2 Plain-sawed lumber is relatively inexpensive and has conspicuous figure patterns. It may develop checks and surface splits during seasoning. 3 Quartersawn lumber is more expensive than plain-sawed lumber, and its radial figure patterns are conspicuous. It will wear more evenly, is less susceptible to twisting and cupping, and is less likely to develop surface checks and splits during seasoning and use 4 Most lumber Is visually graded by trained inspectors who classify the pieces according to slope of grain, natural and manufacturing defects, and the number, tightness, and location of knots. 5 Cross-sectional lumber specifications typically refer to Ihe nominal size of a piece rather than the actual size. Actual dressed dimensions are smaller than nominal dimensions due to shrinkage and planing. Dimensions of length are nearly enact
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) (Fig. 4.24), also known as microlam, is more economical than laminated timber as there is little waste in the production process. It is manufactured to three grades by laminating timber strands with polyurethane resin under heat and pressure. In one process, logs are cut into flat timber strands 300 mm long these are then treated with resin, aligned and hot-pressed into billets of Grades of laminated veneer lumber Fig. 4.24 Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) Fig. 4.25 Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) construction - Finnforest Office, Boston, Lincolnshire. Architects Arosuo and Vapaavuori Oy. Photograph Courtesy of Finnforest Fig. 4.25 Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) construction - Finnforest Office, Boston, Lincolnshire. Architects Arosuo and Vapaavuori Oy. Photograph Courtesy of Finnforest
Kiln-dried lumber Wood cut to particular dimensions and placed in a kiln (heated enclosure) to remove moisture. This produces a straighter product of true size better at holding nails, and not likely to shrink, split, or warp. Lumber is usually marked as follows S-GRN for green unseasoned lumber with a moisture content of 20 or higher S-DRY for lumber with a moisture content of 19 or less MC 15 for lumber that is dried to 15 or less, etc. knot 1. A swelling on a plant. 2. The base of a woody branch where it meets the stem and is enclosed therein. 3. In lumber, a usually darker round (or nearly so) portion of wood or a spot where the grain forms concentric rings. This is usually where there was a branch. These are usually harder than the surrounding wood and after drying can become loose and easily dislodged, especially in some woods. They tend to weaken the board by not being integral to the grain. In most cases, they ruin the surface appearance although some wood with knots is sought...
Small-scale lumber mills are experiencing a widespread resurgence as affordable milling technology develops and the clearcutting techniques of giant lumber companies become unsustainable. Portable mills can be brought to your site if you have sufficient trees quite often, you can get milled lumber for your project in trade for additional lumber from your property that the operator can sell later. There is a good chance that you will find several small mill operators near your site. Prices from small operators are almost always lower than from building supply yards, and you can question the operator about his or her harvesting techniques if you are concerned about sustainable forestry. Lumber quality can vary greatly, depending on the operator. In areas where grade-stamped lumber is required for construction, the operator can hire an independent lumber inspector to approve and stamp your wood. In general, small operators take pride in the quality of their lumber and mill better wood...
Exclusive, pan-European distribution rights for the world's most advanced laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production facility, established by Modern Lumber Technologies LLC have been granted to Steico AG. Steico Limited, the group's UK business, will stockand support this high performance LVL product range at Rochester, Kent. The products supplement the Steico construction system, based on the company's ecological natural
Drawing-board and table surfaces do not have to be manufactured, as a self-made surface can also be satisfactory and less expensive. For example, a hollow-core, flush door can be supported on blocks or handmade legs made of 2x4 lumber with metal brackets. However, the height and angle that suits individual work
While many builders pursuing minimal environmental impacts avoid the use of milled lumber, cordwood masonry construction makes use of junk wood that would otherwise be ignored. Firewood, deadfall, logging remains, and even construction scraps can be used, as can trees harvested to thin forests producing lumber. The wood is typically cut into 24-inch lengths and laid transversely in the wall, with mortar filling the spaces on both the interior and exterior. The spaces between the logs in the middle of the wall are insulated with loose fill, often a
According to the results of the historical research, the bricks on the bridge over the Cauca River were made in artisan manner with local clays as raw material, the same craftsmanship still used in the fabrication of all types of pieces, with 40 x 20 x 10 cm standard dimensions. The furnaces are still simple constructions that use a combination of mineral coal and vegetable lumber as fuel, reaching firing temperatures between 750 and 1100 C. Production periods for the bricks vary between 8 and 12 days.
Sawn lumber shall comply with the requirements of AASHTO M168 and may be any species, provided it is treatable with wood preservatives and tabulated design values are provided in the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. The moisture content of lumber shall not exceed 19 percent at the time of installation. 12. Sawn lumber may be rough-sawn or dressed (S4S). Rough-sawn lumber shall be surfaced on one side (S1S) to ensure uniform thickness for all laminations. 13. Insofar as is practical, all lumber shall be cut, drilled, and completely fabricated prior to pressure treatment with preservatives. 14. All lumber shall be treated in accordance with AASHTO M133 and AWPA Standard C14 with one of the following preservatives c. Suitable waterbome preservative conforming to AWPA Standard P5. Lumber treated with a waterborne preservative shall be re-dried to a maximum moisture content of 19 percent.
When sawn lumber (nominal size) is seasoned, dressed, or planed, the size becomes smaller this is the actual size. For example, a piece of 2 x 4 lumber (100 x 50) may become approx 11 2 x 31 2 inches (90 x 45) when it has been dressed or planed. The actual size therefore refers to the minimum acceptable size after it has been dressed and seasoned. A nominal 2 x 4 can have a minimum actual size of 1.5 x 3.5 inches. When referring to a specific piece of lumber, the nominal size is used. Figure 4.11 shows examples of nominal and actual sizes of lumber and boards.
Straw bale buildings can certainly hold a cost advantage over conventional styles. By replacing both wall-framing lumber and insulation plus vapor barriers, nails, glues, etc. with a single,inexpensive material, the cost of building super-insulated walls can be lowered. The interior and exterior plaster cladding, depending on the choice of ingredients and method of its application, can be comparable with other cladding systems such as drywall, vinyl or wood siding, or brick.
Certified wood products are those made from lumber harvested in a sustainable manner and certified by a reliable third party. The certifying groups most active at this time are the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA). The LEED rating system only awards points for FSC-certified wood, partly for historical reasons and partly because it is the most rigorous third-party rating system. However, Green Globes and the National Association of Homebuilders (NAHB) Green Home Building Guidelines also recognize the SFI and CSA systems. As a practical matter, most of the timber harvested in the US comes from public lands and is not certified to Certified wood products all carry a chain of custody certificate that tracks the lumber from the forest to the end-user. LEED-certified projects must use certified wood products for 50 of the value of all permanent wood-based materials in a building, including flooring,...
