Landscaping Designs

Ideas 4 Landscaping

Helen Whitfield brings you the definitive ebook about ideas for your lawn and home. You will get all the best ideas to make the most beautiful landscape for your own lawn, with personalized tips for your unique type of lawn. Far too many landscapers prefer to overcharge you rather than give you a good deal on your lawn. Do not let these people rip you off; go ahead and learn the tips that they already know to be able to make the best lawn that you possibly can! It takes less effort than you might think to make an awesome lawn And you do not have to shell out massive amounts of money to get your lawn looking like something right out of a magazine. This ebook answers all of the questions that you might have about landscaping, and gives you all of the ideas that you need to make a great lawn of your own! More here...

7250 Landscaping Designs Overview


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European Landscape Architecture

This is an important new book about landscape construction and good detailed design. It is not a book of standard details in landscape architecture, nor does it give the reader step-by-step instructions instead it highlights how important it is to consider detail in the creative process, showing that good practice in detailing is as integral to successful design as an exciting concept or striking site plan. European Landscape Architecture draws together a team of leading professionals and academics in the field of landscape architecture. The case studies are well-illustrated with photographs and many original construction drawings running alongside the text. This will be a valuable source book for students and practitioners alike, as well as being of interest to researchers with an interest in the process of design. Jens Balsby Nielsen was Associate Professor at the University of Copenhagen from 1998-2005 where his main subjects were landscape planning, management, and landscape...

Landscaping and Irrigation Plan

Landscaping is usually the final stage of a site's development. Landscaping plans show the location of various species of plantings, ground cover, lawns, benches, garden areas, and fences. The plantings are noted with an abbreviation, typically three letters, along with the quantity of the particular species (Figure 6.9). The designation corresponds to a planting schedule that furnishes a complete list of the plantings by common name, Latin or species name, and quantity and size of each planting. Certain notes describing planting procedures or handling specifications accompany the planting schedule. Landscaping plans have additional graphics and symbols unique to the profession, which the blueprint reader should be aware of, particularly relating to plant symbols.

National Landscape Architecture Month 2010

Across the country, ASLA and its chapter will celebrate National Landscape Architecture Month in April by engaging the public in conversations and activities that highlight the profession as a career choice, demonstrate what landscape architects do. and communicate the environmental benefits of sustainable landscape design. Be part of the celebration Contact your local chapter and see how to get involved. Tap ASLA's National Landscape Architecture Month resources online at lamonth to plan an activity. Commit your firm to reaching out in substantive ways to students, the public, and potential clients. And use sustainablelandscapes to prove how your work benefits the environment, communities, and everyone's quality of life.

Landscape architecture in the Netherlands

Landscape architects in the Netherlands have historically come from a horticultural background. Most of the early landscape designers were botanists or owned nurseries themselves and were self-educated in design. Their design approach tended to be traditional, following whatever was the fashion in architecture of the period. At the end of the nineteenth century, ideas from the Italian Renaissance, French Baroque and the English Landscape Style, were 'translated' into the Dutch situation without much vision. Architecture has always been a mature profession, but the field of urban planning is a lot younger. Landscape design started to be nationally recognised as an independent profession when its first professor at the Wageningen University was appointed in 1946. Professor Dr. Ir. J.PTH. Bijhouwer has had a great influence. In his view, one should be very careful with the characteristics of the many different types of landscape which Holland possesses, but nevertheless, he argued,...

Koch Landscape Architecture

Bridgeport Condominiums are the first privately developed residential projec the Portland River District whose landscaped courtyard is open to the put The courtyard is layered between two residential buildings and demonstrate melding of public and private urban spaces. Koch Landscape Architecture designed custom wire gabion cubes filled . glass slag that transforms an industrial byproduct into a sculptural centerp These cubes are lit from within and emanate a cool ethereal glow that gives courtyard a memorable night-time ambiance.

Mastering Landscape Architecture

HE NUMBER OF master of landscape architecture (MLA) programs has grown since the degree was established in the 1900s. According to ASLA's Council on Education (C.OE), accredited MLA programs in the United States increased from 14 to 38 since 1985. At present, three institutions are in the candidacy stage and 13 institutions are in the planning stage. Student enrollment has also grown. Between 2001 and 2004 the total number of MLA applications rose, The growing number of MLA programs and students bodes well for the growth and advancement of landscape architecture. Beginning in the late 1990s, ASLA and the Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture (CELA) recognized that more students would need to enroll and graduate from professional degree programs to meet the demand for current and projected services. COE summarized its concerns in a 2007 white paper, stating that con siderably more attention will need to be given to creating new professional degree programs if we are to produce...

Landscape architecture in Germany

Landscape architecture in its current form is a relatively young discipline in Germany, despite the fact that when one looks at past garden art and garden architecture, its origins have very traditional roots. The planning and designs of landscape gardeners such as Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell (1750-1823) or Peter Joseph Lenn (1789-1866) still influence the appearance and the open space systems of important German cities today. If we confine our observations to contemporary landscape architecture, the period after the Second World War represents an important phase in its development. Even if the post-war period was characterised mainly by very conservative attitudes and landscape architects were mostly concerned with private gardens, some progressive and socialist-based ideas did become widely accepted. The protagonists of these positions were landscape architects such as Herrmann Mattern, Ulrich Wolf and G nther Grzimek, the designer of Munich's Olympic Park, which opened in 1972....

Landscape architecture in France

France has a long tradition of landscape architecture. The famous seventeenth-century parks created by Andr Le N tre form an important heritage, which is reflected in today's landscape architectural practice.1 Some contemporary projects are as large as the enormous parks of the seventeenth century, but landscape architects no longer design royal parks instead their work is found in industrial areas, residential quarters and even in motorway service stations. Influenced by their teachers and the projects of the 1970s and 1980s, such as the creation of the new suburbs 'Les Villes Nouvelles' and the pioneering rehabilitation of some areas in Paris including Les Halles and the Parc de La Villette,3 young landscape architecture offices are now making their own mark upon the landscape. They are commissioned in advance of development, to anticipate the consequences and undertake sound site planning,

Landscape architecture in Ireland

Landscape architecture is a developing profession within the Republic of Ireland, having its independent origins in the 1970s. In 1966, when the United Nations considered the country undeveloped, there was only one landscape architect in private practice The advent of the European Union, which brought the predicted opportunities for development and consultation arising from legislation, led to the profession's separation from the Landscape Institute in the UK. An initiative in 1993 brought together the Institute of Landscape Architects and the Horticultural Association to form the Irish Landscape Institute (ILI), which has members working in private practices and local authorities throughout the Republic of Ireland. In 2004, an undergraduate landscape architecture course was instigated at University College, Dublin, in addition to landscape horticulture, which has been the traditional route for those training for the profession.

