Project To Stabilize The Village Of Combe Down

A Government fund, the Land Stabilisation Programme, was established in 1999 to fund local authorities to carry out stabilisation of unstable and abandoned non-coal mining workings. This is administered by English Partnerships and Bath & North East Somerset applied for funding under this programme. Applications for large scale funding from central Government go through an appraisal process following the 'Green Book' process (Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government). (2) This requires...

Earthquakeinduced Liquefaction

Sand boil description (http wapi.isu.edu). Figure 11. Documented sand boil in Mentasta Lodge, Alaska (courtesy of Shannon and Wilson). Figure 11. Documented sand boil in Mentasta Lodge, Alaska (courtesy of Shannon and Wilson). field blasting. Recent examples of where explosives were intentionally used to induce liquefaction include Boulanger and Idriss 2004, Al-Qasimi et al. 2005, and Ashford et al. 2004. Blasting can induce ground vibrations, which can compact and densify soil...

Description Of Temple E7

Group E is located north of groups A and G (Fig. 1). Among its buildings it is worth mentioning E1, one of the most ancient temples (kalan) sited in the My So,n archaeological area, whose construction can be dated back to the 7th century. On the contrary, E7 was probably built later on, in the 10th century (Fig. 2). This building is a typical example of annex to the main Figure 1. The archaeological area of My Son. Figure 1. The archaeological area of My Son.

Info

Bonding SRG sheets to the anchoring steel plate of the loading region. Figure 6. Bonding SRG sheets to the anchoring steel plate of the loading region. Because of the dimensions of such element, which should not permit prestressing ofthe two sheets simultaneously, it becomes necessary to use an intermediate steel plate (440 x 150 x 6 mm), placed at a position 250 mm distant from the loading device. Using such a steel plate (Figure 7), it is possible to fasten the two SRG sheets, fixed...

Salient Properties Of Sydney Yellowblock Sandstone

Blocking Course Building

3.1 Geological and chemical properties Sydney Yellowblock is an oxidizing sandstone. When freshly quarried, it has a pale grey-white colour, but as moisture ('quarry-sap') within the stone moves to the surface, trace elements such as iron, silica and calcium are deposited at the surface (1-3 mm depth) in the form of iron hydroxide oxide, silica and calcite, and their oxidization on reaction with the atmosphere leads to a yellowing of the surface through staining of the intergranular clays...

Structural Analysis Of Prasat Suor Prat

Prasat Suor Prat is located at Royal Plaza of Angkor Thom. It is an architectural compound composed of Figure 5. Damage situation of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 (before restoration). Figure 3. Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 (after restoration) JSA. Restoration view of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 Restoration view of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 long terraces extending in the north-south direction and twelve towers. It is believed that it was constructed at the end of 12th century or beginning of 13th...

Structural Assessment Of Scissor Trusses

Stress analysis of historical roof trusses poses specific problems which are otherwise not common in structural engineering. As opposed to the analysis of modern constructions, the idealization ofthe structure is not straightforward, in particular because the stiffnesses of the joints and the support conditions are not well defined. On the other hand, these modeling decisions have a decisive influence on the results, as we shall demonstrate by a little example. In the following, we present some...

Application Of Rvi Methodology On Selected Historical Churches

According to methodology, rapid evaluation inspection methodology procedure part, the churches are evaluated for earth-quake resistance and structural properties (ATC-21, 2001). This form sheet is applied on the churches with visual inspection. The rapid visual inspection methodology is applied on the selected churches, which are Trabzon Hagia Sophia, Trabzon Girls Monastery, Gumushane Mother Maria, Gumushane Sariun, Gumushane Harmancik, Gumushane Ugurlutas, Artvin Yusufeli, and Artvin Ishan....

Introduction

Reinforced concrete floors were frequently used, during the 20th century in Italy, to substitute masonry buildings' timber floors and roofs, considered inadequate (Sorrentino et al 2007). Such interventions, particularly if belonging to the early rise of reinforced concrete, induce new conservation problems. Such structural elements are witness of the building habit of one period, a habit frequently disappeared. Nonetheless, they are usually inadequate to carry the loads currently specified by...

Preservation Process

The preservation process is outlined within both the ISCARSAH Recommendations and schematically in Annex B of ISO13822. A similar layout, focusing on the different phases within the process (a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis), is given in Figure 1. In all three flow charts, it is in the detailed analysis phase that the reliability question is put forward. Is there a need for intervention, Figure 2. Reliability framework - requirements. to various...