The first builders of straw bale homes used bales because of a lack of available lumber, stone, or suitable sod. These Nebraska pioneers saw the tight, thick, and durable bales of field hay they were harvesting yes, they used hay as a solution to their housing needs. They stacked them up, built a roof, plastered, and moved in. As with other styles of pioneer buildings, Nebraska-style bale homes featured simplicity, ease of construction, and the use of local materials. These same features are the main attraction in modern load-bearing straw bale homes.
Wall that is unsupported by lumber or any other structural framework. However, as both experience and scientific testing show, load-bearing walls exhibit a strength equal or superior to standard frame walls. But how can this be when bales are a compressible material Shouldn't the walls sag or give
This 7000-square-meter, 24 million project was designed by the Canadian architect Arthur Erickson in collaboration with Nick Milkovich Architects Inc if Vancouver, British Columbia, and Thomas Cook Reed Reinvald of Tacoma. The most striking feature of the Museum of Glass is a 27-meter-high tilted cone, located atfc southern end and covered in diamond-shaped stainless steel plates. The cone houses the museum's Hot Shop Amphitheater where glassmaking is demonstratio According to Arthur Erickson. the conical shape is a reference to the former sawdust burners of the region's lumber mills. The stepped forms of the building are cladh colored pre-cast concrete panels. The structure is organized around a large multi-purpose public lobby that provides access to the Hot Shop. 1 200 square meters of wJ satile gallery space, a 180-seat theatre, an education studio, the museum store, and a caf . The Museum of Glass joins the Washington State History Museum, the n Tacoma Art Museum, and a new...
In the other processes, 3-mm-thick timber strands or sheets of veneer are coated with waterproof adhesive and bundled together with the grain parallel. The strands or veneers are pressed together and microwave cured to produce structural timber billets or sheets up to 26 m long. The versatile material is suitable for use in columns, beams, purlins and trusses, and can be machined as solid timber (Fig. 4.25). I-section joists, with LVL flanges and web, are suitable for flat and pitched roofs and floor construction. Untreated LVL has a Class 3 surface spread of flame classification (BS 476-7 1997). Three grades of laminated veneer lumber are classified according to their serviceability in dry and exposed conditions.
Precut Pickets and Fencing Lumber and Finials Pre-sized and cut for posts, rails, boards, pickets, and siding. Fence boards and posts are often available In a variety of simple picket and post top styles. Finials are used as ornaments for topping posts and are usually made of a variety of exterior woods, available in many traditional styles.
Platform framing is a beam-and-joist method of construction (Figure 460-1). Few beams are necessary because joists carry the load over a wide area. Joists typically are of a nominal thickness of 50 mm (2 In) and essentially function as closely spaced beams. The spacing of joists is determined by (1) the load-carrying ability of the joists themselves (a function of their cross-sectional dimension and length of span) and (2) the maximum allowable decking spans, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the decking material and on the species of lumber used. Different species of wood have different inherent strengths
Calculate Lumber Dimensions Using the appropriate span tables, determine the dimensions required for each structural element, in this case, the joists, beams, and posts The design loads exerted by each tributary load area (t) are transferred to their respective posts. Figure 460-13 illustrates the general framing plan of the proposed deck, and the dashed lines outline the center (tO and corner (t) load areas. The total tributary load area exerted on
You may also put a square roof on a round building. When using dimensional lumber or pre-manufactured products, it may be the most efficient way to roof a round building. Place posts in a square around the exterior of the round walls. Connect them over the top of the walls with beams. Run two logs side-by-side across the center of the circle and add one log on the top of the first two. Strap down the logs. Extend rafters from on top of the center log out over the rectilinear beams (Fig. 9.26).
For maximum economy, keep all drop panels the same dimensions throughout the building. The difference in depth between the slab and the drop panels should be equal to a standard lumber dimension. The edges of drop panels should be a minimum of 16 ft 6 in. (5.0 m) apart to utilize standard 16-ft (4.9-m) lumber in the formwork.
An architect's specifications call for a wide variety of manufacturer's certifications and field testing of materials, depending on the nature of the project and how critical the individual product is to meeting the owner's needs. Certifications are often required for framing materials such as lumber, light-gauge and cold-formed framing, drywall, and structural steel. Field testing and certifications can be called for in areas such as
Both the wood and straw elements you place on your foundation are the most prone to rot due to moisture damage. Some kind of isolation strategy must be in place, which could include foam sill gaskets, poly vapor barriers, asphalt paint, tar paper, or any other long-lasting, waterproof material. Use wood species like cedar that are naturally more resistant to moisture damage. If you must use pressure-treated lumber, be aware that some types are more toxic than others. The most common curb rails are 2-by-3s or 2-by-4s laid on their flat side, providing a toe-up of 1.5 inches. If more height from the foundation is required, these rails can be placed on their edges, and larger dimensions of lumber can be used. In such cases, blocking should be run between the rails at regular intervals to tie them together, where compression wires will be run in load-bearing buildings.
Therefore, heavyweight lintels are usually not required over the windows and doors, and small dimension lumber can be used. But in the case of larger openings (greater than four feet) it may be necessary to have a more substantial header on your rough frames.We often use a box beam in these situations. Lumber for rough frames is usually 2-by-6, and where sheet lumber is used, it is typically Oriented Strand Board (OSB). The frames must be built to be strong enough to handle the rigors of a bale raising, which includes the use of some temporary cross-bracing to keep them square. The rough frame bucks installed in the bale wall will provide a place to attach the actual windows and doors. Design and construction of the rough frame bucks are open to a certain amount of improvisation by the builder as long as the above principles are adhered to.
Run your plans through a philosophical checklist to be sure they fulfill your original intentions. Is the house the right size Does it contain the kinds of rooms you wanted Does its appearance suit your esthetic sense and the landscape it will occupy On a more practical note, do some budget estimates. By this point, you'll be able to do an accurate tally of all required components, including lumber, doors, windows, roofing, concrete, and interior finishing. Give your plans to professionals who can generate estimates for materials and labor.
