Lawn Ebooks Catalog
The Lawns is the conversion and extension of a house originally designed by Leonard Manasseh in the '50's. The new work mostly in glass entirely wraps and engulfs the old house and doubles its size with expansive, double-height spaces, so that the new is played off against the old. And a complete new floor is added, replacing the former pitched roof. For historical and planning reasons the house is set well back from the street generating a large forecourt and underscoring a space syntax that elevates the house's status as the visitor parades to it or swings into the car area. Inside, the interior is well-organised, playing off old and new with real panache. And there is even a third generation here the Manasseh house was built upon a retained Victorian basement, now used as an apartment for the children of the household. The house was short-listed for the Stirling Prize in 2002.
An important part of the design brief was to restore the river, stabilize its banks, and reveal it to visitors people used to discover it by accident if at all, according to Smith. That's where Heath Construction got its foothold, as an engineering firm with experience not in landscape work as such but in structural streambank and bridge design, says principal Randy DeMario. Weekly meet-ings with dsw, Heath, and other consultants were critical to the work, which mostly takes place in the winter, when the river (as well as the flood of tourists) is down. dsw's Bob Eck, asla, came up with the concept of putting reveals (shadow lines) into stream-bank retaining walls to show the hundred-year flood and the level of the Lawn Lake disaster. Brandes says, We learned so much from Heath about technical reliability and maintainability. I can't tell you how many other communities we come into as consultants on a project's third phase, and they say the first phase design was great, but we didn't...
Sunbathing was one of the most popular activities in the temporary park laid out in 1984. In response, the designers have provided new raised lawns which improve this function. These are much better than the previous grassed areas which were at the same level as the paving. Ramps give access to the lawns for disabled people and also for maintenance machines. The three lawns which lie between the cherry alley and the paved waterfront promenade are each 30m wide and they are cut through by paths at various angles - 30o, 45o and 60o. The lawns are raised 360mm above the surrounding levels, which offers them some protection from excessive trampling, as pedestrians are gently channelled along the footpaths. Along the cherry walk there is an access ramp at each corner of every lawn. The edges of the lawns have been constructed using white concrete pre-cast elements - the basic unit has the dimensions 900 x 400 x 400mm, but because of the angled paths, special units were needed for junctions...
Although I did not know it then, this book began in Shiraz, Iran in Fall 1978 when my companion (and later wife) Mary and I - both Americans - were teaching English to finance our 3-year odyssey through Europe and Asia. Mary had been hired to tutor a dentist's wife who lived next to the American Consulate. Having left the U.S. in 1976 as wandering backpackers, we were stunned 2 years later to find ourselves surrounded by American-style, split-level houses - towering above opaque walls - in a patrician neighborhood on the outskirts of a historic city. The suburb was on its way to becoming a gated community. Ribbons of sidewalks snaked between houses and streets. The exteriors of the lavish residences were decorated with Western architectural details. The houses were separated by green lawns that were nourished with precious water from the southern Iranian desert.
If we analyse the 400 square yards allotted to each inhabitant of a garden city, 3 00 square yards are given up to lawns, fruit and vegetable gardens, flower-result is often a few bunches of carrots and a basket of pears. There is no and sports generally at any time on any day right at one's door, not in sports Let us put the problem more logically house 5 o square yards with small pleasure or at the sixth storey arranged in honeycomb fashion). Around the blocks of 1)0 square yards per house. In front of the houses a similar area of ground yield irrigation, farmed-out labour, small trucks for moving manure, soil, The agricultural labourer is deserting the country-side with three shifts of eight hours each in operation, the artisan here becomes his own agricultural labourer and produces an important part of the food he consumes. Architecture Town planning The logical study of the cell and its functions in relation to the mass may furnish a solution rich in results.
The Shanghai Waterfront Park Shanghai Peoples Republic of China a proposed integrated park and building urban design
A major feature of the park is the Crescent (see Figure 5.19a). The width of the park varies in order to obtain some variety. The planting scheme is also varied with some areas left relatively open for active recreation while others have been designed for passive contemplation. On the landside, the park is proposed to be bounded by mid-rise (up to 12 stories in height), mixed-use, podium-based buildings and a boulevard. The buildings will give a strong definition and a sense of urbanity to the park. The boulevard has been purposefully designed to restrict its use as a major traffic artery. Its width has been kept down to two moving lanes in each direction and frequent pedestrian crossings have been introduced. The waterfront has an esplanade on the river's edge with lawns and trees between it and the boulevard. What is not clear from the sketch but is clear from the cross section is the use of a berm to control flooding. Inevitably it cuts off the visual link between the public pier...
For a long time, cities had a horrible reputation when it came to the environment. They were thought to be concrete jungles where residents were cut off from grass, trees, and fresh air and lived out of ecological balance. Some of that reputation is deserved cities today consume more than 75 percent of the world's resources, although they take up a mere 2 percent of its land surface. But recently a more complex assessment of the relationship between urbanism and sustainability has emerged. First, cities have become more livable, thanks to falling crime rates and increased attention to issues like air quality. Second, cities are inherently dense, and density can greatly reduce a society's overall drain on natural resources. An apartment dweller who occupies less than 1,000 square feet, has no lawn to water, shares a heating system with his fellow tenants, and uses public transportation is far kinder to the environment than his counterpart in the suburbs who drives everywhere and lives...
Nine new buildings form the group with the tenth being the previously existing Norwegian Botschaft that encloses the southwestern corner (see Figure 8.68). Each building is slightly set back from the street with a lawn and avenue of trees on the street front. The 1-metre high and 4-metre wide slopes around each building site provide a platform for the apartment blocks and privacy for the ground floor apartments. The ratio of distance between buildings and building height is 1.3 to 1.5. The purpose was to balance the privacy and natural surveillance requirements of the residents. The buildings are situated around a rectangular internal garden of lawns, trees and a children's playground. A rectangular pathway
The rotating ring of landscape in Acconci Studio's Courtyard In The Wind rests flush with the surrounding lawn and paved courtyard. The turntable contains all the typical landscape components, creating an illusion of continuity between the trees, grass, and paved areas of the formal courtyard, if only for one moment in its revolu- 1 The rotating ring of landscape rests flush with the surrounding lawn and paved courtyard. 2 As the ring rotates, this composition revolves in and out of alignment, carrying trees and visitors alike. 3 A turbine placed atop the building tower captures wind energy that is used to rotate its inner courtyard. 4 Plans of the foundation, footing, and rotating ring.
A 1.7-square-kilometre (0.6-square-mile) 'arable kitchen-garden park' for the Copenhagen Port Authority espousing sustainable farming principles on a former industrial and ship-docking yard. More than 80 per cent of the ground is dedicated to vegetable farming, interspersed with grazing fields. Compact car-free suburb clusters are stitched together by an elevated ribbon of lawn draped with hydroponic curtains.