Works Execution

The first phase of work, as described above, consisted of realization of the RC strip on the top of the masonries to connect the walls themselves and to give effective support to the upper trusses. Successively, the masonry was strengthened in the belt along which new steel structures would have been applied. In order to assess the analysis results, a prototype of prosthesis was assembled in the Big Hall and was loaded, according to the project documents. The Big Hall, whose coverings had to be...

Structural Values In The Building

3.1 Components of the structure Before proceeding to the formal aspects of the structure and their analyses, it is necessary to briefly look at the types of constituent structural components or structural elements in this building, along with their basic materials. These components and their behaviour in the whole structural system allow us to divide them into three logical groups. The first of these, vertical elements, have either resultant or primary load lines or both which are vertical....

Strengthening Intervention

Below, the strengthening interventions chosen in order to increase the seismic safety of the church are described. These interventions were projected as uniform interventions and using compatible materials. In fact, in case of particular structures, such as churches or at-sight wooden roofs, only roof diaphragms were arranged. The in-plane shear resistant floor and roof DLS damage limit state CLS collapse limit state. diaphragms, transforming the building into a box structure, has been a viable...

Definition

Historic roof structures are structures constructed by carpenters following empirical-intuitive conceptions based on knowledge accumulated empirically, and passed on from generation to generation in carpenter's guilds. Researching, understanding, scientifically describing these types of structures present a special interest, as they incorporate historic and technological values worth preserving for future generations. Historic roof structures with Baroque character include roof structures of...

Diagnostic Phase

An initial study and research phase aimed at examining the Temple's stability was carried out by the Turin Polytechnic in the context of the agreement entered into with the Umbrian Monuments and Fine Arts Office No 1072 of 1985, rep. 2961. It lasted over two years and included the carrying out of topographic and geo-mechanical measurements, drilling, laboratory tests, numerical analysis and the setting up of instruments to measure the gradient of the slope to check the static behaviour of the...

Investigation Workability And The Role Of Workmanship

In a very different project experiments were carried out to connect measurements of workability according to scientific laboratory procedures with a subjective judgement of workability by professionals. Some of the experimental results are presented in another contribution to this conference (Hendrickx 2008). Workability of fresh mortar is the sum of the application properties which provide its suitability, whether for masonry purposes, plastering or jointing. Several authors and normalising...

Typical Installation Foundation Repair Bracket

Heavy duty foundation bracket attached to Screw-Pile and existing foundation. to support loads ranging from 50 kips to 86 kips. Both double and triple helix Screw-Piles with 44.4 mm square shafts were installed around the perimeter of the structure to develop the required loads. While most piles were installed along the footings from the outside, a few piles were required inside the structure using a hand held portable torque head. Piles were attached to the existing foundations which...

Seismic And Historical Structure Of North East Region In Turkey

The North east Region covers approximately 18 percent of the land in Turkey, with a surface area of 141,000 km2. It is also called as Black Sea Region, which gets its name and characteristics from the adjacent sea, extending from the border of Georgia in the east to the eastern edge of the Adapazari Plain in the west. All the provinces of Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane, Bayburt, Giresun, Ordu, Sinop, Sam-sun, Amasya, Kastamonu, Zonguldak, Bartin, Bolu, and almost all of Tokat, are in the...

Architectural Characteristics

The Zeytinburnu Military Factory is located over a large area of 128.121m2 in the west of the city between the Sea of Marmara and the railroad line. The Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives has various documents related to the construction, repairs and use of the factory buildings for the period between 12611334 1849-1916. The German Union Map (Alman Sendika Haritasi) dated 5 October 1918 shows that the factory consisted of a number of detached and adjacent buildings (Fig. 2). The captions on this...

Conflicting Aims Of Stake Holders

Forest Department has under its purview a large area of the site, mainly the Pavagadh Hill and the buried Sultanate city. The forest act is very powerful and has successfully controlled development in the forest land thereby protecting the authenticity of the site. But, at the same time, its obligation of planting fresh saplings every year has proved to be a big threat to the archaeological heritage. The roots of the plantations are slowly harming the vulnerable heritage buried below the earth....

Balkema Book

CRC Press Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd (A Macmillan Company), Chennai, India Printed and bound in Great Britain by Cromwell Press Ltd, Towbridge, Wiltshire All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying,...

Timber Floor Typology And Refurbishment Techniques

Diagonal Planking Building Technique

In this paper a simple supported timber floor is considered, where timber beams have a section of 18 x 18 cm, spaced 50 cm, which is a recurrent configuration for the floor structure in Italian historical buildings. The deck system is composed with a simple layer of wood planks (3 cm thick), crossly arranged and nailed to the timber beams (Figure 3a). Starting with this configuration, five different reinforcement techniques were Figure 2. Role of the diaphragm preventing the overturning modes...