Implications that affect the whole building, so if you change or correct one dimension, you must follow through and make sure that the rest of your plans are adapted to this change. Consider how changes you make will affect the spacing of framing members, the dimensions of rooms, the foundation, and the roof. If you've spent time trying to make the most effective use of materials, don't forget that changes to your plans may result in odd sizing for lumber and sheet materials.
In wood floor structures both stiffness and damping can be increased by using stepped blocking, shown in Fig. 12.24. Blocking, using 2 x lumber one size smaller than the joist material, is installed in a series of inverted U shapes, glued and end-nailed into place. The next set of blocks is stepped (i.e., installed in a position that is offset relative to the first set) so that it can also be end-nailed. Both careful trimming and liberal application of glue are important to the installation. Blocks must be trimmed so that no more than a 1 8 gap is left between the block and the joist. The object of the blocking is to build an additional beam at right angles to the joists near the midpoint of the span and to provide additional damping.
To follow the Uniform Building Code requires uniform building materials. We turn round trees into dimensional lumber. We cast cement into specific size blocks. We have learned to build with products instead of processes. I-beams, plywood, brick, and lumber are all products designed for corners instead of curves. We do this not because it makes stronger buildings we do it to support the manufacturing industry. Square building materials are easier to stack and transport than curved ones. Rectilinear, square
Regardless of where you shop, take some time to become familiar with the pricing of certain items. You can't recognize a bargain unless you are aware of a baseline price for comparison. Lumber, for instance, is sometimes quoted by the board foot to allow comparisons between different sizes (a board foot is 12-by-12-by-1-inch, not 12-by-12-by- -inch). Read widely through
Wood board, or estate, fence is the classic beauty of horse fencing, while post and rail is a more rustic alternative. Other fence types incorporate wood as posts and visibility boards at the top. Wood fence is the first choice for many horse facilities owing to its safety and aesthetics. With new preservative treatments, wood fences can last longer with less care than they used to. A drawback of wood is that it can splinter and injure a horse. Properly installed, however, a wood fence generally poses little threat to the horse that it confines. Be aware that the horse may pose a threat to the fence if he is a confirmed wood chewer. Most horses chew on wood and can substantially damage wood fences. Horses are especially fond of soft wood such as spruce, fir, and pine and tend to chew less on hard wood such as oak. Wood chewers can be deterred with an electric wire strand or lumber protected by metal (without sharp edges) or plastic guards on the edges.
Fence strength depends on the wood species and lumber dimensions and how the assembly is fastened together. For example, hardwoods are stronger, for the same size, than softwoods. Fence posts can be square, round, or partial round in cross section (see the posts selection of this chapter). Board thickness is usually 1-inch rough-cut for hardwoods such as oak or 2-inch nominal for pressure-treated softwoods. Weathered oak boards are very hard and when broken tend to splinter into long jagged pieces. Pine boards break more cleanly and are therefore preferred for fencing young stock. Protect softwoods with an electrified wire strand or edge protection because horses easily chew through softwood boards, which compromises fence strength, is unsightly, and costly for frequent board replacement. Board width of 6 inches is common and looks most balanced. Board spacing based on increments of this width is the most pleasing to the eye space boards 6, 9, or 12 inches apart (Fig. 15.2). Usually,...
For load-bearing designs, a strong top plate is a must. You will already have determined the size and style of top plate you will be using, but when building it, you must ensure that the corners will meet in a strong bond and that any joints in the lumber are offset to avoid creating weak spots in the structure. L-shaped plywood corners can help to strengthen corners and ensure that they are square. Top plates can be constructed on the foundation before the walls are built. By using the foundation as a template, you assure a perfect match between the top and bottom of the wall. While the top plate is on the foundation, you can mark and drill holes for the precom-pression wires or straps that will correspond with those embedded in the foundation. Before moving the top plate sections aside to make way for bales, label the sections with directional arrows N, S, E, and W so that installation is simplified.
Case of the leaning corners (which can be very slow to repair) is to use temporary corner guides at every corner. These are simply made of lumber screwed together to form a long, L-shaped unit approximately the same height as the wall. These guides are screwed into, or on top of, the curb rails (depending on the placement of the rails). Chris always fastens his corner guides to the inside corner, and Pete fastens his to the outside corner. Some workshop participants have split the difference and attached them to the inside and outside. Regardless of their position, these guides are then braced into place while being checked very carefully for plumbness using a four-foot level. Fasten them in place with screws, so they'll be easy to dismantle later. Similar guides can be built to help ensure that long sections of wall go up straight. These can be braced to the ground or to the inside of the building. You can also build a wow checker by using a long straight piece of lumber with a...
We don't often use floating window bucks they are difficult to keep plumb and level, and often don't get positioned properly during the bale raising. But if you use them, mark their position on the foundation and directional arrows on the buck. Have lumber ready to use as bracing to keep them in line. Make note of the course number on which the buck should be installed.
Common yard lumber is typically seasoned to a moisture content of about 15 to 19 percent. Typical industry standards are 6 to 12 percent for finish lumber. 2. The use of wood in arid regions may require lumber with slightly lower moisture contents to prevent further drying and warpage of the wood in service. 5 Any cross-grain in a piece of lumber adversely affects the strength of the member, and should be carefully examined before being used in a load-bearing situation Table 850-3. DESIGN VALUES FOR MACHINE STRESS-RATED STRUCTURAL LUMBER Table 850-3. DESIGN VALUES FOR MACHINE STRESS-RATED STRUCTURAL LUMBER
Glue-laminated beams (giulams) are large structural members composed of pieces of lumber that have been placed with the grain running longitudinally, glued with adhesive, laminated, and, if specified, bent into various shapes (Figure 850-15), Giulams are adaptable to construction needs and offer a variety of shapes, sizes, and strengths. Their strengths are greater than lumber due to their increasing member size as well as to selectively using strong laminates on the outer layers where the stress is greatest. Lumber species commonly used In the manufacture of glue-laminated beams include Douglas fir, larch, hemlock, fir, redwood, and southern yellow pine
The Lars Larsen residence is unusual, since the property has not one but two houses. A two-story Victorian framed house sits at the back of the lot, while a larger Craftsman occupies the front section. This Craftsman is two stories. Shingles clad the upper floor, and lumber sides the main level. The house has typical large Craftsman brackets under the extended gable roof. Vergeboards extend beyond rooflines, although gutters now hide the exposed rafter ends.
