and capacity of cars is also considered. For low rises below 18 meters (60 ft), hydraulic elevators provide accurately controlled, smooth operation and accurate automatic...

Electrical Design For Residences

Residential electrical requirements are set by NFPA 70A, Electrical Code for One & Two Family Dwellings, which sets the distances for electrical outlets and mandates the use of GFCIs in wet locations. Electrical outlets are not permitted directly above baseboard heating units in newer buildings. Ranges and ovens, open-top gas broiler units, clothes dryers, and water heaters have their own specific code requirements or standards. Electrical codes require that every room, hallway, stairway,...

Terminology

By definition, noncombustible materials will not ignite and burn when subjected to fire. Noncombustible materials are used in a building to prevent the substantial spread of fire. Noncombustible building materials are composed of steel, iron, concrete, and masonry. Their actual performance in a fire depends on how they are used. Combustible materials will ignite and continue to burn when a flame source is removed. Wood can be chemically treated for some fire resistance. It is then called...

Telephone Systems

Telephone system equipment is either privately owned or is provided as part of the local phone service. Every building requires a central switching room or area where incoming telephone service is connected to the building's phone system. This is typically in the basement or on the ground floor as close as possible to the telephone service entrance. A small building may need only a small panel located in the mechanical room or closet. The number of phones serviced and the size of the switching...

Future Developments

A handful of companies are beginning to roll out a new generation of household appliances with Internet or network capability and a range of potential uses. Networked appliances are already available in Asia, and are expected to be available in the United States soon. Some appliances communicate with each other through the home electrical system, while most use the telephone line and an Internet service provider. Manufacturers are hesitant to bring products out, primarily in response to...

Radioactive Air Contaminants

Soil, groundwater, and air all over the United States. Radon can move through soil and into buildings through cracks and openings in the foundation around plumbing, especially below grade. Sometimes radon enters the home through well water. In a small number of homes, the building materials can give off radon, too. However, building materials rarely cause radon problems by themselves. Radon decays rapidly, releasing radiation as it does. If radon becomes concentrated within a building, it may...

Physiological Effects Of Daylighting

In proper amounts, ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun help our bodies produce vitamin D and keep the skin healthy. In addition, UV light dilates skin capillaries, causes blood pressure to fall slightly, creates a feeling of well-being, quickens the pulse rate and appetite, and stimulates energetic activity, perhaps even increasing work activity. On the other hand, overexposure to UV rays can damage the skin and cause malignant tumors and cataracts. We receive almost no UV in an artificially lit...

Residential Heat Pumps for Air Conditioning

To pump heat from outside in the winter. Room size heat pumps may distribute heating or cooling from water to air or from air to air. As we discussed previously, water source units are called hydronic heat pumps. They require a piping loop connected to a central boiler, and a cooling tower. Heat pumps are usually located on the south side of the building for heating and cooling, especially in cooler climates. A sunscreen can be added in the summer. For cooling, heat pumps use a normal...

Acoustic Design

The history of modern acoustics begins with the design of the Fogg Art Museum Lecture Hall at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. When the building was first built in 1895, the acoustics of the main Lecture Hall space were a disaster, and the space could not be used for lectures. A 27-year-old new assistant professor in the Physics Department, Wallace Clement Sabine, was asked to find a solution. He started by considering the age-old problem of why the acoustics of some rooms were...

Paints Stains and Other Coatings

The types of VOCs and the rate at which they are emitted by paints depend on the chemical makeup, application, indoor environment, and surface characteristics of the substrate. Water-, oil-, or solvent-based paints all emit aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Latex- and solvent-based paints may give off benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethanol, methanol, and other VOCs. Paints can continue to emit VOCs even after drying, with water-borne paints emitting some chemicals even...

Blocking Exterior Noise

The sounds of cars, trucks, airplanes, and trains outside the building vary with the time of day and volume of traffic. Traffic noise ranges from higher pitched horns and squealing brakes to low-frequency truck motors. Other noise sources coming from the building's neigh borhood might include construction noise, playgrounds, industrial plants, and sports arenas. On-site noises can include children's play areas, refuse collection, and delivery or garage areas. Sound can also be reflected from...

Construction Waste

It is best to reuse, then to use up, and to recycle last of ( all. This applies to the construction and operation of the building. As interior designers, we can work with contractors to ensure that the materials removed during renovation and the waste generated by construction has a second life, possibly by including recycling requirements in demolition specifications. Nationwide, demolition debris adds up to 165 mil lion tons of waste per year. Some of it, especially asphalt, concrete, bricks,...

Special Elevator Designs

In an observation car, a glass-enclosed car is attached at the back to a traction lifting mechanism behind the car. The back is treated as a screen to hide the equipment. Observation cars can also be designed with hydraulic lift mechanisms and cantilevered cars. When located on an outside wall, no shaft space is used within the building, increasing usable interior space and saving costs. Inclined elevators are cars that ride up a diagonal path on inclined rails, pulled up by a traction cable....