Design The site was on the edge of an area of gently undulating mixed woodland with intervening lawns used by the students and university staff for relaxation, walking and jogging. This was to be the location for the new sports centre with a 42 x 22 m playing area for all types of ball games, gymnastics, other sports and competitions, together with the associated ancillary facilities. The architects created two simple structures the sports hall itself, with a pitched roof, and a two-storey block containing the ancillary facilities, with a monopitch roof, along one side of the hall. The two structures are offset, thereby creating an internal angle at the south end which provides an obvious entrance area. A simple solution was achieved by exploiting the natural slope of the site, providing a spacious entrance to the balcony and changing rooms above and a separate entrance below to the offices, sports instructors' accommodation, medical facilities and services. The upper level offers an...
Ecology's most important problem is that it is invisible. You cannot produce the visual sensation of harmony simply by being ecological any more than the reverse. This is obvious in gardening. Because we are all Geologists' now, no one has a lawn without weeds, everyone has a meadow in bloom. In agriculture, the meadow has its stability, but without cows it is an intermediate stage in a sequence of changing vegetable associations. To stop this sequence and to conserve the meadow is as expensive in terms of energy consumption and fertilizers as growing a weed ess lawn used to be.
As a simple test, to understand technology and what it means, look at a non-technological activity like gardening. As I write. I am looking out on an English country garden, a haven, you would think, from all the aggressions of our technological age. But is it The plants have all been bred and cross-bred to produce special strains to give extra colour, extra quality in the fruit, extra shelf-life. The mix of plants is carefully chosen to suit the soil. The lawn, filled with weeds though it is. demands to be treated and fed with special lawn compounds. Really there should not be a lawn there at all. as it is not the right soil, but that can be solved. The toolshed. with Its lawnmower and other machines, its special organic feeds using traditional methods', is filled with the pro ducts of our industrial society. The farm opposite, which has 150 overweight cows, now confined because it is winter in an ugly industrial shed to improve the milk yield, pollutes this environment too and must...
Black surfaces absorb and then emit the sun's heat. Sun-heated lawns and pavements emit almost as much heat to the building as if these surfaces were painted black. A building with a bright metallic exterior reflects most of the radiation emitted from the earth back out into space.
Scheme in order to meet the approval ofboth the County Council and the City Corporation. The City Corporation approved the revised Chamberlain, Powell and Bon scheme in November 1959. It is this scheme that is a total urban design although not as totally under one control as Brasilia or the capital complex at Chandigarh. The project consists of a multi-level circulation system, tower blocks, a theatre, restaurants, internal lawns and water gardens (see Figure 7.9d).
With surgical artistry, the urban skin of one downtown block, 80 x 80 metres (200 by 200 feet) is peeled back. Time is reversed and the story of land development wound back to predevelopment days. The park is like a view port to the past. The long forgotten wetland habitat is restored to the full glory of its plants and animals. Little springs bubble up at the top of a large open grassy meadow, trickling down to a wetland pond, sunken 1.8 metres below street level. A floating pontoon crosses the water, literally swimming across its invisible and varying depths. Symbolic of the old city fabric, historic railroad tracks form a wave-wall along one side of the pond. Called the 'Art Wall', there is a harmonious contrast between the static strength of the rail tracks and the lithe and flowing movement of the wall as it oscillates in and out, the top also rising and falling. The verticality of the rail tracks is surprisingly filigree. The movement of the wall is doubled in the reflection in...
The gardens include a lawn amphitheater garden with a bronze fountain a s 1 made from Moroccan fossil stone, a swimming pool garden with stone-tilec rose and wisteria-covered pergola made from monolithic Chinese sancs columns and teak rafters and a rose roof garden over underground cha 'z rooms.
The park's first phase is directly across the East River from the United Nat and is divided into three areas. The Promontory is a great lawn with a nai shoreline edge that takes full advantage of the stunning view of the Manha skyline. In North Gantry Plaza, the skyline is framed by restored gantries - giga structures that once transferred railcars onto rail barges. Framed by tree-sha caf s, a fog fountain and game tables, the plaza accommodates 30,000 view for the 4th of July fireworks. South Gantry Interpretive Garden is a contempla space formed by two paths here, stepping-stone blacks provide the visitor . direct access to the water and look as if they had been abandoned only yesterc Four unique pier follies expand the water-edge experience.
The first is, because a good house (and by this I mean a fitting, tasteful, and significant dwelling) is a powerful means of civilization. A nation, whose rural population is content to live in mean huts and miserable hovels, is certain to be behind its neighbors in education, the arts, and all that makes up the external signs of progress. With the perception of proportion, symmetry, order, and beauty, awakens the desire for possession, and with them comes that refinement of manners which distinguishes a civilized from a coarse and brutal people. So long as men are forced to dwell in log huts and follow a hunter's life, we must not be surprised at lynch law and the use of the bowie knife. But, when smiling lawns and tasteful cottages begin to embellish a country, we know that order and culture are established. And, as the first incentive towards this change is awakened in the minds of most men by the perception of beauty and superiority in external objects, it must follow that the...
The setting of the landed estate is as congenial to the biotech industry as it was to the manufactures royales, an image of reassuring and established order in the face of the unknown. Mature eighteenth-century parkland, oaks, lawn and a generous lake provide the impeccable surroundings of the campus outside Cambridge where the Human Genome Project has its home. The administration lords it in a restored Georgian mansion, the stables and outbuildings provide conference and meeting areas and the research laboratories and staff facilities nestle in a series of carefully staggered blocks, pristine in their uniform of burnished metal and glass, at the other side of the park. The world of work here is as closed and obscure as the world of manufacture or academe.
I call a sunk fence the leading step, for these reasons. No sooner was this simple enchantment made, than levelling, mowing and rolling, followed. The contiguous ground of the park without the sunk fence was to be harmonized with the lawn within and the garden in its turn was to be set free from its prim regularity, that it might assort with the wilder country without. The sunk fence ascertained the specific garden, but that it might not draw too obvious a line of distinction between the neat and the rude, the contiguous outlying parts came to be included in a kind of general design and when nature was taken into the plan, under improvements, every step that was made, pointed out new beauties and inspired new ideas. At that moment appeared Kent, painter enough to taste the charms of landscape, bold and opinionative enough to dare and to dictate, and born with a genius to strike out a great system from the twilight of imperfect essays. He leaped the fence, and saw that all nature was a...
The inspiration for this garden starts with the modern forms of the house and transparent way the building sits on the site. The modernist garden vocabu of geometric forms and a minimal plant palette set the stage for the entry approach to the house. The back lawn garden culminates with the merging of modern garden into the surrounding naturalistic setting. Down in the arroyo on the adjoining newer properties the natural landscape becomes intenstf engulfing the visitor in its exaggerated scale. The gardens transform accorc to exposure and site conditions. Shade gardens, succulent gardens, and a va of other plant ecosystems are on array throughout the overall experience o-' site. A stroll through the gardens will transport the visitor's memory to a var of locales. It is the strong linkages between place and experience, architect and garden, that distinguish this garden.