Using two-by-fours for corner bracing works well, but any dimensional lumber will do. Install a solid plywood sheet on the bottom and four sides of the form. 5 8-inch (1.5 cm) or -inch (1.875 cm) plywood contributes to making a sturdy form with ample shear strength. The top of the form can be open-spaced boards. Be sure to install adequate blocking inside the boxes to prevent distortion from ramming the bags up against them during construction. Cut out handholds for removing the forms (Fig. A.21).
Dressage arenas often use railroad ties or other large-dimension lumber rather than fence to designate arena perimeter. Three-foot-long, 1-inch diameter retaining bars are driven through, three to a tie, to secure the ties. Dressage arenas are rectangular and without rounded corners.
Box and arch forms constructed from two-by lumber and boards are more laborious to build, but when built from discarded pallets, they can be constructed for almost nothing (Fig. A.28). Dismantle pallets by sawing the nailed boards with a Sawsall, or pry them apart using a big wrecking (crow) bar. Making a template of the intended arch shape out of sturdy cardboard allows one to cut the desired shape of the form. The following are some examples of forms built with one-by and two-by dimensional lumber (Figs. A.29, A.30, A.31 & A.32).
Once the branches and bark have been removed, entire tree trunks can be used as 'roundwood', but in most cases, the trunk is sawn into boards or battens with a rectangular profile. The trunks can be either 'cross-sawn' or'rift sawn'. In the latter method, all saw-cuts are parallel, whereby the faces of the resultant planks each have a different angle to the tree's growth rings. In quarter-sawn wood, the rings are all relatively perpendicular to the face of the board (Figure 8.8). Although more expensive to produce, quarter-sawn lumber tends to be more dimensionally stable, while rift-sawn wood is more likely to distort in the ways illustrated previously. Rift-sawn wood shows the typical 'flame' grain which is so appropriate to decorative applications (Figure 8.9). After sawing, the boards are squared (the sides sawn off to produce a straight edge), and sawn again into beams or planks (usually) of standard dimensions.Those standard dimensions differ from country to country. The...
Metal pipe and cable fences are sturdy and affordable alternatives to wood board fence in areas of limited lumber supply. Figure 15.18. Metal pipe and cable fences are sturdy and affordable alternatives to wood board fence in areas of limited lumber supply.
Materials and technologies are also increasingly common in residential high-rises, which take advantage of green construction methods developed for commercial buildings. Builders have made great strides in reducing environmental impact by using harvested lumber and recycled materials, the installation of non-toxic and energy-efficient insulation systems, and the selection of building sites that take maximum advantage of solar and wind power as well as access to public transportation. It is worth noting that one of the most popular types of urban construction converting industrial buildings into residential properties is intrinsically green. Recycling and renewing old structures are among the best ways to minimize waste and preserve resources.
This simple splicc is utilized primarily to join groundsills. The most common lumber sections range from 105mm to 120mm square. The ends to be spliced are notched at half depth. The male is shaped like the tail of a dove, narrow at the girth then llaring out. The female is precisely hollowed
Traditional header style doors and windows, the open mine-shaft-style door forms can be made using three-quarter-inch (1.875 cm) plywood or comparable siding material and four-by-four-inch (10x10 cm) or six-by-six-inch (15x15 cm) lumber (Fig. 2.25). Once the desired height of the opening is achieved, the dismantled forms can become lintels (see Chapter 8).
About getting a barn or shed salvage job is that you may have competition from professional salvage crews which are combing the countryside these days looking for things to tear down. In some cities weathered barn siding sells for a higher price per board foot than new lumber. It's that much in demand for home paneling. Sawmill Lumber Sawmills often are sources of free, or bargain rate, lumber. The day of the free mill end (mentioned earlier) may be coming to a close at the larger mills where they are chipping them to make particle board, but there are sometimes other good deals. At some of the smaller eastern mills it is possible to get slabs which is the outer cut with the bark. Though these are not suitable for underground construction, they can make fine chicken coops or hog shelters and pens. Sometimes the mills will have stacks of the poorest grade lumber on sale for as low as 10 per thousand board feet. This material should not be used for roofing, but it might be suitable for...
Square section lumber between 150mm and 200mm. For sections of more than 200mm oblique scarf spliccs are more appropriate. The gooscncck splice is also used on groundsills however, it has a higher strength than the dovetailed splice. In prac-ticc, it is used to join larger lumber sections than the preceding splice. The gooscncck with tenon and mortise serves to splice
Bucklin residence designed by English-born architect Frederick A. Sexton is a particularly elaborate example of the Colonial Revival style. The pyramidal roof, rectangular massing, and front gabled dormer are commonly found details in Seattle, but the large wraparound porch is an unusual feature. The ornamental woodwork on this house is elaborate, in keeping with Bucklin's profession in the lumber industry. The porch is supported with slender Ionic columns, and a pronounced Classical balustrade appears on the main level and along the balcony above. Another uncommon design detail is a delicate swag
Sapwood, but is usually more expensive Any part of the fence which will be within 150 mm (6 in) of soil or embedded in concrete should be constructed from heart-wood of naturally decay resistant woods such as redwood, cedar or cypress, or of pressure treated lumber. (Refer to Section 850 Wood, for a comprehensive explana
Another light, often poorly and hurriedly-built, structure carries the name shanty. This term derives from a French-Canadian phrase used to describe the building where lumberjacks were fed and housed, une cambuse de chantier (Mann and Skinulis 1979, 16). These words were anglicized to camboose shanty. Camboose means a provision or store room, hence its use in a further changed form to designate the living quarters of the crew on a freight train, the caboose. Chantier, a lumber yard, became the name for the pile of wood thrown together by early French-Canadians as a rough dwelling, or in English a shanty. With a change in spelling and in a further derogatory use, shanty added to Irish was applied in the United States in the 19th century to designate poorly paid Irish laborers who lived in temporary shacks and moved from construction job to job. Even left in their natural round shape, logs can be used for building by laying them horizontally, one atop the other, and securing the...