Aq

An elevator is an efficient way to move people from one floor to another without taking up an excessive amount of floor space. However, nobody likes to stand and wait for an elevator. Escalators move more people more quickly. You can't be trapped on an escalator in a power failure, and escalators don't require emergency power in the event of a power interruption, you simply walk up or down the stationary escalator as though it were a stairway. An escalator is a power-driven stairway consisting...

Building Materials

The selection of building materials affects both the quality of the building itself and the environment beyond the building. When we look at the energy efficiency of a building, we should also consider the embodied energy used to manufacture and transport the materials from which the building is made. tal impact involves the energy cost to mine, fabricate, and transport them. Power plants that supply electricity for buildings use very large quantities of water, which is returned at a warmer...

Types Of Hvac Systems

There are hundreds of types of HVAC systems in use in large buildings, but most can be classified into one of four main categories. One type, direct refrigerant systems, are heating and cooling systems that respond directly to the needs of individual zones. The other three, all-air, air and water, and all-water systems, produce heating and cooling in a central location, far from some zones. Air-handling equipment for these last three systems is either central or located on each floor. As the...

Rural Sewage Treatment

In times past, rural wastes ended up in a cesspool, a porous underground container of stone or brick, which allowed sewage to seep into the surrounding soil. Cesspools did not remove disease-causing organisms. Within a short time, the surrounding soil became clogged with solids, and the sewage overflowed onto the surface of the ground and backed up into fixtures inside the building. Cesspools have mostly been replaced by septic systems (Fig. 11-1). A typical septic system consists of a septic...

Controlling VOCs

Some building materials may act as sponges for VOCs, absorbing them for later release. Carpeting, ceiling tiles, and freestanding partitions have high surface areas that can absorb VOCs. Rougher surfaces and lower ventilation rates increase absorption. Higher air temperatures increase VOC emissions and air concentrations. VOC emissions can be managed by limiting sources, providing proper ventilation, and controlling the relative humidity of the air. The stability of materials has an impact on...

Between Floors And Ceilings

A plenum is an enclosed portion of the building structure that is designed to allow the movement of air, forming part of an air distribution system. The term plenum is specifically used for the chamber at the top of a furnace, also called a bonnet, from which ducts emerge to conduct heated or conditioned air to the inhabited spaces of the building. It is also commonly used to refer to the open area between the bottom of a floor structure and the top of the ceiling assembly below. In some cases,...

Fans

Mechanical ventilation options include unit ventilator fans on the outside wall of each room to circulate room air and replace a fraction of it with outdoor air. Window or through-wall air-conditioning units can also be run as fans. A central heating and cooling system with coils of hot or chilled water will temper the air in room ventilation units. Fixed location fans can provide a reliable, positive airflow to an interior space. Some residences have a principal exhaust fan designed for quiet,...

Fenestration

The fenestration of a building its windows, skylights, and clerestories (high windows) greatly influences the amount of heat gain and loss, as well as the infiltration and ventilation. The proportion of glass on the exterior affects energy conservation and thermal comfort. Windows can be used to improve energy conservation by admitting solar thermal energy, providing natural ventilation for cooling, and reducing the need for artificial illumination. The proper amount of fenestration is...

Plumbing Considerations For Appliances

Although such appliances as dishwashers and clothes washers are not usually considered to be plumbing fixtures, we are including them here as an aid to interior designers, who frequently assist clients in selecting them, and who locate them on their plans. We also discuss appliances under the section on electricity. A conventional dishwasher uses 45 to 68 liters (12-18 gallons) of water per cycle, much of it heated beyond the 49 C (120 F) household hot water supply. Optional shorter cycles use...

Wells

Wells supply water of more reliable quantity and quality than a rainwater system. Water near the surface may have seeped into the ground from the immediate area, and may be contaminated by sewage, barnyards, outhouses, or garbage dumps nearby. Deep wells are expensive to drill, but the water deep underground comes from hundreds of miles away, and the long trip filters out most bacteria. Well water sometimes contains dissolved minerals, most of which are harmless. Hard water results from calcium...

Vertical Treatments

Vertical treatments, such as curtains, draperies, window i( shades, and large wall hangings or tapestries are tested under NFPA 701. Any vertical finish exposed to air on both sides may be covered. NFPA 701 encompasses two separate pass fail tests. A small-scale test is used for straight hanging pieces. A large-scale test applies to fabrics used in folds, like gathered drapery. When vertical treatments cover a large area, they may also be required to pass the Steiner tunnel test. When napped,...

Nontested Finishes

Sometimes finishes geared to residential use or from smaller manufacturers with specialty items have not been tested. The interior designer must then have the finish tested or make sure it is properly treated to meet code requirements. Depending on the situation, testing companies can be very costly to use, as they may have to simulate actual installations. It is often more cost effective to have a finish treated for fire retardance. Flame-resistant finishes add fire-re-tardant coatings to...