Effect Of Slag Inclusions On Ductility And Strength

Unlike steel, which from the 1860's onward could be produced in large quantities, wrought-iron was always made in small separate batches in the puddling furnace. In the puddling process, pig iron was converted into wrought-iron by removing carbon. The manufacture of wrought-iron was described by Skelton (1924) and in various works by Gale (1963, 1964, 1969, 1977). The most obvious difference between wrought-iron and Figure 1. Fibrous texture of wrought-iron revealed by tearing open a bar in a...

Structural interpretation of postearthquake 19th century retrofitting on the Santa Maria degli Angeli Basilica Assisi

Structural and Geotechnical Engineering Department, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy D. Bruccoleri Architect, Guidonia, Italy ABSTRACT A sequence of ground shakings occurred from October, 1831 to March, 1832 in Central Italy. Due to the high intensity and the repetition of the events, the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Assisi was damaged severely, suffering the collapse of the vaults of central and left naves. After the first emergency interventions, engineer- architect Luigi Poletti...

Giuseppe Gariup

Departamento de Ingenier a de la Construcci n, U.P.C., Barcelona, Spain Igino Pitacco Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universit degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy Pere Roca Fabregat Departamento de Ingenier a de la Construcci n, U.P.C., Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT A multi-body approach to solid dynamics is presented. The numerical method implemented is a discrete element method (d.e.m.) specifically intended for the analysis of masonry structures. Contacts between different blocks are treated...

The Metal And Glass Curtain Wall And Its Deterioration Mechanisms

New technologies resulting from World War II had a great influence on the acceptance of the machine-made metal and glass curtain wall. Given the abundant postwar supply, aluminum was reasonably priced. There was experimentation with mild steel, stainless steel, and bronze as well. Extruded components were suitable for standardization and could be prefabricated for delivery to the site. This was important because labor had become a significant part of construction costs. The new curtain wall...

Groin And Quadripartite Vaults

Variables influencing the range of vault thrust include the influence of the web geometry, the boundary conditions, the role and effect of cross-ribs, the assumptions for the internal force patterns, the presence of cracks and other pathologies, and the impact of fill above the haunches. The groin vault shown in Figure 6 is found to have a range of possible horizontal thrust values at the corners which vary from 21 to 32 of the total weight of the vault. This results from the choice of a...

Intervention In Cracked Masonry

2.1 Discussion on applying of only original materials The requirements of safety and use are almost permanently in conflict with the respect of the iconic, historical and material integrity of the monuments and treatment where only using of traditional methodologies is acceptable. In most countries the conservation is controlled by officials having an influence on any action to be undertaken imposing constraints and limitations that sometimes appear unreasonable to the engineer. On the...

Challenges Of The Baroque Roof

Timber Vaults

The roof of Tuntenhausen is just one of the starting points of the development of the baroque roof in Bavaria. Obviously, it did not work quite as well as it should have. The reasons for the failure of the structural concept at Tuntenhausen and the challenge of similar situations elsewhere are quite obvious Baroque roofs in southern Germany typically exhibit a pitch of around 45 . Contemporary carpenter's treatises call this pitch the German pitch. It is a pitch that is considerably lower than...

M3

Workplan of the PROHITECH project. Figure 2. Workplan of the PROHITECH project. Figure 3. Interconnection among WPs, project deliverables and main deliverables. Figure 3. Interconnection among WPs, project deliverables and main deliverables. with sixteen deliverables, which are aimed at the production of four main deliverables, representing the f inal output of the four parts which the research plan has been subdivided into. The final workplan is shown in Figure 2, whereas the...

In Situ Testing And Laboratory Investigation

Stone Biological Colonization

In order to better characterize the materials, to justify the observed damage and to define corrective measures, an experimental in-situ and laboratory testing program was carried out. This survey consisted of seven boring holes and three pits to define the mechanical and physical Figure 10. Aspects of the wall movements (a) separation between wall and vault (intrados of 1st level) (b) detail of previous separation (c) separation between wall and vault (extrados of 2nd level) and (d) horizontal...

Skyscraper Typology In America

The curtain wall dichotomy can be traced back to numerous 19th and early 20th Century antecedents. In the United States curtain wall development became intertwined with that of the skeleton frame. Skyscrapers would not have been technically feasible without the lightweight curtain wall. And it was through the skyscraper that the curtain wall achieved its greatest realization. In the nineteenth century, engineers first utilized metal frame construction in bridges, factories, and warehouses, and...

Hdj

Plan and longitudinal vertical section of the Basilica before the 1832 earthquake (di Boveglio & d'Isola Maggiore 1834, pl. 4). Figure 1. Plan and longitudinal vertical section of the Basilica before the 1832 earthquake (di Boveglio & d'Isola Maggiore 1834, pl. 4). phases of its construction history are reported here and neglecting the information about the convent. After the death of Saint Francis (1226) only small buildings, a refectory, some dormitories, a chapel, a choir, an...