Landscape architecture in Spain

Park Landscape Architecture

It is difficult to summarise the landscape design tradition in Spain, although everyone might agree that a new approach or 'tradition' in public space design started in the democratic municipalities in the early 1980s. During four decades of grey Franco dictatorship, open public space had been completely neglected. With the advent of freedom, street events, such as concerts, markets and street parades, emerged instinctively. It became obvious that recovering public open space, as the ultimate space for coexistence and democracy, was an important issue. 'The city is only the public space, the rest is houses and private condominiums, wrote Oriol Bohigas, the head of Barcelona's planning department. In this social context, a new approach to urban planning and public open space design started. Squares, parks, 'rambles' and gardens were created or renovated in every town quarter. The hope was that this public intervention would unlock the regeneration of the surrounding urban fabric by...

Landscape architecture in Sweden

The dialogue and harmony between landscape architecture and the natural landscape are explicit and obvious in Sweden, whether it is shown by designers taking their inspiration from nature or by the incorporation of existing natural elements into a design. The garden or park often appears as nature refined. The clue, or key word, for landscape architecture in Sweden could be resistance. This word can be interpreted in terms of the resistance offered by the natural landscape and the harsh climate which presents such difficult growing conditions for vegetation. Second, the word can be understood in terms of the restrained forms found in Swedish landscape architecture itself. Designers must also contend with financial resistance. The importation of foreign ideas has a long history in Sweden. Landscape architecture has developed over the centuries in close relation to and dialogue with art and society. Looking back at their predecessors, Swedish landscape architects find monks and nuns of...

The products of landscape architecture and the nature of urban design

All, without exception, total and all-of-a-piece urban designs include elements of landscape architecture. Many plug-in urban designs are landscape design projects and vice versa. The historical trails, squares and parks described here are all plugged into existing city frameworks to act as catalysts for development or, at least, to halt decay. What then differentiates the products of landscape architecture from those of urban design The landscape quality of open spaces is crucial to the experiencing of cities and perceptions of their quality. The streets, squares and parks of cities, such as London form part of their international image. It is difficult to consider Paris without its boulevards, or Singapore without the walkways along its riverfront or St. Louis without Gateway Plaza (see Figure 5.1). The character of all these places is, however, defined not only by the landscape but also by the buildings that face them and the activities they generate. It is this consideration of...

Secret transmissions of garden art and new illustrated manuals of garden design

By the second half of the Edo era, gardens were no longer the exclusive privilege of daimyo nobles and samurai warriors but became equally the domain of the chonin, the townspeople. Thus the demand grew for experienced gardeners, and particularly for those in possession of kuden, highly-prized oral transmissions of the secrets of garden design. This new breed of professionals, called niwa-shi, or garden masters, now supplied the townspeople not only with the artistic designs for their gardens, but also with the materials and decorative elements required in their construction, such as rocks, trees and stone lanterns. Even the niwa-shi,

Landscape architecture in Hungary

Hungarian landscape architecture was shaped by modernist functionalism until the end of the 1980s. Landscape and open space structure were very much determined by the basic principles of everyday usage, so the clearly expressed function appeared as an aesthetic value without ornamental decoration or I'art pour I'art. After the events of 1989, a change can be seen in both the content and the function of Hungarian landscape architecture, as a consequence of the transformed institutional, administrative system and the new circle of investors. It also might derive from the quick spread of new theoretical ideas and trends from western countries and from new building materials and technologies. Regarding the content, a freer approach to the ground-plan structure of open space designs and towards ornamentation was noticeable. Later, the self-assertive intention of the designer to articulate a clear artistic essence could also be seen. The fashionable philosophical trends from the West, such...

Landscape architecture in Denmark

Danish landscape architecture has been vigorous for over a hundred years.1 Its origins were in the design of private gardens, but since the start of the 1930s landscape designers have participated in a wide range of projects from parks and housing areas to motorways and landscape planning. After the Second World War, the amount and range of landscape architectural assignments rapidly expanded. Several landscape architects had careers which spanned 40-50 years and during this period a new generation grew up. Many of them worked at the offices of G.N. Brandt and C. Th. Sorensen and were part of a well-connected network which provided the basis for a common experience, and the formation of a tradition (which is understandable in a small country with only five million inhabitants). In her Guide to Danish Landscape Architecture, Annemarie Lund remarks that during the 1930s 'several landscape architects continued enthusiastically to experiment with various geometrical shapes to create...

The Products of Landscape Architecture Malls Squares Streets and Parks

Some designs of walkways, staircases, experiential trails, plazas, street beautifi-cations and parks sit more easily under the rubric of urban design than others. The design of an open space is, however, really simply landscape architecture unless designed as a unit with surrounding buildings (as in Pariser Platz, Berlin see Chapter 8). Such designs occur more frequently in the creation of new towns and de novo precinct designs (e.g. Paternoster Square also in Chapter 8) than when redesigning open spaces in existing cities (Figure 5.3).

Sculptural Terrain For The New Face Of Landscape Architecture

Sculptural Ornaments

Powers and Walker categorized journal articles into 11 categories (see graphs, below). Between 1982 and 1988, when Alanen and Morrison edited the journal, only 8 percent of the articles fell into the landscape design and implementation category. Like his predecessors, Robert Riley, who edited Landscape Journal from 1988 to 1995, saw improvements in scholarship as a way of improving the practice of landscape architecture, but the articles related to design and implementation stayed at 8 percent during this period. Journal of Landscape Architecture 200G-present

Aesthetic ideals of the Momoyama era and their influence on garden design

Sen no Rikyu's attitude towards garden design is perhaps best illustrated in the following historical anecdote. Entering a tea garden one fine morning, he found the ground littered with leaves shed by a mountain tree planted in the garden. He was enchanted by this natural scene. When he returned a few hours later for the tea ceremony, however, he found his host had swept up all the leaves. This did not please him at all, and he is reported to have shaken a tree gently until a few leaves had again fallen to the ground. He then gave instructions that the garden should not be swept immediately before the tea ceremony, but rather a few hours in advance, to allow at least a few leaves to fall in the interim. At the same time as insisting upon utter cleanliness, Sen no Rikyu thus also wanted the tea garden to look natural. The garden was to imitate the processes of nature. Sen no Rikyu illustrated predominantly rural themes in his garden designs, which are frequently dominated by a simple...