Electrical Wiring and Distribution

As you are already aware, wires that carry electrical current are called conductors. They extend from the circuit breaker boxes to individual switches, lights, and outlets. Conductors are rated in amperes for their capacity to carry current. Conductor ampacity (capacity in amperes) increases with increasing conductor size and the maximum permissible temperature of the insulation protecting the conductor. Conductors are surrounded by insulation that provides electrical isolation and physical...

Systems for Private Residences

High-speed telecommunications wiring, video cabling, and low-voltage wiring are becoming increasingly important technological upgrades in both new homes and remodeling projects. Prewiring a home in this way provides flexibility and offers the potential to turn any room into a home office, connect any TV to a cable or satellite hookup, or control both inside and outside lighting from one central location. Adding high-tech wiring for advanced communications, entertainment, and security systems...

Rainwater

The earliest agrarian societies depended upon rain for agriculture. Historically, rain falling in the countryside ran into creeks, streams, and rivers, and rivers rarely ran dry. Rainfall was absorbed into the ground, which served as a huge reservoir. The water that accumulated underground emerged as springs and artesian wells, or in lakes, swamps, and marshes. Most of the water that leaked into the ground cleansed itself in the weeks, months, or years it took to get back to an aquifer, which...

Showers

Showers are seen as a quick, no-nonsense way to clean your whole body. They waste lots of fresh running water while we soap and scrub, but do an excellent job rinsing skin and hair. With luck, you get a nice invigorating massage on your back, but a real soak is impossible. If you drop the soap, you may slip and fall retrieving it. It is safer to sit when scrubbing, especially the legs and feet, so an integral seat is a good idea. Some showerheads encourage water waste. A flow of 23 liters (6...

Towel Warmers

Towel warmers (Fig. 24-9) are designed to dry and warm towels, and also serve as a heat source in a bathroom or spa. They are available in electronic and hydronic models, with a variety of styles and finishes. Electric towel warmers are easy to install and fairly flexible as to location. They should not be located where you can reach them while in bath water. Some towel warmers have time clocks to turn them on and off. Models are available that attach to a door's hinge pins, to the wall, or are...

Cooking Food

The enormous hearth typical of medieval and Tudor kitchens was a multipurpose heat source for forging, dying cloth, and other trades in between mealtimes. A large hearth might accommodate a baking oven at each end and have multiple flues. A long horizontal bar up the chimney held pots and cauldrons, and meat was often smoked in the chimney as well. Before the advent of matches in 1831, a tinder-box and flint were used to light the fire, although once lit, glowing coals were preserved overnight...

Physical Characteristics

Even though cloudy or odd-smelling water may not actually be harmful to drink, we generally object to these physical characteristics. Turbidity a muddy or cloudy appearance is caused by suspended clay, silt, or other particles, or by plankton or other small organic material. Color changes can be due to dissolved organic matter, such as decaying vegetation, or other materials like rust. Like turbidity, color changes don't usually threaten health. Unpleasant taste and odor can be caused by...

Natural Convection Heating Units

Radiators and convectors are used to supply heat only in residential and small light-commercial buildings. What we usually call radiators, including both fin-tube radiation devices and old-fashioned cast-iron radiators, actually use convection as their primary heating principle. There are various styles of baseboard and cabinet convection heating units used in smaller buildings. Their appearance and the space they occupy are of concern to the interior designer. When located below a window, they...

Compressed Air And Vacuum Lines

In some urban locations, vacuum lines, compressed air lines, or high-pressure water mains for driving tools were once run below streets as utility systems. Today, gas, electric, and steam are the only energy utilities in common use. An electric-powered compressor in some buildings furnishes compressed air, which is supplied through pipelines for use in workshops and factories. Compressed air is used to power portable tools, clamping devices, and paint sprayers. Air-powered tools tend to be...

Waste Piping Networks

With the advent of readily available supplies of water inside the house, water began to be used to flush wastes down the drain. Water pipes from sinks, lavatories, tubs, showers, water closets (toilets), urinals, and floor drains form a network drained by gravity (Fig. 10-1). In order to preserve the gravity flow, large waste pipes must run downhill, and normal atmospheric pressure must be maintained throughout the system at all times. Clean-outs are located to facilitate removal of solid...

Gasfired Heaters

Vent-free gas heating appliances include unvented, wall-mounted, and freestanding gas heaters and gas fireplaces. They require that a nearby window be kept open a couple of inches for an adequate fresh air supply to prevent oxygen depletion, which results in heat loss. Un-vented gas heaters are similar to unvented kerosene heaters, which have been banned in most states for residential use. Unvented gas heaters produce nitrous oxides, which cause nose, eye, and throat irritation, along with...