An inside ring of steel sheeting was then driven to boulder formation and excavation was done by hand with the open caisson method to elevation minus fourteen . At this elevation the water was coming in at too great a volume to be handled in so small a cofferdam . It was then decided to use pneumatic construction . The water was pumped out until within about six feet of the bottom, a platform was inserted over the entire area of the hole, this platform was supported on 8x8 posts with 10x10 cross caps, using three-inch tongue and groove lumber for flooring . Two thirty-six-inch shafts were then placed vertically on the platform with the other piping, which conveyed the electric wiring and the air feed
(4) An underground house is the most AESTHETICALLY PLEASING of all the modes of construction. When completed a U house is nearly invisible. Rather than looking at a ticky tacky box of painted lumber and roofing or a hunk of concrete and steel you see only grass, shrubs and trees. An underground house blends in with the surroundings. It does not compete with or try to dominate the environment. (10) U housing is unquestionably the most ECOLOGICALLY SOUND form of building presently developed. The use of less building material means less disruption of the environment, especially since most of those materials are of a renewable source (lumber). The use of less energy to heat and cool these structures is, certainly, a big eco plus. And then there is the fact that U houses take up none of the earth's growing surface. About this, conservationist-architect Malcolm B. Wells says (20) These houses are so simple they CAN BE BUILT BY ANYONE. The only place where there is any heavy effort is in...
Gravity live loads for hotel use and modern apartment use were almost equivalent, and most of the existing floor joists which were not water damaged were found to be capable of sustaining the necessary superimposed loads required for structural upgrade. Where members had minimal damage, new sister timbers could be added and fastened to the existing timber to provide the necessary reinforcing. In the case of major damage of floor timbers and joists, new members were inserted to replace these excessively damaged ones. Stronger, modern laminated veneer lumber (LVL) members or engineered I joists were chosen as their depth could replicate the original timbers and provide added strength and serviceability.
The David Thomas Denny residence, nicknamed Decatur Terrace after a fort that served as their protection during the Seattle Indian conflict of 1855-1856, was a lavishly decorated mansion that symbolized the success and wealth of Seattle's founders. Denny had left the Midwest for the Pacific Coast, arriving in Oregon to work in the lumber camps. He was one of the first settlers to arrive in Seattle, and he became involved in almost every aspect of the new city's life. He eventually platted seven additions for the growing city. His interest in electric transportation led to his involvement in electric and cable streetcars. He helped build and equip an electric road to Ravenna Park. His business involvements also included presidency of the city's water company, and serving as chief executive for several
People living in high rainfall areas, heavy snow country, or areas with abundant access to wood products, can secure light, wood frame rafters to built-in extended eaves. We recommend light wood frame as an alternative to larger dimensional lumber. Not because the dome cant take the weight, but to reduce timber consumption (Fig. 13.9).
Richard Dwight Merrill was an executive with the Michigan-based Merrill and Ring Lumber Company. He had settled in Seattle by 1903, the same time that company headquarters moved to the city. Merrill was elected president of the lumber company in 1907. He also served on the board of Polson Logging Company, in Hoquiam, Washington. His wife, Eula Lee Merrill, was a member of the Seattle Garden Club. She served on the board of directors for the University of Washington Arboretum, and was a committee member for the Garden Club of America, Western
By the end of 1917 San Juan was experiencing the most explosive building boom in its history, with over 1 million in investments being focused on the construction of schools, hospitals, office buildings, warehouses and newly-paved roads. Most building materials for these projects - 'principally cement, reinforcing steel, lumber, hardware, plumbing and electrical supplies and roofing' - were imported from the United States (Building Age, January, 1918). Changes in the design of upmarket residences were also evident in Puerto Rico during the 1910s, in part because of a local architect Antonin Nechodoma who, enamoured of the U.S. bungalow, designed local variants built with concrete for himself and several clients. Anthony King (1995) has documented how trans-national the building type of the bungalow had become by the early twentieth century. In dominions that came under the control of the U.S. because of the Spanish-American War, such as Puerto Rico and Hawaii, the U.S. variant of the...
They therefore 'broadcast an appeal to solidify the scattered power and resources of their industry and to endow construction with its position as the keystone to prosperity' (Ibid., p. 38). Partially because of these initiatives, in July 1918 at Atlantic City, New Jersey the U.S. Chamber of Commerce organized the National Federation of Construction Industries (hereafter NFCI) as a 'War Services Committee'.1 In his remarks at the opening of the conference - attended by 280 from twenty-two states - Harry Wheeler, the President of the Chamber of Commerce, explained that his office had been investigating the relations between several U.S. industries and the war effort, and 'we have found no single industry so far-reaching and yet so much disintegrated as the building trades' (Wheeler, 1918, p. 6). Although Wheeler and others hoped that the Federation would help end petty squabbling and have 'the united cooperation of every industry in the building trades', this...
The materials of construction can be divided into two major, basic groupings - earth materials and vegetative products. Each of these groupings can be further refined to sod, clay or mud, brick, and stone and logs, timber, lumber, wattle, bamboo, tree leaves, grasses, and textiles. Each of these sub-divisions might be again ordered on the
This community hall and 207-seat theater for a town ol 9000 persons Is a 993-square-meter laminated lumber structure built on a reinforced concrete base. The two-story building is 9.95 meters high. The site area Is 3 830 square meters. As part of the Kumamoto Artpolis originated In 1988 under the authority of Kumamoto Governor Morihlro Hosokawa and the architect Arata Isozakl, the project is the result of three years of close consultations between the architect and the local population. Set apart from the town by a green area, the structure has an unusual billowing exterior appearance. Though it appears rather closed, In part because of its dark local cedar cladding, it is quite open to outside light. Despite the complex exterior curves, the structure was designed so that local craftsmen could place the glazing and its horizontal wooden supports. Inside corridors are limited to a strict minimum and an intentional ambiguity Is maintained in the division between one space and another....
The original owners of the building were George S. and Julia Gooch List. List was a real estate investor, and was partners with James Upper. Their firm helped develop the city's Lakeside and Rosedale Additions. List was also a general agent for the Great Northern Railroad and Wells Fargo Express. In 1900 the house was sold to Charles and Nina Bussell. Bussell was a businessman who invested in real estate, mining, lumber, shipping, and canneries. In 1889 he began to purchase tidewater land and became one of the largest holders of tidal land in Seattle. While many considered his tidal investments unwise, he was able to sell most of this land to the railroads in 1906, for the considerable sum of 1.5 million. The profits made from this
All lumber and plywood utilized in the building was sustainably harvested and certified by the Forest Stewardship Council.The design and building team's commitment to construction waste management can be seen in the recycling of 92 percent of the deconstructed materials and construction waste.