This visually important element of shopping center design rarely receives the attention and budget its importance deserves. Most sub' urban customers have gardens and are landscape-conscious. Nevertheless, there are literally hundreds of shopping centers that are surrounded by barren oceans of monotonous asphalt The primary reason for this situation is that the landscaping is installed last, is not related directly to the building construct tion operation, and consequently is vulnerable to corner cutting'' by the developer, especially if the project cobi is running over the budget The landscaping in the regional, that is to say, suburban center usually has two compo' nents interior, i.e., the landscaping in the mall, and exterior, i.e., that outside the buildings and in the parking areas. Because of the climate control in the typical enclosed mall, tropical planting can be maintained provided lhat adequate light, water, and drainage are supplied and there is proper maintenance....

Office Landscaping

A number of large U.S. corporations have been experimenting with an open planning system known in the space planning and design profes slon as office landscaping. This concept of planning originated in West Germany and has been used extensively in European office opera tions. It is intended to create an open, flexible layout by grouping personnel and their work stations in accordance with group communications and with interdepartmental work flow and rclo tionships. The proponents of the landscaping concept maintain that office planning should not be bosed upon the traditional organization chart of com mand structure, but rather on the grouping of personnel in open space along the lines of interpersonal relationships and group communications. When this concept is applied in its most literal form, it means the elimination of private offices, with no distinction made between management While presenting technical problems to the office planner, these problems can be solved with careful...

The Office of James Burnett

The landscape design highlights the clean, simple lines of the natural land and preserves much of the existing vegetation at the site. Native limestone s along rustic nature paths and on the main lawn of the center. Limestone surround the garden areas and provide a dramatic backdrop for existing se trees. Ornamental grasses and fragrant herbs were selected to suppleme natural beauty of the Austin landscape and native plantings.

The New Versagreen Planta6le Wall System From Versalok

We combined the durability and strength of a VERSA-LOK segmental retaining wall with the lush beauty of a hanging garden to create a functional wall that becomes a living part of your landscape. Each VERSA-Green concrete unit features a hollow core for plantings, which are used to design your wall's color scheme and textures. Within weeks, your VERSA-Green wall will appear to grow right out of the hillside while performing the work of a traditional retaining wall. In an informal survey of California realtors, all seemed reluctant to say anything that cast a less-than-brilliant I ight on the state of the market. Nevertheless, Fresno-area realtor Andrea Mazzei feels that the problem if there is one will abate as the legislature catches up to the crippled market. Everything's going to change shortly, she told Landscape Architecture. I'm sure that they're going to mandate that either the banks, the realtors, or the sellers will have to take responsibility to clean up the property.

Custom Play Environments

At ZEN Associates there's a reason behind every stone, every texture, every color, every angle and every thing we do. From ojr award-winning Landscape Design to our Construction, Interior Design and Maintenance services, no ore puts more thought into it, so you get the most out of it. The traditional American campus landscape, captured most vividly by an image of open lawns with mature canopy trees, is one of our most established, celebrated, and significant landscape typologies and is, in the 21st century, at a crossroads. The past decade was for several raisons one of the most influential periods in the long history of colleges and universities in terms of architecture and landscape architecture. In conjunction with sometimes record growth in facilities, these institutions embraced their role as stewards in the education and promotion of environmental sus-tainability, as reflected in the ambitious American College and University Presidents' Climate Commitment.

Empowering People To Represent Themselves

Drawings that give citizens choices empower them. Visual preference tests and simulations provide citizens with clear visual alternatives in matters of urban and landscape design.23 Providing choice requires drawings that are easily read, evaluated, and compared. Drawing style must be consistent. The designers' favorites must be drawn no more compellingly than the other choices. The distribution of the choices must be broad, thereby providing a forum for public discussion.

Suzman Cole Design Associates

The owner of this 40-acre(16 ha) oak woodland, with a year-round stream impressive views of the Sonoma Valley, wanted a landscape design mei-seamlessly with the natural environment. The challenge was to create a pre that met the owner's needs yet had a limited visual and physical impact on land. Old stone walls were retained. New walls matched the original de and included lichen-covered boulders collected from the property. Paths .p constructed with minimal disturbance to the site, with slabs of native stone _ for steps. A new swimming pool, spa and flagstone terrace was blended the site. An adjacent wisteria-draped pergola was built to look as if it had c on the property for decades. Planting included native trees, shrubs, bulbs wildflowers, with orchards and vegetable gardens tucked into stone-ter hillsides. Landscaping was limited to about one-half acre of the property remaining acreage of grass fields, woodland and redwood groves, hosting wild turkeys and migratory birds, remain...

GLS Landscape Architecture

The project, dedicated in April, 1997 consists of a 3 acre (1.2 ha) cemetery, a 11 ft (700 sq m) open chapel, entry forecourt, 19 mausolea buildings, a 600' (181 arbor walkway, a 10' x 50' (3 m x 15 m) pool with seasonal and mechanical fo- rWL a memorial wall, landscaping and 9 on-site parking spaces. The project was a- fo-a collaboration designed and executed by Gary Strang Architect and Landscape with Daniel Solomon Architect. The chapel, constructed of custom poured ar recast concrete, CMU blocks, stainless steel, steel, perforated anodized a -. and Honduran Mahogany is designed to accentuate one's awareness of re of nature. A sliver of light moves visibly against the thick concrete wall the is cooled by breezes which are allowed to penetrate the chapel and the cav t thick double insulated roof and the 50 -100 (127 - 254 cm) of rain which fa s -roof each year is captured in a huge elevated concrete gutter that doubles as ar e portico. The water is then released into a seasonal pool...

Research Design Connections

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, in partnership with the web-based newsletter and daily blog Research Design Connections, uses this column to report current research of interest to landscape architects from a wide array of disciplines. We welcome your comments, suggestions about future topics, and studies you have encountered in your own practice.