Drinking Fountains

Drinking fountains are not permitted in toilet rooms or in the vestibules to toilet rooms, but are often located in the corridor outside. One drinking fountain (water cooler) is typically required for each 75 occupants. In multistory buildings, each floor must have its own fountain. The ADA requires that one drinking fountain per floor be accessible. If there is only one fountain on a floor, it must have water spigots at wheelchair and standard heights. Where there are multiple drinking...

Indirect Water Heaters

Indirect water heaters also use a boiler or furnace as the heat source, but are designed to be one of the least expensive ways to provide hot water when used with a new high-efficiency boiler. Hot water from the boiler is circulated through a heat exchanger in a separate insulated tank. Less commonly, water in a heat exchanger coil circulates through a furnace, then through a water storage tank. These indirect water heaters are purchased as part of a boiler or furnace system, or as a separate...

Office Lighting

Designing lighting for the office means designing for change. Design flexibility into both the overall layout and the degree of control that the individual employee has over his or her workspace. One way to achieve individual flexibility is with addressable ballast technology, which can make use of either a handheld remote control device or a control window that appears on an employee's computer screen, allowing the employee to make adjustments to the ambient light conditions in the immediate...

Modular Office Partitions

Although new office systems are less dependent on fabric-covered cubicles, the majority of offices continue to use these corporate workhorses. In fact, many offices save money and avoid adding to landfills by purchasing refurbished panels. Panels surround workers right at breathing level, and add up to large amounts of square footage. Since modular office partitions absorb pollutants and later release them back into the air, long-term use of older panels can add to their impact on IAQ. Many...

Residential Lighting Controls

In most living spaces, there is a need to adjust the light levels for varying tasks to provide different moods, to lower the color temperature, to increase or reduce contrasts on objects, or simply to provide a reduced level of illumination, and some type of dimming control is recommended. This is true not only for incandescent sources but for fluorescent lamps as well. High-quality electronic dimming ballasts are available for T8, T5, and compact fluorescent lamps for areas where dimming these...

Electrical Service Equipment

There are two separate electrical systems in most buildings. The electrical power system (Fig. 28-1) distributes electrical energy through the building. The electrical signal or communication system, which we look at later, transmits information via telephone, cable TV wires, or other separate data lines. The electrical power service from the utility line may come into the building either overhead or underground. The length of the service run and type of terrain, as well as the installation...

Allair Distribution Systems

Some all-air systems distribute air through a single supply duct and a single return duct. Double-duct systems use two supply ducts and a single return duct. In some smaller buildings, one system serves a single zone, and all spaces in the building receive the same air from the same source. In other, larger buildings, the system may serve a larger number of zones, with the air customized to the needs of each zone. In addition to the number of supply ducts and the number of zones, all-air...

Electronic Teaching Equipment

The use of electronic media for teaching is growing and changing rapidly. A differentiation is generally made between passive mode and interactive mode educational computer use. Passive-mode usage makes all recorded material available to students via some form of information retrieval technology, including printing, audio, and video means. Passive-modes include both conventional and electronic library forms. In interactive modes, each student uses a computer-teaching terminal to study at his or...

Open Office Cabling

The growth of computers and their peripheral equipment has resulted in increasing needs for connections within offices and with the rest of the world. Local area networks (LANs) are commonly found in offices to connect computers, fax modems, printers, and scanners. The proliferation of LANs has increased the need for more flexible, cost-effective cable systems with greater data capacity. Wireless technology is becoming more common, but cabling is still the primary way office computer equipment...

Principles Of Lighting Design

By grouping tasks with similar lighting requirements and placing the most intensive visual tasks at the best daylight locations, you can use fewer fixtures and less lighting energy. Movable fixtures work best for task lighting. Sometimes it is more energy-efficient to look at improving the way a difficult visual task is done than to provide higher levels of lighting. Design with effective, high-quality, efficient, low-maintenance, thermally controlled fixtures. High-quality permanent finishes...

Electrical Closets

The space allotted for electrical closets varies to fit other architectural considerations. They are vertically stacked with other electrical closets so as not to block horizontal conduits. Outside walls or spaces adjacent to shafts, columns, and stairs are not good locations. Electrical closet spaces should not have other utilities, like piping or ducts, running through them either horizontally or vertically. Each electrical closet has one or more locking doors. Inside is space for current and...

Electrical Circuit Design

Once the building is connected to the community's electrical grid, you need to locate the places where you want the electricity to be available and provide a way to turn it on and off safely. During the design of a building, the electrical engineer or electrical contractor will design the type of circuiting, wire sizes, and so forth. As the interior designer, you should be familiar with the basic principles of power supply and distribution, in order to be able to coordinate interior design...