This house, in the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, is representative of the working-class cottages that provided housing to workers in the lumber mills and fishing industries. Frederick E. Kreitle, a ship carpenter, bought an empty lot in 1915, and within the year built this house. The first long-term owners of the property were the Lundgren family, who occupied the house from the 1920s until 1950. Josephina Lundgren, a widow, purchased the house, which then passed to her son, Roy C. Lundgren, a welder with Pacific Huts Company. The dwelling has also been home to James Woolbert, a bridge carpenter for the Pacific Coast Railroad Company, Jack D. Blight, a driver for the Boeing Company, and Dayton R. Wintermute, a shipping handler for the United States Postal Service.
Solar energy is also used for the heating loads of industrial processes, including drying lumber or food, chemical or metallurgical process extraction operations, food processing and cooking, curing masonry products, and drying paint. Solar cooling is used for refrigeration of food or chemical preservation.
We are able to make satisfactory buildings, it would seem, from almost anything. Some materials need little processing mud, broken stone, fieldstone, snow, grasses, reeds, leaves, bamboo, natural asphalt, tree trunks and branches. With a modest expenditure of time and energy, we can make hard-fired bricks, squared lumber, paper, stone blocks, and plaster. With still more processing, cement, glass, metals, rubber, and plastics become available. We build with what we can obtain in a given locale, within a given set of economic restrictions. Through the military, the Peace Corps, or foreign architectural commissions, American architects and engineers have often found themselves building with mud, straw, or bamboo, seeking to cope with unfamiliar climates and patterns of life. Even our own life patterns continue to change, and new materials of construction reach the market every month, each promising certain advantages over the materials it hopes to replace.
The recyclate powder can be blended with other recycled plastics to produce GRP plastics lumber, which can be used for lightly loaded piles, decking, fencing and similar applications. This material can be cut and worked like the natural timber which it replaces. Alternatively, ground GRP can be incorporated into particleboard to make GRP-reinforced wood particle-board, which has enhanced mechanical properties compared to the standard grade (P5) of particleboard used for domestic flooring. However, when energy costs, transportation and other factors are considered, the ecological balance towards recycling fibre-reinforced polymers may be dependant on future considerations of recycling at the initial design stage.
Project uses a lot of wood, some investigation maybe needed to determine its source. In regions such as the Pacific Northwest, even softwood lumber from Canada might qualify for this credit. In the industrial heartland, the Midwest, even the iron ore in steel might qualify if it had been extracted in Minnesota. Here are examples of some specific materials that could come from just about any locality or 500-mile radius, without traveling long distances foundation piers compost and mulch concrete storm drains masonry, pavers and hardscape materials reclaimed lumber wheatboard panels most wood products, including laminated beams, cabinets, sub-flooring, roof decking, composite wood siding, engineered wood products and oriented strand board millwork, both new and reclaimed and cellulose insulation. The list is seemingly endless.99
Trees give us the material we call 'wood', also known as 'timber' (or lumber' in North America) when used in construction.Wood is derived from two main types of tree conifers, and the broad-leaved deciduous trees. These two types of wood are often referred to as 'softwood'and 'hardwood' respectively, although by no means all coniferous wood is actually softer than the
Interestingly, Feenberg (1999) uses houses and construction as examples of richly signified technical artifacts - an area of fruitful philosophical analysis. And again The tree conceived as lumber, and eventually cut down, stripped of bark and chopped into boards, is encountered for its usefulness rather than for its manifold interconnections with its environment and the other species with which it normally coexists. The history of wood construction in North America can be approximated by three stages. These stages are identified with a wood product log, plank, and lumber. Lumber is the result of the simple linear extrusion of the sawmill and includes particular parameters such as transport to the mill, forestry management, silvaculture, and land procurement. Each parameter reinforces the tendency in each other to normative practice. Building construction methods were designed based on the end product of the mill. Currently, North American wood frame determines lumber properties that,...
We have the ability to build curvaceous, sensual architecture inspired by nature's artistic freedom while providing profound structural integrity. Earthbag construction enables the design of monolithic architecture using natural earth as the primary structural element. By monolithic architecture we mean that an entire structure can be built from foundation and walls to roof using the same materials and methods throughout. Corbelled earthbag domes foster the ultimate experience in sculptural monolithic design, simplicity, beauty, and dirt-cheap thrills. Earthbag domes designed with arch openings can eliminate 95 percent of the lumber currently used to build the average stick frame house (Fig. 1.2). Conventional wood roof systems still eat up a lot of trees. This may make sense to those of us who dwell in forested terrain, but for many people living in arid or temperate climates, designing corbelled earthbag domes offers a unique opportunity for providing substantial shelter using the...
Wood construction practices like Japan and Norway. The method is linked to a distinctive type of lumber, a major export of North America. It has also been substantially unchanged for a century and a half suggesting that it is a uniquely qualified solution, showing resistance and resilience during a period of considerable technological change - it behaves like it has a thin notion of function displaying a reliable association between input and output. Over time, critical challenges to this technology has led to gradual adaptations that have added up to decreased functionality in favor of function, organized its usability into certain specific ranges of use, and displaced from the collectively intentioned practice flexibly described in multiple overlapped traditions to the equivocal intention to support a massive technological system. Thomas Hughes (1989) claimed that artifacts are socially malleable when industries are young, but resistant to social influence once they have matured....
One of the most common strategies for getting a building permit in areas where earthen architecture is unfamiliar, or officials are heavily biased against it (usually from ignorance of the medium), is to incorporate a post and beam framework as the load-bearing structure, delegating the bag work as infill. This is contrary, of course, to all one's efforts directed at minimizing the use of lumber and energy intensive materials like cement and steel. At least it may help you get a house built, while introducing an alternative building method like earthbags. One way to limit the use of lumber is by using small dimensional posts, like four-inch by four-inch (10 cm by 10 cm), set at the furthest distance allow-
The bridge plans presented in this publication are part of a series of standardized plans being developed for timber highway bridges. The plans were developed as a cooperative effort between the USDOT Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (FPL),and Laminated Concepts, Incorporated (LCI). The plans include standardized designs and details for seven timber bridge superstructure types including five longitudinal deck and two beam systems utilizing both sawn lumber and glued-laminated timber (glulam).
It has the interesting property that the doubly curved surface contains two systems of straight-line generators, permitting straight form lumber to be used. The complex dome of Fig. 1.7. which provides shelter for performing arts events, consists essentially of a circular dome but includes monolithic, upwardly curved edge surfaces to provide stiffening and strengthening in that critical region.