U What better place for a prayer garden TV

I am a master's candidate in landscape architecture. My thesis topic is designing spiritual spaces. My thesis question is Is there a universality of physical elements or array of elements that generates emotions or feelings of spirituality in individuals regardless of culture, age, or theology In many ways, the crux of your question and issues with the Baltimore Pope John Paul II Prayer Garden is very close to my thesis question. April 2009 Landscape Architecture 17 garden design. April 2009 Landscape Architecture 19

Landscape Containers

H ASLA represents more than 16,000 landscape architects in the United States and abroad. If you aren't a member, join the leading professional organization dedicated to promoting and furthering the art and science of landscape architecture. Contact member ship asla. org for information. and coastal planning after earning her bachelor's degree in environmental studies in 1977. Her desire to have a more creative role in environmental planning led her to landscape architecture she earned her BSLA from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo in 1983 and two years later opened her own firm. Van Atta's background in environmental planning gives her a unique perspective on restoration projects. She has both a deep knowledge of native plants and plant communities and an appreciation of the biologist's point of view.


Van Atta's planting plan featured gardenlike arrangements of native plants along the pathways and smoothed out the edges of the biologist's delineated wetlands, above and inset. Temporary educational signs, below, will be replaced with permanent guides to native habitats.


Fruitful democratic design depends upon representative drawing, and representative drawing often requires coauthors, often the citizens themselves. Certain techniques discussed here are not unique to democratic design or landscape design 6-i0 . For example, securing a gestalt, careful observation, and thinking complexly are essential to design in all disciplines and forms. Other techniques are more particular to landscape design, notably evolving landscape, imaging fish heads, recording sacred places, and making science spatial. Most of these drawing techniques, however, have particular relevance to participatory design, although locational mapping, plan drawings, diagrams, quick perspective sketches, and before and after overlays, are common to most design practice. What differs, for the most part, are the specific ways the techniques are used to convey the importance of what others think, and to say I want to communicate clearly with you to create a common language for complex...

Visual Resources

Ellsworth, h'ASLA, is a professor in the department of landscape architecture and environmental planning at Utah State University, as well as president and senior landscape architect with Ellsworth and Associates. He has received support for his research in Yellowstone from the National Park Service.


Landscape design may itself embody a form of framing. A garden may be taken as a zone of modified ecological process, at times created with aesthetic intentions.9 A courtyard garden whether set in pastoral or urban conditions derives its primary identity from the order imposed by its

Notation Techniques

Both the meaning of these diagrams and the techniques used to make them accorded with the environment in which Hosper was then operating. Given the new emphasis on research and scientific analysis at the time, landscape architects could no longer just produce designs, as was more or less the case in the work of Nico de Jonge. Each plan had to possess a solid, proven basis. The method of drawing reflecting this more analytical approach was very much influenced by Meto Vroom, who succeeded Bijhouwer as Professor of Landscape Architecture at Wageningen in 1966. However, other disciplines such as soil science, ecology, and sociology contributed equally to the analytical approach. These disciplines also required an innovative way of

Dirtworks PC

The terrace garden is an extension of a renovated penthouse in Gree-. Village. The planting plan highlights seasonal change and frames city . e from the interior spaces. Sweeps of native grasses and shrubs frame views r nearby water tower. An ivy-covered steel trellis and small flowering trees midtown skyline views. A sculptural Black Pine terminates the view through -greenhouse from the entrance.


For the landscape architecture community to promote the position that temporary installations of public art are environmentally insensitive damages the entire creative community. Christo's works do not get installed without review. They are subject to much scrutiny, both by his creative team and the pertinent jurisdictions. AS AN ARTIST, a landscape designer, and a lover of all things natural, the only value that I see in this project is the need for more discussions on the marriage between art and nature. My sense is that Christo and Jeanne-Claude need to find a way to focus on creative sustainability and not these massive projects that end up costing them millions to implement. If they are such great artists could they not reinvent themselves as creators of something more beaucifuI and meaningful garden design.

Critic Ai Large

Circular Landscape Architecture

In a cost-cutting move (and to give a little natural envi ronment to the space), landscape architect Ken Larsson of Vancouver's Sharp & Diamond Landscape Architecture designed a turf berm in front of the venue, l ie had hoped it would be used as a photo backdrop during the Olympics, and it certainly was. People were always stopping to have their Olympics photo taken with the clean background of the berm and the Olympic rings on the building.

Leslie Chan

This book - Landscape Design USA is a new publication by PACE Publishing Limited, focusing on the excellent projects in USA during recent years. Many these projects have won ASLA prizes and other national awards in USA. Some projects can also serve as trend-setting indicators for Landscape Architects a students. All of the 70 selected projects have reflected the advanced level of today's American Landscape Architecture. Besides Landscape Design USA , PACE also published Landscape Design China and Asia Pacific Landscape Design in the last 1-2 years. This collection books together reflects the recent development of landscape architecture in USA, China, and the Asia-pacific region. It is refreshing to see a book covering US projects from a Hong Kong based publisher. LESLIE H. C. CHEN is Director of the MLA programme at the University of Hong Kong and the President of the Hong Kong Institute of Landscape Architects. With extensive academic and practice experience in landscape...

The Site Plan

Of all the landscape architect's drawn views, the site plan is the most ubiquitous and the most influential. From it derives the structuring of the site, reinforced by further study through the section and planting plan. Erik Glemme (1905 1959) was active as the head of the architectural department at the Stockholm Parks Department under the leadership of Holger Blom, discussed above. Glemme's site plans often included a level of detail and artistic skill that transmitted a clear impression of what the project was to be. They thus went far beyond being only instructions to the construction team.

Pam Ph Arch Itec

The announcement mentions only architects, engineers, and artists, the group told Landscape Architecture that they enthusiastically welcome submissions from landscape architects as well. The site is promoting a web 2.0 landscape design competition to explore new design solutions for China's historic and infamous Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The competition is open to all. Submissions, in the form of two- or three-dimensional models, montages, or plans, hand or computer drawn (or photographed in the case of models), can be uploaded to the competition's Flickr page at www. flickr. com groupsAiananmen_ square_ landscape_ architecture__ competition 2010 . See additional details at history_ theory chinese_ landscape architecture_competition. Winners will be announced in June 2010.


iUUMMnl Mjhlll is the one web address you need to access a wealth of resources for the benefit of the landscape architecture community. Events, continuing education, LAND Online, and job listings are just a few of the features on our informative site. Bookmark it today. The reader is left to question why landscape Architecture should provide a platform for a narrow-minded critic who appears not to have actually read the book to pillory an author who has written a pivotal book. Therds too much Clap your hands if you believe in vegetated roofs out there, andLordlxlp tlx general public if they (and'we) are ill informed about tlx realities of sustainable landscape design from sky to ground. If the title of the book had been Another Good Book about Green Roofs, I would have agreed. I paid for my own copy (which was printed in Singapore and not on recycled paper). and I don't regret adding it to my green roof library, but it's not what it says it is. I AM A SENIOR IN landscape architecture...

