Distribution Systems

In small, low buildings with moderate water use, the pressure from water mains or pumped wells is adequate to get the water to its highest point. This is called up-feed distribution. The resulting pressure is usually more than is required at the fixtures. If it causes splashing at a lavatory, a flow restrictor can be used in the faucet outlet. In medium-sized buildings where the pressure from the street main is inadequate, pumps provide extra pressure. This is referred to as pumped upfeed distribution. In hydropneumatic systems, pumps force water into sealed tanks. Compressed air then maintains the water

Figure 8-1 Water supply system.

LEGEND:

LEGEND:

Figure 8-1 Water supply system.

pressure. Downfeed systems raise water to storage tanks at the top of a building, from which it drops down to plumbing fixtures. The rooftop storage tanks may have to be heated to prevent freezing. The water in a rooftop storage tank is also available for fire hoses. The heavy tank requires extra structural support.

A water storage tank shares the uppermost zone in most high-rise buildings with two-story elevator penthouses, chimneys, plumbing vents, exhaust blowers, and air-conditioning cooling towers. Solar collectors for hot water heating are sometimes also on the roof. All of this equipment is usually surrounded by a band or screen two or more stories high.

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