Residential Air Cleaners

Until recently, small, inexpensive, tabletop appliance-type air cleaners have been quite popular for residential use. They generally contain small panels of dry, loosely packed, low-density fiber filters upstream of a highvelocity fan. Tabletop units may also consist of a fan and an electronic or other type of filter. Small tabletop units generally have limited airflow and inefficient panel filters. Most tests have shown these tabletop units to be relatively ineffective. The combination of low...

Lighting Sources

Our eyes perceive the longest visible wavelengths as red, then the progressively shorter wavelengths as orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. White is a balanced mix of all the wavelengths, and black is the absence of light. Our eyes evolved to see in sunlight, and we perceive sunlight as normal in color. The color appearance of any object is strongly influenced by the illuminating lamp's spectrum and color temperature. The spectrum is the range of energies or wavelengths that, when...

Fin Tube Radiation

An alternative to FCUs is hot water fin-tube radiation, used in a room with operable windows for ventilation. It is best to have separate internal cooling zones and perimeter heating zones. Sometimes, a single fin-tube is used to provide both heating and cooling in one space, in order to save money. Since air-cooling is best introduced into the space from above and heating works best at the base of perimeter walls below windows, when one system is used for both, the quality of thermal comfort...

Allwater Distribution Systems

All-water systems are a simpler alternative for heating and cooling than all-air systems. The distribution trees are slim. Water systems provide temperature control only. Air quality is provided by windows or infiltration, or by a separate fresh air supply system. Water for the HVAC system is heated in a boiler to between 71 C and 121 C (160 F-250 F). Cold water is cooled in a chiller to 4 C to 10 C (40 F-50 F). Chillers remove heat collected by a recirculating chilled water system as it cools...

Unit Heaters

Unit heaters are used in large open areas like warehouses, storage spaces, industrial shops, garages, and showrooms, where the heating loads and volume of heated space are too large for natural convection units. Unit heaters can heat cold spaces rapidly. Smaller cabinet models are used in corridors, lobbies, and vestibules. They spread their heat over a wide area from a small number of units. Unit heaters take advantage of natural convection plus a fan to blow forced air across the unit's...

Plumbing Fixtures

Interior designers are often involved in the selection and specification of plumbing fixtures. Let's start our discussion of this topic with a brief look at the history of plumbing fixtures. Indoor bathrooms were not common in homes until around 1875, but their history goes back thousands of years. Archeologists in Scotland's Orkney Islands discovered a latrine-like plumbing system dating to 8000 bc that carried wastes from stone huts to streams in a series of crude drains. Hygiene has been a...

Principles Of Electricity

Off their points, they neutralize electrical charges of clouds before lightning bolts even form. If lightning still strikes the building, the lightning rods and conductors offer a path to the ground of much less resistance than the building itself, thereby protecting the building. Protection of a building against lightning strikes should be done completely and properly, with Underwriters Laboratories (UL) label equipment and a UL-approved installer. Partial protection is improper protection,...

Designing Private Bathrooms

The minimum code requirements for a residence include one kitchen sink, one water closet, one lavatory, one bathtub or shower unit, and one washing machine hookup. In a duplex, both units may share a single washing machine hookup. Each water closet and bathtub or shower must be installed in a room offering privacy. Some jurisdictions require additional plumbing fixtures based on the number of bedrooms. Many homes have more than one bathroom. Here are some guides to terminology and to area...

Emergency Call Systems

Emergency call systems are used in housing for people with disabilities, elderly people, and other residents. They alert outsiders to an emergency within an apartment and allow residents to call for help when ill or in distress. Housing and construction codes may include descriptions of equipment that is required. Usually a call initiation button is mandated in each bedroom and bathroom, with an audible alarm and visible annunciator signal that is monitored at all times. Additional signals may...

Very Large Heating And Cooling Systems

Large projects with many large buildings can be served by one central station heating and cooling plant. This offers economy of scale. The system uses very large, efficient, and well-maintained boilers and chillers. Energy is recovered through a heat exchanger, and air pollution is reduced. Noisy equipment is removed from other buildings and concentrated in the one plant. District heating and cooling is used in Europe for residences and small commercial buildings. District steam systems serve...

Processing the Signal

In a conventional fire alarm system, detectors and manual stations transmit alarm signals only. All signals are the same, so you don't have any way to tell if an alarm is false or due to a malfunction. False alarms happen with all types of detectors. In places like hospitals, theaters, office buildings, and large dining facilities, they can cause serious disruption, property loss, personal injury, and even death. Constant maintenance checks to verify that all alarms are working properly are...

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design System

Green Building Council, a nonprofit coalition representing the building industry, has created a comprehensive system for building green called LEED , short for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. The LEED program provides investors, architects and designers, construction personnel, and building managers with information on green building techniques and strategies. At the same time, LEED certifies buildings that meet the highest standards of economic and environmental...