Lenkin Residence

2006 Award of Excellence, Residential Landscape Design (Professional Award). Garden Design magazine's Golden Trowel Award. Winner of Garden Design's 2006 Golden Trowel Award, this historic 192C 5 home is surrounded by 1 acre(0.4 ha) of gardens designed by landscape designer Heather Lenkin. The property contains twenty one gardens with over twe thousand bulbs and 1200 species of plants. Formality, order and balance relat . r to the overall estate provide the framework for this southern California home

Pod Cast

A landscape architecture prof finds inspiration in the Ozark winter. IN WINTER, the Old Main Lawn at the University of Arkansas can be a little bleak. But assistant professor of landscape architecture Carl Smith saw a lost opportunity. His soft, British-tinted voice betrays him as a veteran of wet, gloomy seasons. I was just daydreaming, he says, about what the campus could look like in winter, particularly at Christmas. The Forum for Urban Design in New York City will host r i li r two panels composed of leading figures from North i ilMMM i fl America to discuss different visions for the 21st century urban park. On May 13 in the Museum of Modern Art, a fj panel on landscape architecture will feature George Har- T greaves, FASLfl, James Corner, flSLfl, and Michael Van Valken- il burgh, FASLA. On May 14 three civic leaders John Campbell from Waterfront Toronto, David Karem from Louisville, Kentucky, and Alex Garvin of Alex Garvin & Associates in New York City will address questions...

Firm Focus

Of the landscape architects Landscape Architecture spoke with, only Mok has spent her entire career working for Disney, and even she started out as an embedded consultant. Bishop interned with Imagineer-ing in 1980 but went on to work for a model-home company before coming back. Each year, Imagineering offers internships for a few landscape architecture students interested in learning about theme park design. Interns' responsibilities range from graphic presentation to research and from technical drawings to 3-D visualization, depending on the students' skill sets. Each year, Imagineering offers internships for a few landscape architecture students interested in learning about theme park design. So what does Disney look for in future Imagineers We look for people who are great thinkers and problem solvers, possess great enthusiasm for the landscape architecture profession, and desire to work in a highly collaborative environment, says Morosky. Sorenson adds that the ability to develop...


Whether the new administration will dig the idea remains to be seen. Doiron was hoping for action in the first 100 days, timing that makes sense for planting in Washington's relatively mild climate. He was hopeful when Landscape Architecture checked in. I remain optimistic that the Obamas will do this, because they're going to be looking for small, symbolic actions that can leverage the resources of the American people to create positive change in their own lives and communities.

Lenkin Design

2004 Award of Excellence, Residential Landscape Design (Professional Award), Garden Design magazine's Golden Trowel Award. Winner of Garden Design's 2004 Golden Trowel Award, Lenkin's desigr It this three and one half acre (1.4 ha) property seamlessly integrates an h s* landscape with mid-century architecture, enhancing a magnificent mo 'i view. Foliage color and texture define the patio planting.

Preface to the first edition

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture Design and Construction Data is a book about building on the land, a comprehensive process that involves several elements (1) interaction with existing natural and cultural systems, (2) dependence upon both site-specitic and equipment-specific design and construction techniques, and (3) the use of a wide range of materials and devices Professor of Landscape Architecture, Emeritus Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Professor of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts Assembling an anthology of methods, standards, and techniques requires research and a free exchange of ideas between many professional disciplines. The research office for the second edition was generously provided by the Department of Landscape Architecture and Regional Planning at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. Special thanks go to Dr. Meir Cross, Department Head, for his enthusiastic support...

Barbara Ettinger BrinckmannRolf Toyka

The visual to be broken at last in favour of re-sensualising, re-eroticising and re-enchanting the world. Here architecture has the role of restoring the inner world. Instead of experiencing the fact that we are here in the world through architectural space, architecture has deteriorated into the art of the printed image, and has lost its three-dimensional and material quality. Moderation does not mean hankering after publicity and fame, but suggests a carefully considered approach to a given task on the basis of the matter in hand it means concentrating on essentials. This also includes being aware of tradition and history in particular. Innovative solutions - as in cooking - based on background knowledge are equally desirable for architecture and urban development, landscape architecture and interior design. It is also a matter of making the general public more profoundly able to understand questions about their built environment. One of the many activities that the Chamber has...

Introduction the argument

This typology is developed from (1) theories in the disciplines of architecture, landscape architecture and planning and (2) an analysis of a series of what have been deemed to be urban design projects. The typology is then used to classify a number of case studies that illustrate specific points in specific cultural and political contexts. The classification system may not be as sharp as purists might like but the borderlines amongst urban design processes are often blurred and so difficult to draw with precision. If this is so why should we bother

Plan Tabs and Toolbars

Clicking one of the plan tabs will activate the toolbar for that plan layer. For example, if you select the Landscape tab, the Landscape toolbar will appear. In addition, when you click the small arrow next to the title of the tab, you have the option of viewing or hiding other plans. This will be useful, for example, if you want to see the foundation plan with landscaping, but without exterior and interior walls.

Site Analysis And Assessment

The use, scale, and structural systems of a building affect Its particular site requirements and associated environmenlal impacts. Building characteristics, orientation, and placement should be considered in relation to the site so that proper drainage systems, circulation patterns, landscape design, and other slte-develop-ment features can be determined.

Developing the Argument

The second part of the book, 'The traditional design professions their products and urban design', argues that the design fields tend to look at urban design in terms of product types particular to each. City, or town, planning tends to look at urban design as the distribution of land uses in relationship to transportation systems although this view varies from country to country. In some countries urban design is city planning and to some people within all countries city planning is synonymous with urban design. Landscape architecture tends to look at urban design as the design of the horizontal plane between buildings streets, parks and squares. Architecture, in contrast, tends to consider urban design to be the design of buildings in context and or the design of building complexes. The argument in this book is that urban design while recognizing these views encompasses much more.