The horse-driven baling machine, invented and introduced into the grain-growing regions of the North American West in the 1870s,had the unintentional side effect of turning mounds of loose straw into tight, easy-to-handle building blocks. The settlers of the Nebraskan sandhills, who faced a lack of lumber and suitable sod for building their new homes, were the first to put these building blocks to use. Some of these early bale
The above deals with timber from European countries. Timber from Canada and the USA is covered by their own standards which are recognised in the UK for visually graded timber. These are NLGA, Canada, national grading rules for dimension lumber, and NGRDL, USA, national grading rules for softwood dimension lumber. There is also a machine grade standard known as NAMSR set by the North American exports standard. This was introduced to give more precise selection of strength potential, thus increasing the economic use of this natural resource.
Comfortable and uniform fresh air conditions can be maintained within the stable, even under windy conditions. Some stables are still built with this deliberate breathable wall concept. Siding boards may be butted tightly against each other and still leave a very narrow gap, or in moderate climates the vertical barn boards are spaced V4 to 1 inch from each other. Rough-cut green lumber may be attached as siding. Once dry, gaps will provide diffuse ventilation. From the stable exterior, the breathable wall siding looks solid and well constructed. From the stable interior, sunlight can be seen penetrating between the boards indicating that air can enter (Fig. 6.32).
These drawings are for longitudinal nail-laminated timber bridge decks. The decks consist of a series of nominal 2-in. dimension lumber laminations that are placed on edge and nailed together on their wide faces to form a continuous deck. Lumber laminations shall be continuous (full length) between supports with no butt-joints. The designs are applicable for single- and double-lane and unskewed and skewed bridges up to 28 ft long. Design truck loading is AASHTO HS 20-44 or HS 25-44, with live load deflection limits of L 360 or L 500. 5.Bridge width is variable by adjusting the number of lumber laminations.
Another option in grid stall floor design uses pressure-treated 2 X 4 lumber set on edge that span the stall width. A 1V2- to 3-inch gap is left between boards, so that the lumber grid is filled and topped with a porous stall flooring material (clay, soil, road base mix). This offers similar characteristics to the manufactured grid mat product in a homemade design. Longevity of the lumber grid is expected to be less than that of rubber or plastic. Plastic grid floor Lumber grid floor Plastic grid floor Lumber grid floor Figure 7.4. Two examples of grid floor design one using a plastic mat and the second using lumber. Figure 7.4. Two examples of grid floor design one using a plastic mat and the second using lumber.
Fire-retardant treated wood decreases flame spread by 75 (flame spread rating is 25 for treated wood, 100 for untreated), and if the treatment is properly applied, it will be effective for at least 30 years. Lumber or plywood treated with fire retardant releases noncombustible gas and water vapor below normal ignition points, usually 300 to 400 C or 572 to 752 F. When the wood is exposed to flames, a hard carbon char layer forms on the surface of the wood, insulating it from further damage. Because of this insulation (charring), heavy timber and wood treated with fire retardant retains its structural integrity longer than unprotected steel during a fire. Some care must be taken while selecting fire-retar-dant lumber and plywood. The fire-retardant ingredients contain inorganic salts, such as monoammonium and diammonium phosphate, ammonium sulfate, zinc chloridem, sodium tetraborate, boric acid, and guany-lurea phosphate, and may not be safe for chewers, cribbers, and foals. Most salts...
The classic timber frame, with its large-dimension lumber and carefully crafted joinery, is very beautiful. Timber-framed buildings have an elegance and solidity that is impossible to duplicate, and its recollections of the craftsmanship of the past have brought the style a recent resurgence in popularity. Post and beam systems often eschew the large-dimension lumber used in timber-framing in favor of site-made or commercially available laminates. To create an onsite laminate, a number of pieces of standard dimension lumber are joined together using a certain nailing or bolting Commercially available laminates are also an option. They are made from glued strands of wood and are designed to equal the load-bearing capacity of large-dimension lumber. Their cost is often reasonable, especially if you must otherwise import solid timber from a great distance. Some environmentalists praise commercial laminates because they are made from waste wood and therefore save large trees others are...
Most roof framing uses lumber.Wooden roof frames are strong, lightweight, and easy to construct. Your local building code will contain span charts specifying the lumber dimensions Site framing with dimensional lumber. Using the span charts in your building code, you can cut the rafters, joists, and collar ties required by the design of your roof and use the appropriate connections and fasteners to assemble the roof. Manufactured roof truss systems. Manufactured trusses are engineered to use small-dimension lumber 2-by-4 and 2-by-6-inch to meet the load requirements specified for your region.They are engineered to fit your plans, are factory built and assembled, and delivered to your site. Their cost is often equal to, or lower than, the cost of the heavier lumber you'll need if you frame the roof yourself. The truss company employs an engineer to design the trusses, so prices include the cost of having an engineer stamp your roof plan. If you are paying a carpenter for framing,...
The selection of materials (i.e. lumber and hardware) and their finishing will have an important affect on the final deck or boardwalk. For example, the appearance of the wood Is affected by the choice of preservative or finish Some woods (e.g., cedar and redwood) turn an attractive gray color if left unprotected over time, A sealant can be used to halt the weathering process at any desired point in the color change Staining lumber will yield various aesthetic characteristics depending on the species and grade of lumber. Corrosion of metals is typically avoided, but the effects of corrosion can be used to aesthetic advantage Tables 460-1 and 460-2 provide comparative information on various species of wood commonly used for deck construction. Information on decay resistance and the grading of lumber follows (Refer to Section 850 Wood, for a comprehensive explanation of wood and wood products suitable for use out-of-doors.) Lumber Grades
Everything in your plans should be drawn to an exact and consistent scale. Access to a drafting table or computer drafting program can be useful and could speed up the planning process. Try to avoid incorporating odd dimensions that will require excessive trimming of each piece of plywood or lumber. Sheet materials plywood and drywall usually come in 4-by-8-foot sheets. Lumber usually comes in 8-, 10-, 12-, 14-, 16-, or 20-foot lengths.
Planed lumber Lumber having one or more of its surfaces planed smooth. plank 1. A board 2 to 4 in (5 to 10 cm) thick and usually 8 in wide (20 cm) or more. 2. Any long, wide, reasonably thick piece of lumber, the dimensions of which vary depending on whether it is hardwood or softwood and depending upon lumber industry standards, etc. They are sometimes tongue-and-grooved at their edges. plank fence 1. Any fence made with lumber. 2. A fence constructed with horizontal lumber attached to square posts.