Ecology's most Important problem is that it is invisible. You cannot produce the visual sensation of harmony simply by being ecological any more than the reverse. This is obvious in gardening. Because we are all 'ecologists' now. no one has a lawn without weeds, everyone has a meadow in bloom. In agriculture, the meadow has its stability, but without cows it is an intermediate stage in a sequence of changing vegetable associations. To stop this sequence and to conserve the meadow is as expensive in terms of energy consumption and fertilizers as growing a weedless lawn used to be.
What then are the proper characteristics of a rural residence The answer to this in a few words is, such a dwelling, as from its various accommodations, not only gives ample space for all the comforts and conveniences of a country life, but by its varied and picturesque form and outline, its porches, verandas, etc., also appears to have some reasonable connection, or be in perfect keeping, with surrounding nature. Architectural beauty must be considered conjointly with the beauty of the landscape or situation. Buildings of almost every description, and particularly those for the habitation of man, will be considered by the mind of taste, not only as architectural objects of greater or less merit, but as component parts of the general scene united with the surrounding lawn, embosomed in tufts of trees and shrubs, if properly designed and constructed, they will even serve to impress a character upon the surrounding landscape. Their effect will frequently be good or bad, not merely as...
Figure 11.1 Relationship between playing field, optimum and maximum viewing distances and a deduced 'optimum viewing circle'. (a) For football and rugby the optimum viewing circle would have a radius of 90 m from the centre spot. (b) Dimensions for lawn tennis viewing. (c) Separate stands, leaving the potential seating space at the corners unexploited, have traditionally been common. (d) This arrangement brings more spectators within the optimum viewing circle and also offers the possibility of a more attractive stadium design (see Section 6.2.4 of this book). (e) A variation of (c) with the seating areas extending to the limit of the optimum viewing circle, but not beyond it. This type of layout gives an excellent spectator player relationship. (f) A variation of (d) with only the seating area to the west of the playing field extended back to the limit of the optimum viewing circle. With this layout the majority of spectators have their backs to the sun during an afternoon game....
Conceived by London Docklands Development Corporation, was designed to provide a hub for leisure, business and residential developments and to connect with existing communities. The design evolved from the site's existing features such as the buildings, cranes and waterfront setting. A central lawn is bordered by a paved walkway. The canopy is punched through with names of ships that docked in the old basin. Materials reflect those used in past industrial times - steel, natural stone, concrete and timber. The fountains provide a ceremonial route to the Excel Centre and a play facility for children.
Canals running through it from which water occasionally runs over the edges on to the lawns - but without getting as far as the buildings. But the Landes-dorfer Arm, which is linked directly with the Danube, maintains a water level that is well under the top of the embankment. The Krems East industrial estate does not contribute a drop to possible flooding on the Danube and its tributaries.
The buildings are accessed from two sides from the north via Frisbie Square at the Peabody Museum and from the south via the Cabot Science courtyard, which serves as a circulation hub for the entire complex. The elegant landscaping design including small groups of trees, clearly defined geometrical patches of lawn, and brick footpaths mediates between old and new,
In suburbs where the occupants buy ready-built houses and where the difference in design from one house to another is minimal, cosmetic features may be added on the exterior in order to make a residence more distinctive. It is all to the better if, as in most modest suburbs, the exteriors are neutral to begin with, because they are easier to modify indeed, their very plainness invites elaboration. Minor alterations may range from painting the front door a bright color to adding shutters on the windows or wrought iron on the entry, or installing a bay window on the front. Major changes could include modifying the shape of the main elevation or its material to suggest a Tudor half-timbered manor, a Spanish mission, or a Roman temple-front mansion. Equally distinctive effects can be achieved through landscaping. The approach to the front door may be down a winding flagstone path bordered by beds of flowers, or along a straight alley of clipped shrubbery or overarching trees. Accent...
Design development sketch showing the lawns and the planting concept It is the distinctive contributions of the artists which create the unique character of the gardens. The exaggerated curved forms were not part of the original concept but evolved through the interchange of ideas. The large rounded copings around the lawns had a practical purpose. They were designed to be comfortable as seats. Rounding the edges would also make them less attractive to skateboarders who like to grind along sharp edges. The water vessels clearly had to be large and rounded if they were to echo steelmaking crucibles. According to Lyn Mitchell, the detailed forms used in the gardens were the result of a long process 'The artists came up with lots and lots of ideas and we had huge meetings and they could be tough going. We came up with a short list of objects to be designed by artists and they came up with a family of objects based
The traditional American campus landscape, captured most vividly by an image of open lawns with mature canopy trees, is one of our most established, celebrated, and significant landscape typologies and is, in the 21st century, at a crossroads. The past decade was for several raisons one of the most influential periods in the long history of colleges and universities in terms of architecture and landscape architecture. In conjunction with sometimes record growth in facilities, these institutions embraced their role as stewards in the education and promotion of environmental sus-tainability, as reflected in the ambitious American College and University Presidents' Climate Commitment. The West Campus Quad at Duke University, designed by the Olmsted brothers, epitomizes the traditional American campus landscape with its open lawn and mature canopy trees. Once simple in form, campuses today are typically vast and complex environments with a multitude of variables. Although many campuses...
Could I presume that he would take my advice on a general principle, as he once did in a particular application of his art, we might yet avoid any further difference and I assure him, that I do not mean (as advisers generally do) to impose my own opinions upon him, and bid him renounce his own but merely to recommend to him the renewal of a course of study, which I fear he abandoned before he had made much progress in it. Let him for a while quit the school of Mr. Brown, and return to that of the great masters in landscape painting, whose lessons will not make such a savage of him as he seems to apprehend, nor teach him to injure either the health, comfort, or convenience of himself or his employers. Picturesque circumstances, as I can prove to him by many examples, may be preserved even close to a house, without sacrificing, or even diminishing, the health, I suppose he means healthiness, cheerfulness, or comfort of a country residence (ibid. p. 5 and 6.) and walks perfectly clean...
Viewed the parks from home or street preferred traditional management neatly mown lawns and clipped shrubs. Park neighbors were also concerned that increased development in the parks, such as building additional parking areas or visitor centers, would bring more outsiders to the parks and increase traffic. Many of the more active users walkers, bikers, and bird-watchers wanted park managers to let nature take its course. Park volunteers and staff preferred management to promote native species, such as removing nonnative trees and shrubs and using controlled burns to enhance native grassland areas and woodland understory plants. These conflicting preferences tend to complicate park management. Park planning and management must involve diverse types of users and try to reconcile diverse needs.