Introduction continuity and truth

The loss of an old house of singular character which I knew well, hidden in a landscaped quarry of unusual beauty, adorned with relics of Henry VIII's Nonsuch Palace. Just as Henry's builders had made use of the stone of Merton Abbey, following its dissolution, to build Nonsuch, so Nonsuch, the 'non-pareil', was destroyed to pay the prodigious gambling debts of Barbara, Lady Castlemaine, and so, finally Pit Place, the house in the Epsom quarry, was destroyed by developers needing to turn a liability into a profit. All three buildings had, in their prime, a sense of permanence, but now survive as little more than archival records and some archaeology. All three stood, for a time, abandoned and prey to looting, and became ruinous in a relatively short space of time through commercial need, if not necessity. The rapid decline from splendour to ruin, described at the beginning of this introduction, is somehow always shocking, although parts of a building may be a long time dying.11...

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On a more spacious suburban lot is the house of Wa rd W, Wi f I i ts, Bu i It of cement stucco, its white surfaces are accentuated by darkstained wood trim. The plan is cruciform, the living room, dfni ng room and reception areas separated by architectural features rather than wai Is and doors. As with the Dana house, he fireplace isfocal to the plan, with built-in seats around it. More and more, in his early work, Wright experimented with furniture of his own design, hie found, to his dismay, that when the new hou se was ready for the cl ients to move in, they brought with them the furniture of their previous dwelling. By incorporating built-in bookcases, seating, sideboards, cupboards, etc., he was certa in that the basic interior, at least, would blend with his overall design. Landscaping, as well, was designed along with the building to further achieve a sense of unity in design.

Suspended Brick Weights

We started out like everybody else using the most primitive available strategies for building earthbag walls. We used flat rocks or bricks to hold the springy barbed wire down while laying the next row of bags. This works fine for building a low garden wall. As the wall gets higher, though, it becomes a pain in the butt to have to keep heaving the bricks on and off the wall. So, in keeping with FQSS, we devised a technique that solved the brick-heaving dilemma and turned out to serve another purpose.

Onsite Largescale Treatment Systems

After years of sending sewage to distant treatment plants, it is becoming more common for groups of buildings to treat their wastes on site. The advantages include savings to the community, reusable treated water for landscaping and other purposes, and even pleasant and attractive outdoor or indoor environments. In some campus-type industrial, educational, or military facilities, septic tanks are installed at each building, and the outflow is combined for the secondary treatment process. Use of sand filters for secondary treatment offers simple maintenance, very low energy use, and greater available usable land area.

Controlledrelease fertilizers

Contractor One who is responsible for, oversees, and directs the completion of a construction work. With regard to work on the land, this includes those engaged in the construction of buildings (residences or commercial structures) as well as heavy construction contractors engaged in activities such as paving, highway construction, landscaping, excavation, and utility construction.

Large Building Solid Waste Collection

Large apartment complexes fence in their garbage can areas to keep out dogs and other pests. This area is a good place for bins for recycling, and even a compost pile for landscaping. The solid waste storage area needs garbage truck access and noise control, and should be located with concern for wind direction to control odors.

Appropriate choice open sites

Stadia situated in open parkland can make a positive contribution to the environment if the form rising above the landscape is genuinely attractive and well-composed. If these qualities cannot be achieved, for whatever reason, then there is no shame in hiding the stadium completely behind landscaping it is a perfectly valid strategy.

Adapting old buildings Objectives

The location of an old building and its relationship to other properties must have a bearing on any such adaptation scheme. The property, for example, may be situated within a large estate. It is likely to be surrounded by open fields and landscaping as well as possibly other buildings. The building being adapted may only be of secondary importance in the estate. The use and style of the main complex and other areas of the estate must also be taken into account as these may restrict or enhance the usefulness and potential of the building being adapted.

Management and restrictive covenants

Restrictive covenants are commonly used in some countries to control the form of housing or activities occurring within a residential area. Their purpose is to manage residential amenities and therefore maintain property values. The covenant takes the form of a legal agreement and it can stipulate, for example the size of plot and home allowed the need to get approval for a design from an 'architectural review committee' what types of construction must be used the setbacks required between the home and the boundaries rules about the types of fencing that must be used the lines of any easements to provide access to under or over ground utilities any necessary fees to pay for highway or landscape maintenance rules indicating the colours that homes can be painted how gardens must be maintained where residents can park details on using homes as businesses guidelines for tree cutting and the keeping of pets and other animals. Such covenants are tailored to individual properties. They will...

As access to country beyond metropolitan areas gets ever more distant

Ryan, professor of landscape architecture at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, complements Harnik's broad overview with his essay on how local residents may adopt parks in their vicinity, thereby helping maintain the greenspace itself while emotionally bonding with the park as part of their daily urban living experience. Thus, parks may contribute to local sense of place as the focus of maintenance and improvement efforts that in turn bring people into enjoyable contact with one another (a cardinal Whyte principle).

Visitor Experience And Audiences

Something special, through recommendation of another person, or to have a pilgrimage or special connection with the museum's exhibitions, objects, or spaces.3 These factors help to define the types of exhibitions as well as the physical design requirements for space planning a museum should consider. Elements that shape the visitor experience include signage, exterior landscaping, parking, entrances, decompression and orientation spaces, welcome desks, public gathering spaces, interior way finding aids, color and lighting, landmark objects, and vistas to the outside. Amenities include rest areas, bathrooms, coat checks, information kiosks, food service, retail stores, special events spaces, and service areas.

Preface to the second edition

While I continue to work in the larger-scale landscapes of forests, I have also had the opportunity to test out and apply the design principles in other fields of design. The latest of these is wind turbine development. This reflects one of the current concerns of landscape planning and design and also demonstrates the need to develop new applications. Ten years ago, wind turbines were not important but now they have a major impact on many scenes.

Infrastructure Design

There are a number of issues involved in infrastructure design that have been of direct concern in urban design. One has been the separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic in order to provide a more congenial and safer environment. The separation can take place in horizontal or in vertical space. The former approach has been standard, with separate sidewalks being provided for pedestrians, but there have been many examples of vertical segregation too. In many places throughout the world some vehicular streets have been closed off to traffic and turned into pedestrian malls. The goal has been to attract people to use the facilities that line them. Sometimes such malls have proven to be highly successful, and at other times not (see the case of Oak Park, Illinois, in Chapter 5). These schemes have been predominantly landscape architecture projects. They continue to be built.