Structural Behaviour And Crack Pattern

From the even short description of the previous section, it appears that, as the architectural and constructive body of the theatre, the dome which covers the horseshoe shaped hall is an uncommonly complex machine. Different materials and elements, assembled by means of various and proper connections, create a device whose functioning is due to the precise Figure 10. Typical connections observed in the reticular structure of the dome. Figure 10. Typical connections observed in the reticular...

Monitoring Of A Grout Injection

The cross-borehole technique seemed suitable for online follow up of hydraulic grout injections. This means that it can be used during injections in a way that an image can be constructed showing the grout flow in the masonry. This would be a useful appliance to evaluate the effectiveness of the injection. Also the detection of grout leaching in unwanted directions and the incomplete filling of voids could be detected in real time. To accomplish this, a customized sophisticated data logger had...

Background On African Indigenous Building Materials

The morpho-genesis of human habitat started inside the cave. Like the Art, the Bee and the Beaver. Man is not contempt with God's earth and he feels oblique to build a better one, more suitable to his exalted majesty. The Art build hills, the Bee makes Hives the Beaver constructs dams man creates architecture. Architecture proposes an effect on the human mind, not merely a service to the human fame. Thus architecture is the art which so disposes and adores the edifice raised by man, for...

Ely Cathedral

In the early 1970's inspections showed that the stonework in the West Tower at Ely Cathedral was loose and decayed with many cracks through the tower. The tower in common with many others is effectively two almost separate shells, so that over time they move independently, resulting in cracking and loss of stiffness. More detailed research showed that in the 1860's Gilbert Scott had carried out major repairs which included the installation of massive wrought iron bars, Figure 8. Ely Cathedral -...

Experimental Investigations

The reconstruction of the Sistani-House is engulfed by two fundamental factors of which all involved parties have to be aware On the one hand we do have the declared intention that some key buildings of the citadel, including the Sistani-House, ought to be reconstructed because of their historic significance. On the other hand we have to consider the constant threat of future earthquakes. As a result of that a sensitive compromise had to be found that combines modern reinforcement strategies...

Main Symptoms Of Structural Decay Of Earthen Walls

2.1 Rheological decay and water mismanagement Before the collapse of the Soviet Union excavations were on the whole carried out with low budget and without providing proper drainage to the areas near the structures. Earthen sites can occasionally respond well to basal water collection if this is uniform, but dramatic collapsing of parts can occur in presence of localized ponding. The city wall of Otrar Tobe (Fig. 8), an earthen structure of average five metres of thickness, shows how structural...

New Analysis

The structural analysis model is based on the sizes and dimensions given in Suchov's original construction drawings. For the calculations, the FEM program RStab was used. The structure was modelled in the following way - In order to minimize the number of nodes, the slight offset between the two sets of inversely running verticals is only included in the first hyperboloid section. This is due to the fact that the first section is more susceptible to buckling (Compare fig. 6). In the higher...

Ncw

Figure 2. Aspects of the destructive test set-up. verticality of the brace. The support plate includes a toe so that the rafter does not suffer a displacement along its axis. The brace is hold in the original alignment with a horizontal bar, connected to a load cell. Additionally a feed, acquisition and amplification data system was used, to obtain and to register all the data, see Figure 2. Displacements were measured using linear variable differential...

Short Description Of The Pantheon

The first Pantheon was built by Agrippa in 25-27 BD. It suffered severe damage in 80 AD during the great fire of Rome. Although it was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, it was struck by lighting in 110 AD, during the reign of Trajan. The present Pantheon was built for the third time under Emperor Hadrian between 118-125 AD. That date is known by stamps on the bricks. 2.2 Geometry and structure of the Rotunda The Rotunda is a circular space covered by a concrete hemisphere. The internal height of the...

Arch Geometry And Materials

The arch models were made from brickwork formed from scaled bricks. The bricks were 1 12 full size scale in width and 1 6 full scale size in length and depth. The model bricks were cut from full scale bricks using precision indexed saws. The arch barrel was made of three rings of bricks with a UK mortar joint type v with a mix content of 1 3 12 (Cement Lime Sand) by Table 1. Detail of models under test. Span to rise ratio (Shallow arch) 4 Span to rise ratio (Deep arch) 2 3-D width (mm) 405...