Unsanitary blocks of houses must be demolished and replaced by green areas the adjacent housing quarters will thus
The green areas that will have been intimately amalgamated with built volumes and integrated into the residential sectors will not have the embellishment of the city as their sole function. First, they must play a useful role, and it is facilities of a communal nature that will occupy their lawns day nurseries, pre-school and post-school organizations, youth clubs, centers for intellectual relaxation or physical culture, reading rooms or game rooms, running tracks and outdoor swimming pools. These will be the extensions of the dwelling, and must be subject, like the dwelling itself, to the land ordinance. Nothing, or virtually nothing, has yet been provided for the weekly hours of leisure time. Vast spaces in the region surrounding the city will be reserved and equipped, and made accessible by sufficiently numerous and convenient modes of transportation. These spaces are no longer a matter of lawns around the house, more or less densely planted with trees, but of actual forests and...
The landscape design highlights the clean, simple lines of the natural land and preserves much of the existing vegetation at the site. Native limestone s along rustic nature paths and on the main lawn of the center. Limestone surround the garden areas and provide a dramatic backdrop for existing se trees. Ornamental grasses and fragrant herbs were selected to suppleme natural beauty of the Austin landscape and native plantings.
The doors are locked for the last time and the gates padlocked. As months pass and no-one comes back, there are unmistakable signs of change. The mice grown bolder in the house and their feet and tails leave trails in the accumulating dust. Foxes and badgers become less wary about appearing on the unkempt lawn, and wasps feed unhindered on the fallen showers of plums.
The first step in the selection and layout of sprinkler heads is to divide the area to be irrigated Into zones that have similar water requirements, e.g., lawn areas, shrub areas, and different exposures to the sun. Where possible, the use of large-radius heads should be considered first, since their use will progressively decrease the cost of the system on a square-foot basis. Triangular spacing is more efficient than square spacing, although many areas lend themselves to square spacing (such as the small rectangular areas typical of most residential and small commercial projects).
Landscaping is usually the final stage of a site's development. Landscaping plans show the location of various species of plantings, ground cover, lawns, benches, garden areas, and fences. The plantings are noted with an abbreviation, typically three letters, along with the quantity of the particular species (Figure 6.9). The designation corresponds to a planting schedule that furnishes a complete list of the plantings by common name, Latin or species name, and quantity and size of each planting. Certain notes describing planting procedures or handling specifications accompany the planting schedule. Landscaping plans have additional graphics and symbols unique to the profession, which the blueprint reader should be aware of, particularly relating to plant symbols.
Raised 2m above sea level ends the park towards the basin. Where streets open onto the promenade, corresponding spaces within the park fulfil a specific variety of functions, as described below. The components in each space have a different character. Between the open spaces are 30m-wide lawns bordered by a 36cm-raised concrete panel. Paths are cut diagonally through the lawns. The park consists of different elements which are described and analysed separately below. Many different approaches towards design have been combined. In the design of Vestmanna Plads, the Lawns and the Playground, the designers listened carefully to the wishes of the residents. The design for the Waterfront, the Festival Place, Halfdan's Passage and the Market Place were informed by respect for the history and character of the place, as well as a positive attitude towards the recycling and reuse of existing features. The diagonal paths crossing the lawns, the curved walls at Reykjaviks
The house is oriented with an open and transparent external elevation facing north and a mostly opaque, straight elevation facing south. The 620-square-metre site has a cross-fall of about 4 metres, so a degree of cut and fill had to occur to fit the two-storey house comfortably on the site. The carport area to the northwest was set at a half level to ameliorate the steepness of the driveway and the difference in level through the site. The northern yard was then graded to provide a gently sloping grassy lawn in front of the house. A slab sitting on short-bored piers forms the ground platform for the steel frame. The link to the outside realm and the covered and welcoming 'veranda' space distinguishes the buildings from the fully enclosed European-style houses that still dominate the suburban landscape in Australia.
The Erzsebet Square design answers various functional needs with a complex system of places. Six different areas, each with a particular spirit and function, have been created within this small area nevertheless they complement each other because of their strict geometric arrangement. The square is framed by spacious promenades and broad pavements. Hornbeams clipped into cubic forms frame the welcoming area, and there is a small pond in the direction of Deak Square. Wide stairs and terraces, richly decorated with plants and falling water lead to the underground cultural, entertainment and commercial centre which still bears the ironic nickname the 'Hole' (the National Theatre was eventually built on a different site in the 9th district). A row of lamps, at a slight angle from the general orientation, points towards the entrance of the exhibition and concert hall. The pool with its promenades and boardwalk, built into the cover slab of the exhibition hall, provides an ideal leisure...
Expressed strong preferences for traditional park or garden elements such as grass lawns, herbaceous borders and semi-mature trees. There was a feeling that the Peace Gardens should remain a green oasis and refuge from the bustle of the city, and suggestions that it should become an 'entertainment space' were viewed with suspicion. The public also objected to the proposition that a nearby waterfeature, the Goodwin Fountain, should be removed without replacement, and there was general support for the idea that water should somehow be accommodated within the proposed design.
Gardens and allotments have traditionally been important spaces for people who wish to grow their own food, and increasing awareness of the distances that supermarket food travels nowadays (Roseland 1998 AEA Technology Environment, 2005) has encouraged environmentally aware people to revisit the extent to which they might use the principles of permaculture to grow food within the vicinity of their home. From a design point of view this means providing room for useful gardens or allotments (Figure 4.49). From a management point of view it means ensuring that bylaws, codes and covenants do not restrict the use of open space to manicured lawns-as occurs, for example, in Springwood Estates, Indiana
At the heart of successful park planning, design, and management is an understanding of what the public wants in its urban parks. As noted by Whyte (1988, 109), however, the public is often overlooked when parks are designed It is difficult to design a space that will not attract people. What is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished. Whyte used behavioral observation of people in urban parks and plazas in New York City to understand the factors that constitute a successful urban plaza. He focused primarily on the physical features within these spaces. He observed that those plazas that provided ample seating and, if possible, movable chairs that allowed people to create their own seating arrangements were the most heavily used. Other important factors included creating a comfortable microclimate, such as sunny areas, trees for shade, and water features. Small lawn areas for informal seating and sunbathing were also well used. Visibility of the park from nearby streets was...
In a linked exhibition photographic images of the lawns of Oxford Colleges, which are protected by observance of custom rather than security equipment from encroachment, were shown. Camelot was a public art commission, selected from a submission of designs Cornford and Cross used adapted photographs of the site to give a visual impression of their proposal. Their view is that by reinforcing the boundaries of a site with security fencing, as an intentionally excessive display of authority, they sought to relate current debates on security and access to the tragedy of the commons,45 as they put it, when sites of open mixing are encroached on by those of consumption and routine. The title references the UK national lottery, and the mythicised ideal (chivalric) life of Arthurian Britain, but the work's intention was to interrupt the public realm thereby pointing to its sterility. Later Cross found himself on a local bus when the driver pulled over, pointed to the installation and...