Why do structures fail

The road leading to ruin is as much the cause of human failings as it is of nature. In a new country like Australia, where this chapter is being written, the gems of a fragile heritage have often been squandered by a deliberate policy of neglect and a refusal to spend a dollar which will not give an immediate return. Ironically, a small amount of timely maintenance would have added many thousands of dollars in value to assets that can frequently be seen reduced to ruins. The many grace and favour historic homesteads, often set in fine, landscaped gardens, are now receiving renewed interest, and sell for sums which recognise their true worth.

Seven Measures of an Excellent City Park System

Wild areas do not automatically protect themselves from development, outmoded waterfronts do not spontaneously sprout flowers and promenades, and flat ground does not morph into ball fields. Even trees and flora of the desired species do not spontaneously grow in the right places. Interested citizens must identify the goals of the park system, including functions to be served, management, and landscaping. The parks department must then use that mandate as a basis for its mission statement and the definition of its core services.

Education of Designers

As much art as science, the design professions are not simply technical disciplines, having to do with the intersection of form, materials, technology, and real estate. The design professions such as architecture, landscape architecture, and urban planning are first and foremost practical liberal arts with technical aspects. Writing in the first century BC, Vitruvius (1960, 5-6) proposed that architects be educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens. That is a start of a liberal and liberating education. Therefore, design education ought to be a part of a broad

Limit The Use Of Buffers

A particular characteristic of contemporary residential development is the prevalence of buffers or border zones around the residential communities. These are areas of open space or landscaping that isolate the new residential areas from their immediate context, but without having any obvious open space function. Sometimes they are introduced along busier roads so that no residents have to be affected by the traffic at other times they are introduced between new and existing communities.

Cutty Sark Gardens London

Judges'views This important riverside space has been transformed by a simple yet highly effective hard landscaping scheme using wood decking, yorkstone paving and well-engineered handrails and street furniture. The severity of the design forms an admirable setting for the strong lines of the Cutty Sark and nearby Gypsy Moth, while ensuring that this busy riverside area is an appropriate gateway for visitors to this historic town.

External environment and site strategy

The design team began to investigate layouts that would maximise solar potential, considering daylighting, passive solar gain and the use of PVs. We looked at courtyard forms that grouped buildings around an enclosed landscaped space, creating a haven from the busy road. We compared these layouts with designs based on separate towers - good for solar orientation but by their object-like nature less useful for defining space. Figure 8.3a-c shows some of our sketch ideas for grouping buildings.

Architectural Wood Poles

Author of A Guide to Public Art in Greater Boston, Marty Car-lock contributes frequently to Landscape Architecture. New Resources for the Landscape Designer from Wiley Publishing The landscape design professional's guide to harnessing the power of Google Sketch Up. Takes readers step by step from the basics to more advanced methods that incorporate terrain, AutoCAD, and the creation of complex forms. DIGITAL DRAWING for LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Research on What Causes Attachment to Urban Parks

Physical features within parks also influenced the level of attachment to parks. Certain parks were more loved than others, as were certain places within each park. For example, a riverside university arboretum in one park elicited much higher attachment ratings locally than did a restored prairie area. Park staff and volunteers, however, also appreciated the more overgrown areas of the parks where native vegetation was being encouraged. The study found that the more that people knew about the benefits of native plants and ecosystems, the stronger their appreciation for native plantings versus ornamental plantings, a significant finding for park planners and managers seeking to enhance the biodiversity in urban parks. Volunteer programs and other educational outreach programs can help improve the public's acceptance of native landscaping. Other findings from that study (Ryan 2000, 2005), however, suggest that native plantings must be designed and managed in a manner that fits with the...

Design of the terrain

The wall which is necessary to accommodate the changes in grade, the so-called terrace wall, marks the boundary between city and park landscape. The top of the wall runs horizontally for long distances. City, park and landscape form a true ensemble. Gilles Vexlard goes back to a classic device in landscape architecture in his handling of the topography, an effect that was used during the Renaissance the paths adjacent to the ground planes are elevated.14

Customized To Your Imagination

Hollander was born and raised in New York City, and he always loved the outdoors and nature. He studied horticulture at the New York Botanical Garden and the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, before earning a degree in landscape architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. While at Penn, Hollander formed a close relationship with environmental visionary and department founder Ian McHarg and even taught studios with him following graduation. Shortly after returning to New York, Hollander was offered a job with the firm of Clark and Rapuano as project manager of Westway, a plan to bury the city's crumbling West Side Highway and develop the landscape on top of it, Foracity kid to be offered Westway, says Hollander, was basically a dream come true. After many years and much rancorous debate, the project was canceled, and Hollander opted to leave the firm and go into business with a colleague, Maryanne Connelly, ASLA. Edmund Hollander landscape Architect Design...

Green rddf case study

Examples existed in the United States at the time, let alone in the region. The landscape architecture and horticulture faculty noticed this void and made green roofs the focus of Ambler's 2002 Philadelphia Flower Show exhibit (see Land Matters, Landscape Architecture, July 2002). That exhibit's high visibility and potential research opportunities encouraged faculty to propose bringing a permanent green roof example to Ambler to help define Temple's green campus. PECO energy, Philadelphia's supplier of electricity and natural gas, wanted to help with that mission. PECO representatives visited and were intrigued by the 2002 exhibit's energy savings, environmental capabilities, and educational intent. These were similar goals to other projects to which PECO had been awarding grants, so it seemed only natural that landscape architecture and horticulture faculty apply for one. They evaluated four possible green Unfortunately, the Temple University facilities management department opposed...

Some Notes on Detailing the Environment

Much of the detailing of the design of the public realm of cities is a problem of landscape architecture. The quality of the detailing, as displays and as behaviour settings, makes a major contribution to our feelings about places and about the cities of which they are a part. By detailing is meant the small-scale patterns - the kerbs and kerb cuts for making an environment barrier free, the grates and manhole covers, the paving, the steps and staircases, and the seating designs. The architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is often quoted as saying 'God is in the details'. Certainly the quality of the public realm is not simply a function of its overall design but its details. The quality of the 16th Street Mall in Denver, Colorado owes much to its detailing (see Figures 1.1 and 5.20). The manner in which the pubic realm is illuminated - naturally and or artificially, day or night - contributes substantially to its ambient qualities. The concern is not only for safety but also for...