Use of reliability methods for evaluating safety of historic structures

Civil Engineering Department, KULeuven, Heverlee, Belgium ABSTRACT The architectural preservation process is generally based on a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis. In the analysis phase, an objective way to assess the safety of the structure is essential. The outline of the assessment process is described both in the ISCARSAH Recommendations and ISO13822, referring to determining the actual safety or reliability of existing (historical) structures....

Structural Design During The 19th Century

The accuracy of testing machines prior to the 1860's was generally not sufficient to determine precisely elastic limit. At that time engineers based their designs on the quantity that they could measure with certainty, which was the ultimate strength or breaking strength of the material. In other words, in much the same way as modern day engineers apply a factor of safety to the characteristic yield strength to obtain a working or safe design strength, 19th century engineers applied a factor of...

Evaluation of iron and steel in historic bridges SP Sparks

Sparks Engineering, Inc., Round Rock, Texas, USA ABSTRACT This paper presents a nondestructive approach for the evaluation of wrought-iron and steel in nineteenth and early twentieth century bridges. Many historic bridges are non-redundant structures, and require complete evaluation of both structural capacity and the condition of the members for continued service. The conventional approach of material characterization in older structures has relied on tensile-testing of coupons removed from a...

Simplified Mechanical Models For Seismic Vulnerability Analysis Of Bell Towers

The simplified model proposed by Guidelines is based on the assumption that the towers are structures with cantilever-like behaviour. The investigation of 31 bell towers has been performed comparing the design moment with the ultimate moment and assuming both the masonry as non tensile-strength material and an opportune nonlinear compression distribution. The different structures analysed were divided into n sectors with uniform geometric characteristics and the checks were performed in...

Box Structure

N A (l12h1 + P3h3hl)Ly - g*ll2 12 vA P3h3 2 Figure 16. Structural behavior a) Frame action and b) box-structure undergoing horizontal ridge loads. lateral wall. These possible tensile forces must be balanced by the wall self-weight, through anchored bars suitably embedded and distributed along the crowning masonries. In the second step, the additional ridge constraint reactions were backed out with forces of equal intensity and opposite sign (fiy, fiz in Figure 16). Provided that Frame A would...

The Basic Material Used In The Restoration Of The Foundation

5.1 The reasons for the material selection As previously mentioned, the problems in the north foundation of the temple of Apollo Epikourios were caused, mainly, because rainwater gradually washed away material from the clay layer. Hence, one of the basic objectives of the foundation restoration was the replacement of clay with a more durable material, capable to arrest the damaging phenomenon of material loss in the layer beneath euthynteria. In order to attain that objective, it was decided to...

Conclusion

The buckling behaviour and wind load assumptions of the structure will have to be investigated more deeply, as the results are not in line with the 80 year life span of the tower. One critical point is the lack of the 50-year wind velocity at the locality of the tower. Shielding of members in an open circular framework is another issue that requires further research. The disregard of any reduction factor for shielding (due to the lack of suitable specifications) certainly effectuates a too...

Morphology And Seismic Role Of Vaults

The building technique of masonry vaults continued throughout the ages until recent times, influencing the history of architecture and originating a multitude of typologies and shapes (simple and complex barrel vault, cross vault, cloister vault, etc.). Manifold factors affect their structural behaviour, such as geometry, stiffness and mass distribution, chronological succession of the building works, subsequent alterations. As an example, different masonry pattern can be adopted on equal terms...

Experimental Details

Although triplet tests have been adopted as the European standard method (EN1052-3 2002) to perform shear tests in mortar joints, the shear strength properties of dry and mortar joints were obtained by means of direct shear tests conducted on couplet specimens, see Figure 1 (Vasconcelos 2005). In fact, in the triplet test, the two joints do not fail at the same time and the analysis of the experimental results is rather complex, Lourengo et al. (2004). The shear tests were carried out in a...

Equilibrium Analysis For Vaults In Unreinforced Masonry

2.1 Pseudo-3D equilibrium analysis methods In order to analyze three-dimensional structures using the same intuitive methods discussed above, the Figure 1. A pseudo-3D analysis of a gothic rib vault using graphic statics (Wolfe 1921). The web of the vault is cut into strips which are analyzed as 2D arches. The main ribs bring the forces from those arches down to the supports. Figure 1. A pseudo-3D analysis of a gothic rib vault using graphic statics (Wolfe 1921). The web of the vault is cut...

Building The Winter Garden

The typology of glasshouse buildings originates from the desire for a peaceful and green neighbourhood in the overpopulated cities during the Industrial Revolution. The first iron glasshouse is the iron hothouse in Hohenheim near Stuttgart (Germany) dating back to 1789 (Kohlmaier & Von Sartory 1991). The evolution of glass and iron production techniques in the nineteenth century was essential for the development and spread of the glasshouses. The Winter Garden of Laeken is part of a major...