Safety Features

Handrails and steps are supposed to travel at exactly the same speed of 30.5 meters (100 ft) per minute. Large, steady steps prevent slipping, as do proper step design and leveling with comb plates. Close clearances at comb plates and step treads also lower the risk of items being caught in the escalator. A proper balustrade design prevents clothes or packages from catching. Escalators need adequate illumination at landings, comb plates, and down stairways. Some escalators have built-in...

Social Requirements

Buildings give us space to move, to work, and to play. Our residential designs support family life with a place for the reproduction and rearing of children, preparing and sharing food with family and friends, studying, and communicating verbally, manually, and electronically. We provide spaces and facilities to pursue hobbies and to clean and repair the home. Our designs create opportunities to display and store belongings, and many of us now work at home, adding another level of complexity to...

Controls

Thermostats are set to temperatures that will trigger turning the heating system on and off. If a thermostat controls both the circulation pump that distributes the heat and boiler that heats the water or steam, the system will operate almost continually in cold weather, as the average temperature in the system gradually rises. When a thermostat controls only the boiler, with a continuous circulation pump, more energy is used for the pump but variations in the system's temperature are...

Cold Climates

Cold climates feature long cold winters with short, very hot periods occurring occasionally during the summer. Cold climates generally occur around 45 degrees latitude north or south, for example, in North Dakota. Buildings designed for cold climates emphasize heat retention, protection from rain and snow, and winter wind protection. They often include passive solar heating, with the building encouraging heat retention without mechanical assistance. In cool regions, minimizing the surface area...

Temperate Climates

Temperate climates have cold winters and hot summers. Buildings generally require winter heating and summer cooling, especially if the climate is humid. Temperate climates are found between 35 degrees and 45 degrees latitude, in Washington, DC, for example. South-facing walls are maximized in a building designed for a temperate region. Summer shade is provided for exposures on the east and west and over the roof. Deciduous shade trees that lose their leaves in the winter help to protect the...

Heat Loss and Heating Loads

A heating load is created when a building loses heat through the building envelope. Cold outside air entering a building through ventilation, such as an open window, or as a result of infiltration, as when air leaks through cracks in the building envelope, also add to the heating load. Convection, radiation, or conduction of heat through the building's exterior walls, windows, and roof assemblies and the floors of unheated spaces are the main sources of heat loss in cold weather. Wind passing...

Toplighting

Lighting from above offers the best distribution of diffuse skylight, with deeper penetration and better uniformity of daylight. Toplighting is best where light is desired but a view is not necessary. It offers better security and frees up wall space. Toplighting may eliminate the need for electric lighting on the top floors of a building during daylight hours. Unlike sidelighting, it is easy to distribute uniformly. Toplighting controls glare from low angle sunlight better than sidelighting....

Water

Rainwater falling on steeply pitched roofs with overhangs is collected by gutters and downspouts and is carried away as surface runoff, or underground through a storm sewer. Even flat roofs have a slight pitch, and the water collects into roof drains that pass through the interior of the building. Drain leaders are pipes that run vertically within partitions to carry the water down through the structure to the storm drains. Interior drains are usually more expensive than exterior gutters and...

Toilet Plumbing

Our modern toilet (water closet) emerged in the 1940s with tanks that hold about 19 liters (5 gallons) of water mounted on the backs of the bowls. When you trip the handle on the toilet, a flapper valve opens in the bottom of the tank, releasing the water to flush waste away and rinse the bowl clean. A portion of the water flows out around the top rim, swirling to wash down the sides of the bowl (Fig. 13-2). Most of the water flows rapidly through a hole near the bowl bottom and propels waste...

Windows And Natural Ventilation

The open position of a window determines how well it provides natural ventilation. The wind is deflected if it strikes the glass surface. The direction of wind is unpredictable, and in order to provide ventilation without cold drafts, you have to keep the wind away from people. When you want the wind to provide cooling, it needs to flow across the body. Windows with multiple positions can offer control. Fixed glazing allows heat and light to pass through, but provides no ventilation. Casement...

Water Distribution

Throughout history, a primary concern of architects, builders, and homeowners has been how to keep water out of buildings. It wasn't until the end of the nineteenth century that supplying water inside a building became common in industrial countries. Indoor plumbing is still not available in many parts of the world today. Today, interior designers work with architects, engineers, and contractors to make sure that water is supplied in a way that supports health, safety, comfort, and utility for...

Urinals

Urinals reduce contamination from water closet seats and require only 46 cm (18 in.) of width along the wall. Urinals are not required by code in every occupancy type. They are usually substituted for one or more of the required water closets. Many bars and restaurants install urinals in addition to the number of required toilets to accommodate large crowds. The wall-hung type (Fig. 13-4) stays cleaner than the stall type, but tends to be too high for young boys and for men in wheelchairs....

UValue

The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) was established in 1992 to develop procedures that determine the U-value, also known as the U-factor, of fenes-tration products accurately. The NFRC is a nonprofit collaboration of window manufacturers, government agencies, and building trade associations that seeks to establish a fair, accurate, and credible energy rating system for windows, doors, and skylights. The U-value measures how well a product prevents heat from escaping a building....