Amongst The Buildings

Brownfield sites, vacant land, wasteland, backland, informal open spaces and derelict land, often perform valuable functions. In its final report, the Urban Task Force (1999) gave a new acronym to some brownfield land - SLOAP, or 'Space Left Over After Planning'. It was described as 'soulless, undefined places, poorly landscaped, with no relationship to surrounding buildings'. These leftover plots between roads, houses and factories, which no one appears to own, and often for which no one wants to take responsibility, can be death traps for children, valued community green spaces, relics of industry or designated wildlife sites. Sometimes they are a combination of these and other attributes.

Commentary Are these Landscape Architectural Products Urban Design

Of a city - their landscape architecture - have been designed by a wide variety of people and during the second half of the twentieth century they went through several fashion cycles within different cultural contexts. It is clear that the quality of the landscape architecture is both the essential ingredient of the case studies included in this chapter. Can it all, or any of it, be claimed to be urban design Of all the schemes presented in this chapter, the most urban, Pershing Square, is the one that can least be called urban design. Both the SITE and the Legoretta Olin design focused on the surface of the square. Maybe in the long run the Square will become a true urban place integrated with its enclosing elements. It is not one yet. Important though the quality of their landscape architecture is, well-designed cityscapes and parks are not the panacea for the ills of cities. They cannot solve social or economic problems on their own. The authorities in Oak Park found that out....

Design philosophy

The designer, Gabor Szucs, works at the PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design Company, which is influenced by the renowned organic architectural studio led by the eminent architect, Imre Makovecz. PAGONY Landscape and Garden Design Company builds, in its own way, upon the organic approach, and this influences everything from the initial relationship with the client to the changing life of the garden and the requirements of future users. The aim is to create a living system and not to have a still, frozen, static construction.

Part Two Visualization

A lighting designer who aims to work in a particular field of design, such as architecture, interior design or landscape design, must develop an appreciative understanding of how designers in the chosen field conceptualize their work. From an understanding of the overall design concept, the lighting designer develops the vision of the design setting revealed by light. A hierarchy of things to be seen is determined and selection is made of object characteristics to be revealed. It is this selection that determines the characteristics of the lighting to be provided.

Resource Flows and Campus Ecology

The operation of educational institutions in ways that undermine the future of the students we purport to educate cannot be justified. As learning organizations, colleges and universities would monitor their environmental impacts and amend their operational guidelines in order to eliminate pollution, carbon dioxide emissions, and toxic chemicals, and support the emergence of sustainable local economies. Construction and building renovation would conform to the highest standards possible. Other standards for the purchase of materials, food, and energy, as well as landscaping and investment are being tested by the Campus Ecology Program of the National Wildlife Federation. The aim is to develop rating systems similar to that of U.S. News and World Report to appraise the environmental performance of colleges and universities. The implementation of these standards will require changes in plant management and operations, including systems to provide prompt and accurate feedback about all...

Lowcost Suburban Development

The parks, playgrounds, small greens and circles in the tract total 17 acres, or 10.6 percent of the total area. If there is included also the 1.2 acres of market squares, the total acreage of open space is 18.2 acres. The largest of these spaces is the common of 3.3 acres. This serves both as a park and as a setting or approach to the school building. Back of the school is the main playground for the small children, of 2.54 acres, and near it is the girls' playfield of 1.74 acres. On the opposite side of the schoolyard, a little farther away, is the boys' playground of 2.7 acres. Space for tennis courts is located conveniently in another section of the district. At various other points are to be found parked ovals or small greens which give attractiveness to vistas and afford pleasing bits of landscaping for the surrounding homes.

City Form Neighborhoods and Parks

In 1929, New York's master builder and power broker Robert Moses created Jones Beach as an oceanside park built within reach of Manhattan for the working middle class unable to afford vacation homes in the country. The park included bathhouses, restaurants, expanses of beach, and vast parking lots and was accessible by two landscaped parkways and a train. Although during the Depression few people had cars, access was intended to be largely for those arriving by private car. Moses's parkways had overpasses built too low to allow buses, suggesting he did not want the teeming masses from the inner city to be flocking to his new parks (Caro 1974).

The core of urban design work Part

The core of urban design work is defined here primarily in terms of common processes of design and administration. There is a significant intellectual similarity between varieties of products generated by the same generic method within a specific design paradigm. True, it is possible to cut the cake in another direction. An organization based on product types would allow the impacts of differences in methodological approaches to be explicated. It would not, however, show the thought processes, similar though they may be, that differentiate urban design from the traditional practices and views of city planning, landscape architecture and architecture.

Cautionary Note On Safety

When beginning the excavation, remove the top-soil and set it aside to be used later for a living roof or landscaping. This soil is full of microorganisms, weed seeds, and a host of organic matter that is unsuitable for putting inside the bags. Humus belongs in the garden, not in the walls of your home. This topsoil can be anywhere from nonexistent to eight inches (20 cm) or more thick, depending on your location.

Recreation center UC Davis California

The recreation center for the University of California at Davis holds 10,000 spectators for occasional events. Considering the low-rise context around the facility, a major design objective was to minimize the height. This was achieved by several means. The main level is 10 ft (2.7m) below grade. Landscaped earth berms, filled from the excavated soil, surround the facility to reduce its visual height. Along the building edge the roof deck is attached to the bottom chord to further reduce the bulk of the facility. The exposed space frame articulates the facade as well.

Clear systems of signs

Should be designed for ease of reading placed high enough to be seen over people's heads and located in a consistent way so that people know where to look as they hurry through the building. Control should be exercised during the entire lifetime of the stadium to ensure that signs remain compatible with the overall design of the stadium and its landscaping. The needs of people in wheelchairs must constantly be borne in mind.

The Building Program Equals the Fundraising Strategy

As a rule, about half of the money for college and university buildings must be borrowed. If this experience is a useful guide, the ideas embedded in the building program are as important as the need for the building itself. Lacking exciting ideas, it is hard to create enthusiasm about the project among potential donors, or anyone else for that matter. Buildings are means, not ends, but a means to what The Lewis Center was conceived as an experiment in education relative to solar technology, ecological engineering, products of service, ecological landscaping, sustainable forestry, and the art and science of ecological design. We intended to better equip our students to solve twenty-first-century problems. This will require significant changes in how we think about buildings and their larger upstream and downstream effects over the long haul. This is both daunting and exciting, but if we intend to stay around awhile longer it is absolutely

From Preface to The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam 17738

Near the end of the 1750s the two brothers set up their practice in London and began to build a highly successful architectural practice in what is now known simply as the ''Adam style.'' In contrast to the severity of some Greek classicists, the Adam brothers