Bridge crosses the lawn diagonally and - diving through underneath a recessed building corner - leads to the main entrance. Approaching the building on this path from the garden the onlooker is suddenly confronted with the new building whose materials -light-grey sheet metal cladding with black joints, neatly processed in-situ concrete painted grey, clear and obscured glazing, slender anthracite window profiles - support the elegance and clarity of the design concept.
Buried sand filters that use sand, crushed glass, mineral tailings, or bottom ash are also used for secondary treatment. They are applied where the groundwater level is high, or in areas of exposed bedrock or poor soil. A large site area is required, but the ground surface can become a lawn or other nonpaved surface. Buried sand filters can be a remedy for failed disposal fields.
It shifts to Silicon Valley in California, where the same eery, clean landscape is repeated slick buildings surrounded by immaculately groomed grass, looking like smart Japanese audio equipment, 'machine-shaped' to express the arcane and inscrutable processes within.
If there is a single symbol that sums up the work of William H. Whyte Jr., then it could be of the green bistro chairs scattered over the lawn of midtown Manhattan's Bryant Park. Whyte loved to watch people in a public park or plaza walk up to a movable chair, turn it an inch or two, and then sit down. The moves, he said, were important, not only allowing a person to express himself or herself in what is usually a proscribed environment, but also sending subtle social messages to those nearby. The message the chairs sent to the prospective sitter was even more important this chair is here for you do what you like with it. Like those movable chairs writ large, Whyte's ideas about people and cities respect the individual, focusing on how people relate to their surroundings and are able to express their individualism in it.
And how much happiness, how much pure pleasure, that strengthens and invigorates our best and holiest affections, is there not experienced in bestowing upon our homes something of grace and loveliness - in making the place dearest to our hearts a sunny spot, where the social sympathies take shelter securely under the shadowy eaves, or grow and entwine trustfully with the tall trees or wreathed vines that cluster around, as if striving to shut out whatever of bitterness or strife may be found in the open highways of the world. What an unfailing barrier against vice, immorality, and bad habits, are those tastes which lead us to embellish a home, to which at all times and in all places we turn with delight, as being the object and the scene of our fondest cares, labors, and enjoyments whose humble roof, whose shady porch, whose verdant lawn and smiling flowers, all breathe forth to us, in true, earnest tones, a domestic feeling that at once purifies the heart, and binds us more closely...
This explosive growth is garnering the same kind of investor excitement as the dotcom boom of the 1990s and a few large trade shows have been organized to help hype the technology and funnel investment dollars into this industry.2 Behind the hype and over exuberance occasioned by the introduction of personal robotics technology, there is an interesting and significant reality. Slowly but surely, more or less autonomous machines are making their way into our lives, from expensive robotic toys like the Sony Aibo robotic dog, to robotic vacuum cleaners and lawn-mowers, all the way to the new crop of robotic weapons platforms currently deployed in the Middle East (Aproberts, 2004).
The long-term maintenance expense of an irrigation system is an important consideration. For example, the initial cost of a pop-up sprinkler head may exceed that of a stationary head, but in a lawn area the savings are rapidly lost to additional maintenance expenses. Vandalism is also an issue especially with systems that include exposed components.
Crabgrass An annual weed grass that thrives in poorly drained soils, landscapes with frequent surface watering, and in lawns that are lacking nutrients. It germinates from seed in early spring, can root where stems touch the ground, and prolifically produces seed in the late summer. It can easily be recognized in late summer as it turns somewhat purple. Its fibrous roots make it difficult to pull, but it should be pulled before it goes to seed. Pre-emergent herbicide can be effective before seed germinates.
The Lykes house was the last residential work designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, The site is a precipitous hiJ Iside overlooking Phoenix, The house was carefully situated so as not to disturb the terrain, It appears, in fact, to barely tight upon the desert rocks. A large circular area for I ivi ng room, dini ng room and work space a iford s the spectacu 1 ar view south overthe city and at the same time is engaged by a larger circle containing terrace and grass lawn. This spacious outdoor terrace is wailed for privacy, the southern section pierced with openings to take advantage of the prospect. The bedroom wings arc out from the living room, riding upon a crest of boulders,
We can see two distinct design paradigms forming in the burgeoning personal robotics industry. For the sake of discussion I will call them the 'effective' and the 'affective' design paradigms. For example, American and European robotics companies have largely focused on very utilitarian, or effective, implementations of robotics technologies by building robotic vacuum cleaners, lawnmowers, and
This first stream is joined near the shoin by a second, arriving from the northern end of the garden. A bridge of hewn stone crossing the lower section of the stream offers a contemplative view of the rock setting marking the confluence of the two streams. The lower part of the garden is generously provided with lawns, some of them featuring horizontal rock compositions. These rocks number among the visual delights lining the path which takes the visitor around the naturalistic sequence of stream - pond - pond - stream. In many ways the garden echoes the small-scale pond gardens of Edo times. It is one of the most delightful gardens of the Meiji era
In the spaces between and around the two buildings, the architects found room for a private garden courtyard, an extensive lawn, a covered veranda, a vast open-air deck, and a compact plunge pool. The winds can be pretty full-on sometimes and they tend to change direction depending on the season, says Nimmo, so the different types and locations of outdoor spaces were designed to ensure that at any time of the year or day, there will always be one perfect place to be comfortable outside the house.
Bald patches must be sown with new seed or repaired by the laying of pre-grown grass to make good damage from play. Thatch needs to be removed by aeration, perforation or slotting and sanding and hard areas must be softened by the use of slots and holes to loosen the earth. Lawn aerators, perforators and sweepers should be used particularly where a spectator invasion of the pitch has occurred. The problem with this practice is that spectators' feet compact the earth and prevent good grass growth in the area affected.
Today, efforts to preserve and restore nature within urban regions are breaking new ground, so to speak. Some ecologists are finally beginning to specialize in urban ecology (Daily 1997), as in the long-term ecological research programs in Baltimore and Phoenix funded by the National Science Foundation (Collins et al. 2000 Grimm et al. 2000). American Forests, a nongovernmental organization based in Washington, D.C., is documenting the benefits of preserving tree canopy in the urban environment. The U.S. Forest Service and the Conservation Fund are promoting the concept of green infrastructure. New forms and uses of city parks are documented in a thorough study by Peter Harnik for Trust for Public Land and the Urban Land Institute (Harnik 2000, summarized in his essay in this volume). Urban gardens are appearing in surprising places, such as on the roof of Chicago's City Hall. A joint project of Rutgers University and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden is testing ecological ways to cover...
Providing a place for quiet contemplation. The landscape is effectively simple and develops the themes of lawns and planting within a modern idiom. The design successfully resolves various level changes and creates inviting public platforms for multi-functional use. A range of artworks and water features are integrated into the scheme and the overall result is a quality, contemporary public garden . sculptural elements within it, makes excellent use of the site's sloping aspect and ends dramatically with the fountains. There are some bridge features which act as seating and sculpture within the garden. Whilst the concept is strong and the use of a lawn is a great relief in the harsh city environment, the space is suffering due to over use. The sculptural details and artworks bring an extra dimension to the space.