Brittle Failure Of Wrought Iron

Past failures of wrought-iron structural elements have included suspension bridge chain links. William Kirkaldy investigated the failure of a tie-bar from Charing Cross Station roof in 1905 (Swailes 2005). More recently a beam failure in a building in Leeds was reported (Bland 1984). The consequences of failure are more severe for some structures than others and some structures are more important. To take account of this in assessment different factors of safety could be applied to different...

Description Of The Buildings

Santa Maria del Mar is a rare case of a Gothic church entirely built during a short period of time spanning 53 years. Moreover, the building has not experienced any significant architectural alteration after its construction, resulting in the uniformity and architectural purity for which the building is today acknowledged. The overall arrangement of the structure is very similar to that of Barcelona Cathedral, built during 13th and 14th c., and consists of a three nave structure built on a...

IN rulQ Atxr2

Substitution of ui ui(t), in Eq. (2) gives r r ui (t), u2 (t) , which is the equation of a curve r on the surface in Eq.(2), as shown in Figure 2. The vector coincides with the tangent to this surface curve . The tangents to all surface curves (Mitrinovic & Ulcar 1969), which pass through a fixed point (u1,u2) of the surface, lie in the tangent plane (Fig. 3) to the surface at that point, which contains r 1 (u1 ,u2) and r2 (u1 ,u2). After denoting by R the position vector of any point other...

Analysis Of A Real Damaged Wall

Having examined the four kinds of irregularity, a real wall in a building placed in Avellino County and hit by the 1980 earthquake (Magnitude 6.9) was analyzed. Since no retrofit interventions were made after the seismic event, it was possible to carry out a detailed geometrical, mechanical and load survey. In Figure 16 the irregular wall and the crack pattern are shown. Figure 17. Panel discretization (a1) RAN method for positive forces (a2) RAN method for negative forces (b) SAM method (c)...

Early Iron Suspension Bridges

In September 1823, after returning from a study trip to Great Britain, the Frenchmen C.L.M.H. Navier published his famous report ' Rapport Monsieur Bequey et M moire sur les Ponts Suspendus '. Navier outlined a historical overview on the construction of suspension bridges, starting with rope bridges in Peru, over realizations of M. Poyet, M. Belu, J. Finley, M. Telford, S. Brown, M. Stevenson, M. Brunel, concluding with the footbridges of M. Seguin in Annonay. Subsequently, he established some...

Jinisha Jain

Conservation Architect, Delhi, India ABSTRACT Known as the 'Old Fort', Purana Qila, the first Mughal capital city, is situated on the eastern edge of Delhi, along the river Jumna. Humayun, the second Mughal emperor (1530-38 A.D.) began constructing a walled city and fortress on this site in 1533 A.D., and named it Din-Panah, or 'Refuge of Religion'. He was temporarily deposed by Sher Shah Sur (1538-45 A.D.), who extended the Old Fort but the fort was finally completed by Humayun (1555-56 A.D.),...

Diagnosis Of Damages In The North Side Of The Temple

The failure of the foundation of Apollo Epikourios temple has been recognized as one of the most severe structural problems of the monument. This is because the foundation deformations are considered as the main factor that caused the damages of the building (Fig. 6). Furthermore, before the enclosure of the monument with the canopy, the deformation of its foundation was a phenomenon in progress. In previous study (Papantopoulos 1995), it was suggested that in the east part of the temple...

The Modeling Techniques And Correlative Influence Factors

3.1 Major factors influencing dynamic behavior of ancient pagodas Ancient pagodas were built long time ago, often suffered various natural disasters and damages, and most of them had been repaired. Therefore most pagodas have following common characteristics complex structure and construction type, non-uniform materials, as well as the coexistence of various damage conditions (Yuan Jianli, Shengcai Li, 2001). Since the structural parameters affect directly the dynamic behavior of ancient...

The Masonry Curtain Wall And Its Deterioration Mechanisms

A good place to begin discussion of the early curtain wall is with the Reliance Building in Chicago, the first skyscraper to fully utilize terra cotta as a cladding. The terra cotta units of the curtain wall are connected to a gridwork of cast-iron mullions, lintels, and sills which span between levels. Unlike the Home Insurance and other similar buildings, the Reliance frame did not rely upon the masonry curtain wall for lateral support. In New York City the steel frame and masonry curtain...

On Site Of Purana Qila

Known as the 'Old Fort' of Delhi, Purana Qila, the first Mughal capital city, is situated on the eastern edge of Delhi, along the river Jumna. Humayun, the second Mughal emperor (1530-38 A.D. 1555-56 A.D.) began constructing a walled city and fortress on this site in 1533 A.D. and named it Din-Panah, or 'Refuge of Religion'. The chosen site was an ancient area known as Indraprastha, associated with the Hindu epic Mahabarata. Through the excavation from the Purana Qila evidences of pieces of the...