Fuel Cells

Fuel cell systems are currently being developed and marketed for residential and light commercial applications in Europe beginning in mid 2003. The fuel cell units, which operate on natural gas or propane, will be used to generate electricity for backup electrical power or as primary power. Some of the fuel cells will be offered in cogeneration units, using the heat generated by the fuel cell for space heating and domestic hot water. The electricity produced will replace or reduce use of...

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon dioxide is an odorless gas that we exhale every time we breathe. It is also produced by combustion of carbon in machinery. Carbon dioxide is always present in the air, but excess carbon dioxide causes stuffiness and discomfort. At high enough levels, it dulls our ability to think. The presence of excess carbon dioxide is used as an indicator of an inadequate ventilation rate in enclosed or high-occupancy spaces. Where people are concentrated in confined spaces, such as theaters, the...

Fireplaces

Wood-heating devices are the oldest method of heating after the sun. Campfires evolved into fireplaces and eventually into the wood stove, which offers fuel efficiency within an enclosed space. Wood is popular for heating homes in regions where energy costs are high and local regulations permit burning wood. Not all fireplaces are good heaters, however, and any fireplace or wood stove requires timely maintenance if it is to remain reliable and safe. Fireplaces and stoves can add to both indoor...

Animal and Plant Life

Building sites provide environments for a variety of plant and animal life. Bacteria, mold, and fungi break down dead animal and vegetable matter into soil nutrients. Insects pollinate useful plants, but most insects must be kept out of the building. Termites may attack the building's structure. Building occupants may welcome cats, dogs, and other pets into a building, but want to exclude nuisance animals such as mice, raccoons, squirrels, lizards, and stray dogs. You may want to hear the...

Commercial Photovoltaic Applications

Until the late 1980s, PV systems had very limited applications and were generally not cost effective. In 1982, ARCO started up the first PV central power station in San Bernardino County, California. More recently, federally financed research and development and state and federal legislation have increased the impact of PV systems on commercial electrical power. In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and 20 private companies initiated the PV manufacturing technology project (PV Mat), and...

Modifying Existing Heating Systems

Many existing home heating systems dating from the 1950s and 1960s are much too large for their buildings. Consequently, they keep cycling on and off to first heat the building then allow it to cool off, a process that wastes energy. A heat loss analysis of the building can determine the proper size for the equipment. Modifying an existing heating system can produce significant energy savings. A new, more efficient oil burner is another option. A device that senses the outdoor temperature and...

Pesticide Residues

Prior to the 1980s, buildings may have been treated with pesticides that contained toxic substances. Treatments for termites, roaches, and mice might all present problems. Basements, foundations, ceilings, wall cavities, cabinets, closets, and the soil outside foundations may contain dangerous pesticide residues. These residues may be neurotoxins, and may present a long-term risk of liver or kidney disease or cancer. If the history of the contamination is known, the materials can be identified...

Direct Gain Solar Designs

Direct gain systems (Fig. 23-3) collect heat directly ( within the interior space. The surface area of the storage mass, which is built into the space, accounts for 50 to 60 percent of the total surface area of the space, including interior partitions. Surfaces are constructed of concrete, concrete block, brick, stone, adobe, or other thick, massive materials. Brick veneer or clay tile over a bed of grout is an effective finish. Floors are typically slab-on-grade without carpets or rugs. The...

Hot Water Temperatures

Excessively hot water temperatures can result in scalding. People generally take showers at 41 C to 49 C (105 F-120 F), often by blending hot water at 60 C (140 F) with cold water with a mixing valve in the shower. Most people experience temperatures above 43 C (110 F) as uncomfortably hot. Some commercial uses require higher temperatures. The minimum for a sanitizing rinse for a commercial dishwasher or laundry is 82 C (180 F). Generalpurpose cleaning and food preparation requires 60 C (140 F)...

Isolated Gain Designs

Isolated gain systems allow solar radiation to be collected and stored away from the space to be heated. Solar collectors can have a significant impact on the architectural design of a building, but they can be located anywhere near or on the building, such as the roof, a south wall, the ground, or even on an adjacent building. Wherever they are located, they must be exposed to the sun, so they are likely to be very visible. Typically, solar collectors in the United States are 0.9 by 2.1 meters...

Natural Resources

Like our skins, a building is a layer of protection between our bodies and our environment. The building envelope is the point at which the inside comes into contact with the outside, the place where energy, materials, and living things pass in and out. The building's interior design, along with the mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and other building systems, creates an interior environment that supports our needs and activities and responds to the weather and site conditions outdoors. In...

