Vestmanna Plads with the skateboard rink

Opposite the street called Vestmannagade is an area surfaced with gravel and asphalt at the same level as the promenades. Here there is a skateboard rink in steel which is offset by 2m, so that it cuts into the harbour promenade. In the centre of this is a square of asphalt, 280m2 in area, which is approximately 600mm lower than the skatepark and slightly skewed in plan. This forms a basketball area which is edged by concrete elements forming either a single step or three steps. There is also a...

Design philosophy

The main idea of the landscape design was to create a great variety of interesting, inspired and delectable urban spaces in spite of the small area given and the dense urban fabric. The task has been rendered more difficult by the excavation of the 'Hole', the huge concrete structure and the detailed architectural and urban planning regulations. The aim was to bring the roof garden and the underground structures into close harmony, and this directed the designers towards a very strict...

Elements

Because of the extraordinarily large size of the park, one could argue that it lacks what would traditionally be described as a sense of space, meaning enclosed space defined by surrounding walls. On the other hand, one can argue that the park contains a number of parts or elements that separately have such a strong form and character that they cre ate a sense of space around themselves. The different parts were already named in the initial sketches and proposal for the competition - the Node,...

The Balconies

The Balconies are intended to be pieces of cabinet making, like 'cigar boxes pushed into the slope'.7 The design is a contribution by architect Anders Lidstrom. They are placed in the eastern part of the park, in the slope from the Lawn up to the gravelled walk. They are elevated approximately 1m above the level of the Lawn. You enter the Balcony by climbing a few steps from the walk. As with the Scouts, this small elevation reinforces the form and identity of the element. The construction...

Structure

The site of the park is a flat landfill with contaminated mud. A strong boulder lining along the edge of the sea retains the mud. The immense scale of the coastal landscape on the site is reflected in the park. The openness is intended to contrast with the dense and irregular city development. The basic design concept is very simple with straight lines stretching from south to north, along the sea and the shore, with hard-surfaced walks running east-west, an elongated grass field between the...

The wall at Halfdans Passage

Opposite the street called Halfdansgade to the south of the Festival Place is Halfdan's Passage, where a grey wall about 3m high, a remnant from the days of the harbour, separates a low area with volleyball and p tanque pitches from an open area paved with concrete. The wall is made of concrete columns supporting a weighty beam. Some of the spaces between the columns are open while others are filled in. Wisteria sinensis grows on the wall, softening its industrial monumentality. The open area...

Project history

This public space was the subject of a design competition in 1997, following a brief from the City Planner and the City Architect. The brief from Dublin Corporation, now known as Dublin City Council,2 was to create confidence in the area by developing Dublin's premier civic space for the twenty-first century. It has a strong, distinctive shape, a thinly rectangular configuration which is framed by the surrounding developments. The local residents were given the opportunity to be involved in the...

Evaluation

The Blue Carpet was not a routine piece of environmental improvement. In order to attract funding, it was promoted as a piece of public art. During the lengthy period of technical innovation it was hyped relentlessly. When it was finally revealed to the public, there was an initial sense of anti-climax. As Heatherwick observes wryly, 'It was just before the Gateshead Millennium Bridge went up. We worked as hard on the Blue Carpet as they did on that, but how exciting can paving ever be People...

Spatial strategy and earthmodelling

The goal is to exploit the natural distribution of vegetation, the mosaic using the grid as a spatial strategy for allocating the different Mediterranean landscapes of the world. (Dr Joan Pedrola, botanist, 1989) At the beginning of the design process, it was essential to find a flexible spatial strategy that would allow the botanical collections to be distributed, while making them accessible. The strategy would also provide a basic matrix for all the different professionals involved to work...

Promenade with leafy canopy of cherries

Parallel to the street known as Islands Brygge on the eastern side of the park there is an alley formed of Prunus avium. This avenue is 775m wide and 570m in total length. There is a 100mm camber to this alley, casting run-off to either side. A specimen of Aesculus hippocastanum from the provisional park is to be found at the northern end of the alley. The trees create a leafy canopy which is broken by gaps at the points where other streets meet Islands Brygge. This gives the impression of a...

Foreword

Design proposes ideas but it is through the medium of landscape detail that these ideas are projected as a material reality on site. The art of this activity, and I need to declare immediately that it is a very inventive, subtle and robust art-form, lies in the processes of detail design - the act of detailing by the landscape architect and the subsequent evolution and elaboration over time and by others of the resulting constructed landscape detail elements and forms. If landscape architecture...

Overview

Daniaparken is part of a new urban district in Malmo, a city of over 260,000 inhabitants, located in the southernmost part of Sweden. When complete, the new district will contain about 600 dwellings, shops, restaurants, offices, school and day care centres, parts of a new university campus, streets and parks. The site is a landfill, with contaminated mud as a result of about a century of industrial activity. It is all flat. Existing qualities of the site were the sea, the wind, the sky and the...