Lower Bound Approach With Finite Friction

Masonry pavilion vaults, despite their common use in past centuries, in particular in XVI-XVII century palaces, have not been studied in any greater depth yet, principally because due to their singularity of shape and presence of cuspide form along the diagonal, the complex 3-dimensinal state of stress that develops in presence of uniform gravity loading does not lend itself easily to simplified approaches. These vaults have continuous support along walls have finite curvature in the direction...

The Historical Context For The Salisbury Cathedral Spire

The spire and tower of Salisbury Cathedral have presented problems for builders, clerks of the works, architects and engineers through the centuries. These problems appeared from the very start when the decision was made to construct a stone tower and spire of unprecedented height on a supporting structure at the great crossing that from all available evidence was never intended to support a tower of any significant height. The consequences of this decision have impacted almost every structural...

Numerical Simulation

3.1 Main strategies for the numerical Modelling Masonry is a composite structural element made by bricks (units) and mortar (joints) with different mechanical properties. For the detailed analysis of this heterogeneous structure with anisotropic characteristics, the use of numerical models is demanded, which include a representation of the units, the mortar and the unit-mortar interface. For the analysis of global structures, usually a numerical modelling could not distinguish brick from...

Truss Type

Truss types observed in the dome's structure. Figure 9. Truss types observed in the dome's structure. all the trusses, is divided in 36 equal parts in order to make easier the placing of the trusses themselves. Because of this double constraint, structural and constructive, imposed to the trusses' extremities, the trusses can follow the direction of the radial walls only in the part in front to the stage, explaining in this way the above mentioned asymmetry. Among the lower cords of...

Description Of Test Models

Laboratory tests were conducted on 7 brick arches (0.12 m thick, 0.77 m wide, 4 m span and 2 m radius each - as in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2). Barrel arches built of materials of characteristics similar to those of materials in historical objects (full ceramic bricks of class 100 and pure lime mortar). Static pattern of support and loading realized in the same way in all the arches tested. All of the arches models underwent monotonically increasing static loading which was realized on the entire width...

Description Of The Problems

The Isso Tower, dating back to 11th-12th century, was used during 20th century as the container of the water tank for the city aqueduct. The tank was built in r.c. at about 20.5 m only supported by 3 walls of the Tower. Furthermore, until 1919 several buildings were adjacent to the base of the Tower (Fig. 2). The walls made with solid bricks appear to have been covered on both sides with a sort of cladding (Fig. 3), one brick thick or more, which was built with regular bricks and thin mortar...

Presentation Of Historical Records And Existing Views On The Subject

The authorship of the complex has been attributed by medieval historians variously to Humayun and Sher Shah. The debate related to the authorship of Purana Qila in itself is historical with contradictory statements and records from the medieval historiographies, which are taken as important references for either of the viewpoints. These are presented below KhwandAmir's Qanun-I-Humayuni records that in the year A.H. 940 (1533 A.D.) Humayun laid the foundation of a city named Din Panah in Delhi...

Restoring of timber structures Connections with timber pegs

Russo Ermolli Department C.M.M.A. University Federico II, Naples, Italy ABSTRACT A quite speared methodology of restoration envisages the introduction of new timber elements, connected to the standing structure. An efficient alternative to the most used jointing technologies, which employ metallic bolted plates, steel pins, or epoxy resin adhesives, is the use of timber pins. The design rules for pinned joints given by Eurocode 5 are based on Johansen's theory. The...

Frp Applications On Masonry Historical Infrastructures

2.1 CFRP strengthening of a masonry arch bridge located in San Pietro in Cariano - Verona IT) The retrofit concerned the strengthening of a solid brick masonry arch bridge located in San Pietro in Cariano (Verona). The change of the traffic loads in recent years and the lack of maintenance have caused on the bridge a remarkable crack state needed to be urgently addressed. The work sequence has been as follows first of all before any FRP installation, all cracks have been filled with tixotropic...

Mario DAniello Luigi Fiorino

University of Naples Federico II, Department of Stiuctural Engineering, Naples, Italy Raffaele Landolfo University of Naples Federico II, Department of Construction and Mathematical Methods in Architecture, Naples, Italy ABSTRACT Nowadays, in Italy historical metal structures represent a significant and important part of national architectural heritage. In fact, their intrinsic architectural and technological value represents a milestone in the history of constructions, being an attestation of...