Of the local community and local artists. It was converted from a wasteland on the south side of the City of Glasgow adjacent to the Tramway Theatre to create a garden of high quality innovative design to reflect the different cultures of the area. The park has been split into a series of spaces of different characters and includes seating areas, native planting and a shelter, a semicircular pond and secluded lawn, herbaceous borders and integral artworks.
Mary's is a 230 sq.m. building that provides a nearly square hall divisible into two separate rooms and is for use by the church and the local community. The main space is arranged to make visual connection to the lawns in front of the hall and a new curved walled garden to the rear.
Beginners invariably try to show too much in a composition. They may indicate too much lawn, too many cars in a parking space, too much detail in the foliage, and so on. As they learn, they can profitably borrow from the approach of some modern artists, such as Matisse, who may begin by drawing or painting a detailed picture and gradually, in successive sketches, simplifying it, each time leaving out a detail which is not absolutely necessary for the purpose of identification. Architecturally this means that in the value-study stage we should deliberately leave out, or erase, parts of a lawn that has become too large, shrubbery which has become overpowering, parts of a stone indication that looks monotonous because there is too much of it, clouds that seem to detract from the building itself, and detail in general. Students sometimes consider thisan ironical bit of advice because they believe that if a small amount of a thing is good, a large amount is better. However, as they become...
Raised lawns, with specially shaped pieces to create the low walls at the sides of the ramp. These walls are raked to follow the slope of the ramp. The skateboard rink itself is made of curved steel plates supported on a timber framework. A handrail secures the edge of the platform which is 2m above the ground toward the harbour side. The sunken asphalt area has a central crown which sheds runoff towards gullies placed in each corner.
Water that had filled the cellar was removed, and a pump installed to keep it that way, and drainage problems between the house and the outbuildings were fixed in a major operation that involved correcting the ground levels to create raised lawn areas, and then putting in stone retaining walls in front of the old outbuildings and around some of the ornamental trees.
The name Radburn refers to the community in Fair Lawn, New Jersey. Here, Clarence Stein and Henry Wright created a neighbourhood where the patterns of access for pedestrians and vehicles are completely separate. A radburn layout involves creating a form of block where one side of a home faces the vehicle access and parking, whilst the other side faces pedestrian routes and community spaces (Figure 5.16).
Approach starting from the research and excavation of the site, identification of its historical stratigraphy and the present state, and proceeding to conservation, consolidation and interpretation. The general policy was to preserve all layers of history, and to help the visitor identify the meaning of each element in relation to the whole. The principle was to avoid reconstruction, and to hide technical intervention in order not to spoil the picturesque effect of the ruins. If modern structures were needed, e.g., for visitor access, safety and services, these were designed as unobtrusive and modern in aspect. A typical feature of the British practice has been the use of neatly-cut lawns representing lost floor surfaces - although obviously not necessarily recommendable for all contexts. The presentation of the original remains on the site itself was completed with museum exhibits in reception areas (Thompson, 1981).
The structure is a simple raised steel container, planted with grass, and punctured like Leerdammer cheese with holes to allow for pieces of the ruins to protrude, visually linking and integrating the green carpet with the context, while also expressing its proposed connection to Dutch culture. The expression of this floating carpet is further accentuated by an outline of dramatic red lighting. Maintenance of the piece consists of watering and the occasional attention of a lawn mower . 1 Floating a ground plane amidst Roman ruins. 2 Wonder Holland illuminated at night. 3 Maintenance of the piece consists of watering and the occasional attention of a lawn mower . 4 Section of elevated grass plane.
Albedo The reflective power of a material indicated by the percentage of incident radiation reflected by a material. In landscape work, this is usually important to consider with regard to light and heat reflected and or radiated from large windows or light-colored surfaces on the sunny side of walls or fences. It may cause damage to landscape plants (including lawns).
The park is designed as an outdoor performing arts center. It accommo ethnic festivals, provides a green space in the heart of the city, and is link other parks by pathways along the 5.5-mile(8.8 km) city-wide canal syste well as historic trolleys. The design includes terraced lawns and seating s a performance pavilion which serves as a theatre and trolley stop. As part c Brown, Richardson & Rowe design team, William Rawn Associates, Arch.* of Boston designed the pavilion. It evokes the ironwork characteristic of Lo Over 100 ft (30 m) long, the structure's roof is composed of metal grillwo covered with wisteria vines.
By the time another Scottsdale commission, this one residential, came Bruder's way a few years later, the city had put ambitious new sustainability guidelines into place. They call for projects that are small (less than 3,000 square feet for a single-family house, for example), careful to preserve water and other resources (no swimming pools or lawns), and that pay attention to passive-solar strategies (the longest axis of the project must be oriented to face within 20 degrees of due south, and low-emission windows are recommended). Points are also awarded for efficient insulation, non-toxic paints and finishes, and landscaping and driveways that mitigate impact on site topography, among other criteria. Buildings that meet the city's basic requirements receive an Entry Level green rating, while designs that meet more stringent ones are ranked at the Advanced Level.
The Telstra Dome in Melbourne (see Figure 8.3, and Case Study, page 291). The Toronto Skydome (see Figure 4.2). The Centre Court at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club, Wimbledon, which is being fitted with a new sliding roof (see Figure 2.4). The closing has to be accompanied by sophisticated air conditioning to ensure that the natural grass surface performs similarly whether the roof is open or closed.
In a landscape, the strip of steel, fiberglass, concrete, plastic, wood, etc. used in a linear form, whether straight, curved, or contrived, used as a border, boundary, or aesthetic dressing and separating two types of ground coverings such as lawn, bark, rock mulch, shrubs, etc. They not only have an aesthetic function, but they also keep one plant (usually grass) from overrunning another, or acting as an edge for a mower to run over and near a vertical surface. This prevents having to come back to trim long grass that otherwise could not be reached by mower blades adjacent to vertical surfaces. 2. A planting placed at an edge in a landscape for a physical barrier, a visual barrier, a dressing, a visual delineation, a windbreak, etc. Items used to create such a border, edge, or boundary include trees, shrubs, flowers (most commonly plants for small borders) or indeed, just about any plant types arranged in a row. 3. A strip of metal, wood, etc. used to hide or protect...