You can choose to support products and manufacturers that try to reduce environmental impacts. From sustainably harvested lumber to natural paints and stains, almost every product you could use is also available in a greener format. You may want to research your product choices and the production methods used to create them often, the cheapest products come with nasty environmental side effects. Green products often cost more due mostly to economies of scale and lack of subsidies. Your purchase of
The Western Red Cedar Lumber Association (WRCLA) together with the Cedar Shake & Shingle Bureau (CSSB) are presenting the first Western Red Cedar Architectural Design Awards recognizing Innovative design using nature's ultimate building material. Winners will be selected by a jury of renowned architects Jim Cutler. Martin Finio and Ellen Watts. Awards will be presented May 1. 2009 at a special awards event to be held in conjunction with the AIA National Convention April 30 - May 2. 2009 in San Francisco. The Fine Print Protects are to be submitted for judging within 1 of 2 distinct product classifications (1) those featuring extensive use of Western Red Cedar lumber such as siding. Wm paneling, decking, ttmbers or (2) those featuring extensive use of Western Red Cedar snakes and shingles. In either case, the winning designs will demonstrate an understanding of the special properties of Western Red Cedar (Thuja pllcato) Including beauty ond durability In structural of oesthetic...
With regard to construction materials, a wood shingle split from a piece of wood (best formed by hand-splitting) and usually thinner on one end than the other. They are commonly made of cedar. 2. With regard to lumber, a reference to cracks in the surface of the wood caused by drying and other effects.
Like board fences, they need at least three rails to contain horses (Fig. 15.5). For foals, the bottom rail should be no higher than 12 inches off the ground. Fence height should be at least 4 feet, and up to 5 feet, for jumpers and stallions. Fence panels are typically 8 to 10 feet long. Pressure-treated lumber and cedar may be used.
17.3 This lightweight frame uses many temporary braces to hold it plumb and square until the bales are installed and the plaster applied. These braces are important make sure enough lumber is on site to create them. The simplest way to achieve clean plaster stops is to ensure that the material the plaster is abutting will act as a stop. Making foundations, top plates and window bucks one inch wider than the straw itself will create clean wooden edges for finishing plaster. Tack thin strips of lumber or plywood into place to create temporary plaster stops for trim or other elements
Prebuilding all your door and window bucks will save a lot of time when you begin installing the bales. The joints in the box frame of your bucks can benefit from caulking when you assemble them. Be sure to build bucks with strength in mind and use screws rather than nails. Brace your bucks to keep them square using scraps of lumber or plywood. Braces should be placed so they don't interfere with installation of the bales, or the windows, or doors, and they should be kept in place until one coat of plaster has been applied, or the window or door has been installed.
A rigid, straight piece used to strike off a concrete, mortared, or plastered surface. 2. A straight piece of lumber or metal used to align tile, or provide a straight or flush surface in aligning material. 3. A metal, straight tool used to guide a straight line cut through paper, cardboard, etc.
Floating window bucks will need to be installed at the proper height and in the proper direction. Make sure all the required bracing lumber is at hand, and that the crew takes its time with the level to ensure that the buck sits plumb and level. Standing bucks will already be installed, but encourage the crew to periodically check that they are remaining plumb and square, and to stop and fix things if they are not.
Support demands that each mirror have a frame of 2 X 4 or 2 X 6 lumber, depending on side length, with a backing made of 3 4-in. minimum thickness exterior-grade plywood. Additional 2 X 4 frame reinforcing will be needed for large mirrors. One pre-framed option is a 4 X 8 ft mirrored sliding closet door available at home supply stores.
Vertical grain A reference to lumber that is cut from a tree with its end's shortest dimension perpendicular to the growth rings. This produces a grain in the face (largest dimension) of the board that is mostly straight. Looking at the end of the board one will see grain lines parallel to its shortest dimension. See also flat grain.
Structural wood, commonly called lumber, comes from tree trunks that support the crown and supply nutrition. Most tree cells are longer in trunk direction tnd arranged n circular year rings, representing fast and slow growtn in spring arid turner, respectively. Fast growth spring wood is softer arid c,ppear.s l ghtei' than slow growth summer wood. Wood has good structural qualities, notebl niqh strength to weight ratio and good resilience. However ivood is not isotropic since its properties vary with fiber orientation. Compared with al'owabie ccmpi Bssive stress parallel to fibers, perpendicular compressive stress is lr,b. than 50 and perpendicular tensile stress less than 1 , shear stress parallel to fibers is less than 10 .
Every construction medium incorporates specific design principles to get the optimal performance from the material being used. Timber, stud frame, and post and beam incorporate diagonal bracing and crossties to provide shear strength. The dimensions of the lumber and spacing dictate load-bearing capabilities, etc. No building material is immune to natures governing principles. Even rock is affected by frost heave.
Stirrup rails and rider wall guards are common in indoor arenas. The objective is to keep riders' stirrups and knees from contacting the columns that support the arena roof structure. Rails can be as simple as a 2 X 8 lumber rail nailed at stirrup height along the interior of columns. Clearly, not everyone's horse and stirrup level are at the same height, so this method has its limitations. The next step is to enclose most of the lower 4 to 6 feet of sidewall in wooden cladding, such as plywood, to provide a smooth surface. Metal-sided arenas will need this wood liner to protect horse and metal from damage. learn to track right next to the wall, so this wall guard needs to be maintained around the arena even at open end doors (Fig. 16.26). Swinging door guards can be provided at gates and doors. The guard wall material is most commonly made of 3 4-inch exterior grade plywood but can be 2 X 6 tongue-and-groove lumber for more strength and attractiveness. The top plate on the guard...
Generally a 24-foot pole, set 5 feet deep, can be used for an 18-foot sidewall that is not significantly more expensive than the poles used for a 16-foot arena height. Glu-lam techniques (wood layers are laminated together with glue for a strong composite wood construction member) allow for poles with pressure-treated lumber on the bottom portion and less expensive untreated lumber above ground level. Higher arena height (20 feet and more) is desirable for large and wide public arenas. Minimum head clearance for horse and rider is 14 feet, with 12 feet minimum at doorways.
Lintels are to earthen architecture what headers are to stud frame walls. A lintel is a sturdy beam that spans the space above a door or window opening that bears the weight of a roof or second story. Traditionally, they were made from large dimension lumber. These days, lintels are often built up from laminated small-dimensional lumber or constructed into a box beam. Pallets are an excellent resource for Velcro plates and for making laminated lintels. Whatever the design, our focus is on how to anchor a lintel to an earthbag wall (Fig. 8.1).
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