Cooling Equipment

Air-conditioning systems range from small window units to very large air conditioners integrated into a building's HVAC system. Some air-conditioning components are noisy, and most must be protected from excessive sun, and all use a lot of energy. As we mentioned previously, an air conditioner em- Figure 25-3 Cooling absorption cycle. Figure 25-3 Cooling absorption cycle. ploys a condenser, which is a heat exchanger used in a refrigeration cycle to discharge heat to the outside environment....

Measuring Heating and Cooling Loads

A degree-day is a unit used in computing heating and cooling loads, sizing HVAC systems, and calculating yearly fuel consumption. It represents one degree of difference in mean daily outdoor temperature from a standard temperature. A heating degree-day is one degree-day below the standard temperature of 18 C (65 F), and is used in estimating fuel or power consumption by a heating system. A cooling degree-day is one degree-day above the standard temperature of 24 C (75 F), and helps in...

Constructed Wetlands

By constructing an environment that filters and purifies used water and recycles it for additional use, we can reduce municipal sewage treatment costs and support local plant and animal life. Free-surface (open) wetlands use effluents to nourish vegetation growing in soil. Human contact with these secondary treatment areas must be controlled. The Campus Center for Appropriate Technology at Humboldt State University in Arcata, California, uses a graywater treatment marsh that consists of an open...

Residential Buildings

Understanding how to control noise in a residential building is a critical part of your work as an interior designer. Whether you are trying to separate a home office from a blaring radio in a teenager's bedroom, or isolate the sound of a toddler's almost constant footfalls from the retired couple's apartment on the floor below, your sensitivity to acoustic design issues will help keep the peace between family members and neighbors. The acoustic design of apartment buildings and other buildings...

Smoldering Stage

Smoke detectors have become increasingly important as finishes and furnishings become more flame resistant and therefore more likely to smolder for a long time without flame at temperatures too low to trigger sprinklers. NFPA 72, Household Fire Warning Equipment, and NFPA 101, Chapter 22 regulate the use of residential smoke detectors. The goal should be to provide sufficient time to evacuate residents and to take countermeasures. The particles in smoke at the smoldering stage are large enough...

Materials Handling

Until the late 1970s, materials were transported within commercial and institutional buildings primarily by hand, with some mechanical assistance. Office messengers carried mail. Hospitals used dumbwaiters, service elevators, conveyors, or chutes. Large stores used pneumatic tubes to carry money. Most of these tasks can now be done automatically and usually much more rapidly. The initial cost of automatic systems is high, but the reduction in labor and increased speed result in a short payback...

Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners

Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTAC) are factory-assembled units that can be added to a building as needed and located in the space to be served. Each unit contains a compressor, condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator. Available PTACs include window air conditioners, through-wall room units, and heat pumps, which we discussed earlier. Most through-wall units are located near the floor, and look like a wall mounted fan-coil unit (FCU) below the window. PTACs are simple to install, and...

Limiting Fuels

Many of the fatal fires throughout history have been due to flammable finishes and upholstery. In 1942, the fire in Boston's Cocoanut Grove Nightclub killed 492 people. This triggered the enactment of the Boston Fire Code, which established requirements for interior finishes. Some of the most rigid requirements are in the states of California, Florida, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York. Boston and New York City also have strict codes, and other cities now also have their own requirements....

Planning For Recycling

The design of a building includes tracking the flow of supplies in and of refuse out. Solid wastes can take up more space than the water-borne waste systems we have discussed. The accumulation of solid wastes in a building can create fire danger, and their removal may present severe local environmental problems. The separation of solid waste to permit resource recovery has significant energy and environmental consequences. It is now common to install mechanical equipment for handling solid...

Television Systems

Closed circuit television is used for security in banks, retail stores, high-rise apartment buildings, and industrial complexes. Access to parking lots and garages and to elevators is often monitored with closed circuit TV. Closed circuit TV needs adequate uniform lighting without dark spots to operate properly. Systems are available with cameras that pan, tilt, or zoom these may be directed automatically or from a central monitoring console. However, it is more common to simply add additional...

Tobacco Smoke

Tobacco smoke is the most common indoor pollutant. Increasingly, people find it extremely objectionable. The isolation of the smoker doesn't help if nonsmokers breathe the same air circulated by the air-handling system, which only dilutes, but does not remove, the smoke. Radioactivity in the air is not common, with one exception radon. Radioactivity may be in the form of particles or gases. Many radioactive materials are chemically toxic in high concentrations, but the radioactivity itself is...

Solid Waste Collection In Small Buildings

Most of the waste in a home comes from the kitchen. Finding recycling space within a pantry, air-lock entry, or cabinet or closet that opens to the outside makes daily contributions easier, facilitates weekly removal, and simplifies cleaning (Fig. 12-1). Trash compactors take up space in the kitchen, and may have odor and noise problems. Some trash compactors have a forced-air, activated-charcoal filter to help control odors, and sound insulation to control noise. A trash compactor requires a...