IN WINTER, the Old Main Lawn at the University of Arkansas can be a little bleak. But assistant professor of landscape architecture Carl Smith saw a lost opportunity. His soft, British-tinted voice betrays him as a veteran of wet, gloomy seasons. I was just daydreaming, he says, about what the campus could look like in winter, particularly at Christmas. Last December, Smith, working with former student Stuart Ful-bright and math department head Chaim Goodman-Strauss, inscallecl Star Seeds. a group of five woven wood pods adjacent to the principal walkway through the lawn. The temporar)' installation could be var-
But it is at the same time to be observ'd, such Situations which produce such Supplies, are not difficult to be found And, perhaps, with the Additions of a healthy and fertile Soil, uninterrupted Vistas and Avenues, an agreeable River, or some opening Lawn, or at least a distant Groupe of Hills and Vales diminishing from the Eye by a pleasing Gradation I say such an agreeable Spot of Ground, where Nature wantons in Luxuriancy, is the first Care of a Builder and by a proper Design compos'd to blend Art and Nature together, must consequently render it the Delight of the Inhabitant, and give an unspeakable Pleasure to the Eye of every Beholder. But it is to be observ'd, that every one that builds has not an equal Felicity in the Opportunity of chusing a fine Situation therefore some must fall into little Errors and Inconveniences But it were better to have an ill-shap'd Hand or Leg, than to have none. Therefore Conveniency must he preferr'd to Beauty and the fine Prospect, the opening...
The Naples Botanical Garden strives to be a world-class paradise. In addition to its garden tor children, there are hammocks, above, drums, and a game lawn. Days are set aside for artists, below right, for people to bring their dogs, below, and for events such as a large bonfire to celebrate the winter solstice. The Naples Botanical Garden strives to be a world-class paradise. In addition to its garden tor children, there are hammocks, above, drums, and a game lawn. Days are set aside for artists, below right, for people to bring their dogs, below, and for events such as a large bonfire to celebrate the winter solstice.
At the time I arrived, there was an elderly man sitting upright on one of the stools, dozing. A few pedestrians and a cyclist cut through the park. On Raglan Street, residents were working on cars and young workers were com ing home from jobs, and a few people talked outside on their cell phones, wandering along the triangular green lawn directly in front of the complex. The fact that people from the Raglan Street complex were walking their dogs and talking on their cell phones along the triangle of green lawn in front of the apartments not in the park, just a minute's walk away was revealing. So was it worth taking such an undesirable site and converting it into a neighborhood park Site Office was successful in taking the difficult space and inserting a design whose site elements and materials responded well to the scale of the community. The positive feedback from residents and their claims of use reaffirmed this, despite the traffic noise. These residents clearly needed some sort...
A public place, usually in the village center, was often reserved for common use, undivided and owned by all. Sometimes it was only an expanded crossroads more often it was made distinctive in some way. Trees were planted for ornament and shade. Under the trees, pathways crisscrossed a flat lawn and came out at streets on all sides. At the edges of the park, statues or cut stones carried inscriptions of dedication, remembrance, and inspiration. Across the streets and surrounding the park were the few other unique items in the village, buildings that focused the collective attentions of people on education, worship, or trade the school, the church, and the general store.
Sections showing details of the steps in the Festival Place. The kerbstone is made of the same white concrete used elsewhere in the park. The lawn edging is also shown. Sections showing details of the steps in the Festival Place. The kerbstone is made of the same white concrete used elsewhere in the park. The lawn edging is also shown.
Dollar spot on lawns A fungus (Sclerotinia homeocarpa) encouraged by spring's warm, wet, weather and fall's wet weather with cool nights. Lawns low on fertilizer (esp. nitrogen), or poorly drained areas are most susceptible. This disease is recognized by small, round, brown spots later becoming straw colored. A white cobwebby fungus growth seen most easily in early morning before the dew dries may cover dying leaf blades. The best options for preventing this fungus is to plant resistant varieties of grasses and to water deeply, infrequently, and in the morning.
The final grade, slope, shape, and elevation of all surfaces (lawn, walks, patio, etc.) at the completion of an outdoor project. This may be the surface of sod, soil, mulch, pavement, a wood deck, etc. 2. The smooth completed grading of soil prior to seeding, planting, sodding, etc.
Making the most of the allocated budget, the design was deliberately resource efficient. All existing materials were either kept on site or composted. The original asphalt playfield was ground up and recycled as a base course for the new paths. More than 6,000 cubic yards of earth were moved on site to add usable space and to stabilize and reshape the slopes, creating viewpoints from picnic and play areas, sloping lawns, walking paths, seat walls, and a planned pavilion. All stormwater is infiltrated on site with grass swales and amended soils.
It is not just the materials and elements of construction that have been reused or recycled, but also the very openness of the site itself. This place in the middle of the city and the edge of the harbour has been retained with an open sky above and unimpeded views of the city skyline. History has been preserved in numerous ways, not just through the paved waterfront and the recycled materials but in new constructions like the pergolas or aerial ropeway which have a family resemblance to the older elements and make reference to the former use of the site. The more recent layer of history provided by the provisional park is also marked by the retention of the Aesculus hippocastanum and the rethinking of the big lawns. Our own time is written on the site in the form of the diagonal paths, the curved walls and the new lighting. Local people have contributed to the creation of this contemporary layer, as in the suggestions made by the skaters for the design of steps, pavement and ramps....
Channel of water with a gravel-filled channel planted with vegetation. A primary treatment tank filters out large particles such as hair, grease, and food scraps. Water then penetrates down through the gravel in the channel. Once it reaches the end of the channel, the water is removed from the bottom of the marsh by a perforated pipe. This pipe then conveys water to the next gravel marsh box, a process that supplies it with oxygen. After treatment in the graywater marsh, water from the sinks and shower is reused on the lawns and ornamental plants. Except for periodic maintenance, very little energy is used.
The primary design features of the space are a rooftop lawn and badminton co , a Corten steel water wall and a meditation pavilion. The garden terrace synthesizes the architecture and the landscape within a shared modernist vocabulary. Modular forms frame the outdoor space - the planters frame the meditat -pavilion and the walkway, the terrace frames the lawn, the plantings help c frame the approaches to the lawn space. This penthouse roof garden is a excellent example of creating a usable space for intimate or large gatherings that not only shows the finest attention to aesthetic detail, but also embraces ecological design in stormwater collection and reuse. a .e grasses catch the light of the setting sun and contrast with the raised lawn planter and meditation pavilion when seen from the dining room. * - chen terrace as seen from the raised lawn. A hanging Corten steel wall incorporates an oversized Ikebana shelf holding a small Japanese maple tree (oslund.and.assoc) * V 3 en is...
The ultimate symbolic expression of the Bedouin tent occurred during the visit of Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi to Brussels for a meeting in 2004 of the European Commission. Instead of accepting the invitation to stay in the elegant Val Duchesse palace, Belgium's residence for visiting dignitaries, he pitched his black desert tent on the manicured lawn. Here he slept under the watchful eyes of his blue-uniformed female bodyguards.
A goal of many green building projects is to leave the land a better place than it was before. Achieving this goal requires site restoration activities, such as rehabilitating natural drainage systems, replacing wide swaths of green lawns with plants that provide wildlife habitat and replanting ornamental plants with native and adapted species that need far less water and intensive maintenance. As we complete the switch from a predominantly manufacturing economy to one based primarily on services, developers are finding attractive options in paved-over older parts of cities that once supported manufacturing, warehouses and similar industrial uses. Many of these sites were polluted with petroleum products, heavy metals, PCBs and other toxic substances that require remediation before reuse. Even paved-over but unpolluted sites can be converted to offices, retail, hospitality and housing, with considerably more wildlife habitat.