Reykjaviks Plads

Like much of the Harbour Park, the square known as Reykjaviks Plads is surfaced with gravel. It lies opposite the end of the street called Reykjavikgade. Red walls with integrated benches form a shelter from cold winds that blow from the north especially in the early spring. These walls are curved in plan and their height varies from 1.4 to 3.2m. They are constructed from in-situ concrete and lightweight concrete blocks covered with a red mortar. The walls are capped with square ceramic flags...

Design development

Because the neighbourhood's architecture had no uniquely specific features, these had to be sought in its surroundings - in other words, in the landscape. This is characterised by the succession and variety of images which unfold within a short distance to the north-east, there is the urban landscape of Rotterdam with its high-rise buildings to the north-west, there is the awe-inspiring scale of the docklands area, with its terminals, oil storage and shipping and to the south there is farmland,...

Lawns and sunbathing

Sunbathing was one of the most popular activities in the temporary park laid out in 1984. In response, the designers have provided new raised lawns which improve this function. These are much better than the previous grassed areas which were at the same level as the paving. Ramps give access to the lawns for disabled people and also for maintenance machines. The three lawns which lie between the cherry alley and the paved waterfront promenade are each 30m wide and they are cut through by paths...

Design development The gardens

The project's aim was to provide hospitality for affluent guests, which required high-quality buildings, furniture and equipment in the guestrooms, together with the best of rural cuisine. The aim was to create a homely atmosphere, so that the clients would come back time and time again. This is not the cold, severe and elegant style of a hotel, but an enchanting and vibrant rural hospitality with activities in the garden, and the lively proximity of domestic animals, such as horses, donkeys,...

Design development Architectural concept

The Erzsebet Square design answers various functional needs with a complex system of places. Six different areas, each with a particular spirit and function, have been created within this small area nevertheless they complement each other because of their strict geometric arrangement. The square is framed by spacious promenades and broad pavements. Hornbeams clipped into cubic forms frame the welcoming area, and there is a small pond in the direction of Deak Square. Wide stairs and terraces,...

The Festival Place

The inverted hull of an old ferry, the Pinen, appears to float over this place. It has become the icon for the park. It is carried on two wigwam-like timber supports to form an umbrella over the highest part of the site. It stands on a gentle mound about 650mm higher than the rest of the park. Beneath it, the chosen surface material is once again gravel, with gentle falls to shed run-off. On three sides - east, south and west - there are shallow steps (100-120mm risers) in an eye-catching...

The playground

Towards the canopy of the cherry avenue a 2.2m wall has been built which frames the playground. The face of the wall slopes by about 10 per cent. Towards the harbour the playground is fenced using H-profile steel columns in-filled either by concrete elements or by wires creating a kind of espalier. A narrow stair with five steps and high rails gives access from the promenade. Admittance from the harbour side is via small cast-iron gates. Much of the playground has a grass surface but there are...

Design development The harbour

The harbour park is part of the harbour area, with an ambience that reflects its maritime and commercial history. Towards the east, a six-storey, uniform residential block ends the harbour area. Towards the north, the 10m-high bridge, Langebro, ends the harbour area. Facing south the view is towards the preserved buildings of Dansk Sojakagefabrik (the Danish Soya-cake Mill) and the H.C. 0rsted Works. West of the park is a 300m-wide basin and Kalvebod Brygge. In the background, the...

Landscape architecture in the United Kingdom

Great Britain is a relatively small, densely populated and urbanised island. It is often suggested that there is a north-south divide. London and the South-East are regarded as prosperous, but suffer from a housing shortage which pushes up prices and increases the pressure to build upon greenfield sites. In the old industrial conurbations of Northern England, South Wales and the West of Scotland, the story has been one of traditional industries, such as coal-mining, steel-making and...

European Landscape Architecture

This is an important new book about landscape construction and good detailed design. It is not a book of standard details in landscape architecture, nor does it give the reader step-by-step instructions instead it highlights how important it is to consider detail in the creative process, showing that good practice in detailing is as integral to successful design as an exciting concept or striking site plan. The book features case studies of recent landscape architectural projects in nine...

Design of the terrain

In order to be accountable to the human scale, despite the almost geographical dimensions of the park, the landscape architect undertook several decisive changes in topography. These are hardly recognisable today. He evened out the existing slope of the site northwards to the city. This slope was minimal, but across such lengthy distances it would have led to uncomfortable sightlines for the people in the park areas closest to the city. A terrace was created to form a frame for the city's...