An open space available for unstructured recreation, its landscaping consisting of grassy areas and trees. 3. In golf, the area of manicured very short grass (usually bent grass) around a golf hole where one uses a putter to move the golf ball toward the hole.
The new stands with their lofty, elegant and structured architecture form a backdrop to the parade ring, the outdoor public spaces and social activities. The combination of large-scale dramatic new stands and retained buildings at the site edge, with major public outdoor lawn spaces distinguished by mature
Today, subdivisions slope from lawns at the top to street storm drains at the bottom. Once water enters a storm drain, it dumps out in rivers far away from where it started. Huge amounts of storm water also leak into sewer pipes that mix it with sewage and take it even farther away to be processed at treatment plants. The result is a suburban desert, with lawns that need watering and restricted local water supplies. In most of the United States, the rainwater that falls on the roof of a home is of adequate quality and quantity to provide about 95 percent of indoor residential water requirements. However, a typical U.S. suburban household could not meet all its water needs with rain off the roof without modifying the members' water use habits. Rainwater can make a major contribution to the irrigation of small lawns and gardens when a rain barrel below a downspout or cisterns located above the level of the garden collect and store water for later release. In Bellingham, Massachusetts,...
Valve in head A sprinkler head in which the valve is actuated by the controller for turning the head off and on and is built into the sprinkler head. Most are currently electrically operated, but some are still hydraulically actuated. These types of heads are usually large and capable of spraying long distances. They are commonly used on golf courses and in large lawn areas of parks.
Per capita potable water use in the United States varies from under 570 L (150 gal) per day in the northeast to over 1325 L (350 gal) per day in the southwest (where extensive irrigation takes place). In periods of drought in the northeast, with restrictions on lawn irrigation, automobile wash-
Outdoor water uses, primarily for landscaping, consume an estimated eight billion gallons per day in the US, perhaps as much as one-third of all water use.168 Xeriscaping is a well-used term for water-conserving landscaping, the prefix denoting dry. Another term might be natural landscaping. The essential feature of xeriscaping is to employ regionally appropriate plants and planting techniques (such as mulching) that reduce or eliminate water use except from normal precipitation in the area. If you've ever seen sprinklers on in the midst of a rainstorm, or broad expanses of green lawn highlighting a public building or major office complex in the desert, you'll know something is amiss in our understanding of how to minimize the environmental impacts of landscaping practices. Fortunately, xeriscaping is a major movement today among landscape architects. Where I live in Tucson, I would be shocked to see a green lawn in front of a new home in a development. In the Tucson area, single...
Along the boulder line runs a tarred wooden wall, or palisade, 1.4m high. Consequently you can look over it, if you are tall enough, but not through it. Three tilted concrete planes, the Scouts, penetrate the wall and boulder line and permit visitors access to the water. Along the wall, on the inner side, is a wide gravelled walk with park benches, suitable for promenades and biking. The large multi-use grass field, the Lawn, is distinguished from the walk by two lines of trees. The Lawn is appropriate for playing as well as for larger events, as it provides space for several thousands of people. To the north, the grass field ends with a terraced garden of perennial plants and to the east a grass slope provides possibilities for sitting on the ground. Along the eastern border, towards the residential area, stretches another gravelled walk with a single line of trees and simple stone benches under the canopies.
Micro-irrigation or low-flow irrigation or low-volume irrigation A term used in reference to application of irrigation water at very low rates. The flow from each emission device is usually measured in gph (gallons per hour) rather than gpm (gallons per minute). Advantages of this irrigation over rotary or spray irrigation are water conservation (reduction in evaporation, loss to wind, less runoff, only essential areas covered), pipe size and strength requirements are reduced, weed growth between plants is reduced, system operation does not interfere with normal use of the land, reduced liability (no water on walks and driveways), less erosion on steep slopes, and no spray is allowed on building or fences when irrigation occurs at their base. Disadvantages are that they are high maintenance (small passageways may become clogged, filters must be cleaned), limited application (not for lawns and some plants), filtration and pressure devices are required, surface pipes or emission devices...
Is well used by many types of people picnicking or resting on the lawns or just walking through. The design is simple yet bold. The retention of the mature trees has held the classic framework of the square. The floor space does not compete with the surrounding architecture of elegant Georgian style buildings.
The Balconies are intended to be pieces of cabinet making, like 'cigar boxes pushed into the slope'.7 The design is a contribution by architect Anders Lidstrom. They are placed in the eastern part of the park, in the slope from the Lawn up to the gravelled walk. They are elevated approximately 1m above the level of the Lawn. You enter the Balcony by climbing a few steps from the walk. As with the Scouts, this small elevation reinforces the form and identity of the element. The framing fence, height about 1.1m, is covered on the inside with horizontal wooden laths. On the outside the covering is made of small, thin pieces of wood, like a traditional sp ntak or chip roof. The chips are tarred, giving a dim black impression that at the same time is impregnating and protective to the wood. The fa ade facing the lawn is slightly tilted like the outside fa ades of the Node. On this side there is also an opening in the fence, like a peephole to the park and the sea. In the opening there is a...
An important special consideration is slope of the site. For the physically impaired, a comparatively flat site is needed, Steeper and more rugged sites may be used but with doubtful success Such sites should be evaluated in terms of Ihe costs of any special improvements required to serve the limitations and needs of the tenants. Examples of such extra costs would be those for constructing retaining walls to create useful fiat outdoor sitting and resting areas or constructing gently sloping pedestrian ramps throughout the site. Extra maintenance costs (upkeep of banks, lawn areas, and in some climates snow removal, etc. may result in increased rents.
Dethatch The removal of dead stems, leaves, and remains of grasses and some ground covers that collect on the surface of the soil as thatch. This removal usually results in a more vigorous, healthy growth of the live plants. This removal in lawns is usually done with a gas-powered dethatcher (vertical mower). Otherwise, dethatching is accomplished by hand or with a thatching rake.
Semi-private space A semi-private space is a piece of the urban environment that tends to be private and which a member of the general public will only enter if they have a reason to. The clearest example of a semi-private space is a front garden or yard (Figure 3.7). This might be a small space that is distinguished from the paved public street by only a change of surface (a gravel path and grass lawn, for example), but still we tend to be socially conditioned to only enter that space if we are visiting the property. Another type of semi-private space might be a communal garden area for use only by specific residents. If the park, referred to in the discussion on semi-public space above, is only available to certain residents living around the square, then it would, despite its identical design, be semi-private. Sometimes, however, semi-private spaces are also included behind houses for residents living in an urban block to share (Figure 3.8).
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