Landscape architecture in the Netherlands

Landscape architects in the Netherlands have historically come from a horticultural background. Most of the early landscape designers were botanists or owned nurseries themselves and were self-educated in design. Their design approach tended to be traditional, following whatever was the fashion in architecture of the period. At the end of the nineteenth century, ideas from the Italian Renaissance, French Baroque and the English Landscape Style, were 'translated' into the Dutch situation without...

The paved waterfront

The promenade along the waterfront is 11.15m wide x 570m long and is paved with granite setts. Two sets of railway lines remain in the pavement, connected by gently curving pieces of track. Two rows of granite slabs have been placed along one set of tracks. Along the harbour edge, groups of Crataegus crus-galli have been planted. The promenade is interrupted in places by new features with more elevation, such as the skateboard rink, new walls, the pergola and the tower in the playground. There...

About the designers

Annelise Bramsnss (1941-99) worked in Sven-Ingvar Anderson's landscape architecture office (1967-70), and as an Assistant and Associate Professor at the Royal Academy of Arts School of Architecture, Department of Town Planning and Landscape, Copenhagen (1973-99). She was a teacher, researcher and writer, mainly in the area of landscape planning, and her particular interest was in how nature and natural resources relate to spatial qualities and aesthetics in landscape architecture. Bramsnss took...

Landscape architecture in Denmark

Danish landscape architecture has been vigorous for over a hundred years.1 Its origins were in the design of private gardens, but since the start of the 1930s landscape designers have participated in a wide range of projects from parks and housing areas to motorways and landscape planning. After the Second World War, the amount and range of landscape architectural assignments rapidly expanded. Several landscape architects had careers which spanned 40-50 years and during this period a new...

Landscape architecture in Hungary

In spite of Hungary's relatively small size, there are multiple and varied challenges for Hungarian landscape architects. The country has a mosaic landscape structure which spreads from sub-alpine mountains to sub-Mediterranean regions and to the plains which have a continental climate, but seem to be getting warmer and drier as a result of global warming. Furthermore, as a result of historical forces, there is a huge contrast in the economic situation and development of various regions. The...

Planting scheme

The five parts of the world with a Mediterranean climate - the Mediterranean Basin, west California, central Chile, the tip of South Africa and part of southern Australia - although so widely separated from one another, nevertheless present extraordinary climatic affinities, which are reflected in the appearance and structure of their plants, their systems of land use and also the general appearance of their landscapes. Plants in these various Mediterranean regions have had to adapt to survive...

Landscape architecture in Sweden

The dialogue and harmony between landscape architecture and the natural landscape are explicit and obvious in Sweden, whether it is shown by designers taking their inspiration from nature or by the incorporation of existing natural elements into a design. The garden or park often appears as nature refined. The clue, or key word, for landscape architecture in Sweden could be resistance. This word can be interpreted in terms of the resistance offered by the natural landscape and the harsh climate...

Landscape architecture in Spain

Park Landscape Architecture

It is difficult to summarise the landscape design tradition in Spain, although everyone might agree that a new approach or 'tradition' in public space design started in the democratic municipalities in the early 1980s. During four decades of grey Franco dictatorship, open public space had been completely neglected. With the advent of freedom, street events, such as concerts, markets and street parades, emerged instinctively. It became obvious that recovering public open space, as the ultimate...

Jens Balsby Nielsen Torben Dam and Ian Thompson

This is a book about landscape construction and the importance of good detailed design, but it is not a book of standard details, nor will it instruct you how to set about creating details of your own. It might, however, convince you that the consideration of detail is as important as an exciting concept or a striking site plan. It might show how a big idea can be worked through into every detail, and how details can come together in a powerfully convincing way. It might inspire you to think...

Landscape architecture in Ireland

The Irish Free State came into being in 1922, following a civil war, when 26 Irish counties seceded from the United Kingdom as the 'Irish Free State'. The conditions for this split developed during the previous century as a result of social, political, economic factors, cultural imperatives and the severe effects of the potato famine of the 1840s. Six counties remained within the UK as Northern Ireland. With the creation of a republic in 1949, the Republic of Ireland was born. The Republic of...

Landscape architecture in France

France has a long tradition of landscape architecture. The famous seventeenth-century parks created by Andr Le N tre form an important heritage, which is reflected in today's landscape architectural practice.1 Some contemporary projects are as large as the enormous parks of the seventeenth century, but landscape architects no longer design royal parks instead their work is found in industrial areas, residential quarters and even in motorway service stations. Since the 1970s, a stream of...

Landscape architecture in Germany

Landscape architecture in its current form is a relatively young discipline in Germany, despite the fact that when one looks at past garden art and garden architecture, its origins have very traditional roots. The planning and designs of landscape gardeners such as Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell (1750-1823) or Peter Joseph Lenn (1789-1866) still influence the appearance and the open space systems of important German cities today. If we confine our observations to contemporary landscape...