The Stability Of The Dome

3.1 The equilibrium approach and the collapse mechanisms The preliminary analysis of the damage and of the geometry of the church allowed us to state that the observed cracks are primarily caused by the thrust force of the dome. The collapse mechanism identified in the present church is in fact typical of the major dome structures, as it was clearly described by Poleni in his study on the Vatican Dome. Arch is nothing else than a force caused by two weakness said Leonardo da Vinci, even before...

Serena Cattari Sonia Resemini Sergio Lagomarsino

DICAT, Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Genoa, Italy ABSTRACT The role of horizontal diaphragms in the seismic response of buildings is significant both in terms of stiffening and transfer of horizontal loads to vertical elements. Their behaviour in 3D modelling is frequently assumed (with a rough approximation) as rigid this hypothesis may be not completely acceptable in case of existing buildings (with reference to historical masonry structures),...

General Design Requirements

Generally, the building was going from a commercial hotel use to a new multi-family residential use. This change in consort with the major level of renovation triggered the requirement for a structural upgrade to current code standards. Structurally, this meant complying with Chapter 16 Structural Design of the 2003 International Building Code (IBC). Both gravity floor and roof loads needed to meet the current code requirements as well as an analysis and upgrade for lateral loads caused by...

Basics Of Geoelectrical Measurements

In the past, geo-electrical resistivity measurements were already used successfully in restoration projects by the Reyntjens Laboratory (Janssens 1993 Venderickx 2000). The interpretation of the geo-electrical measurements was based on the apparent resistivity value. The word apparent resistivity is used because this value is the resistivity value that would hold for a fully homogeneous and isotropic material. In reality this is not the case. Walls have a heterogeneous resistivity distribution....

Failure Modes Of The Orthostate Blocks

This failure mode is related to the clamps, which are located at the upper surface of the orthostate blocks (Fig. 3). Failure consists in the detachment of marble fragments on both, in most cases, sides of the clamps (Figs 5, 6). In Figure 3 both the initial (in dotted lines) Figure 3. Initial (dotted lines) and deformed position of the orthostate block, on which the area affected by the clamps' pressure is highlighted. Figure 3. Initial (dotted lines) and deformed position of the orthostate...

Sociocultural Factors Impacting On Innovative Materials

Local Buildings Riverine Areas

Socio-cultural factors are primary forms, which create ideal environment that are culturally comfortable, spiritually meaningful and socially acceptable. House - forms viewed from these perspectives are usually influenced by family pattern (extended family), lineage system (ancestral line of family), and kinship (relation by blood). Nigerian Traditional Architecture is an inherited art and science from the past generation on the areas of planning and designing with consideration to the...

Example Floor Systems

The floor systems described here are only a few of the many tested between 1890 and 1910. They include the most common floors and a few oddities that often confuse modern engineers. The floors are grouped by type (arches, catenaries, and beams) and in the order that the types became popular. The earliest floor systems used with iron beams in the Untied States were arches. During the 1880s and 90s, various tile arch forms were the most popular floors in use, and were still used into the 1920s....

Tests On Prototypes Of Masonry Arches

This section reports some of the results of the wide experimental campaign developed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Naples Federico II on masonry arches, consolidated or not by means of FRP strips (Baratta & O. Corbi 2003b, 2005b). The geometry of the portal arch (Figs 3 and 4) is symmetrical and is characterized by span Dial Gauge Gi t J Inclinometer I J Transducers T ,T2 Q Extesemeter Ei Q Deformometric cells dk, k 1 30 Dial Gauge Gi t J...

Analysis Of Structure

Making the simulation of the masonry construction, there are three major groups of analyses linear analysis, nonlinear analysis and limit analysis. It is also worth mentioning that despite the differences resulting from the fact that various types of methods generate different safety coefficients and different final results, there are no ample reasons for choosing the one particular method over the others - during the researches, it was decided that the simplest type of analysis will be...

References

ASTM C 1196-91 Standard test method for in-situ compressive stress within solid unit masonry estimated using the flat-jack method, Philadelphia. ASTM 1991b. ASTM C1197-91 Standard test method for in situ measurement of masonry deformability properties using flatjack method, Philadelphia. Binda, L. & Tiraboschi, C. 1999. Flat-Jack Test as a Slightly Destructive Technique for the Diagnosis of Brick and Stone Masonry Structures, International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and...

Early Medieval Roof Structures In Sweden

The oldest remaining roof structures in Sweden are found in churches. Maybe as many as 270 medieval roof structures are still in place, mostly in southern Sweden. Out of these, maybe one hundred are of Romanesque type. However, the figures are not completely reliable no comprehensive inventory of medieval roof constructions has been compiled in Sweden. The majority of the medieval structures have not been satisfyingly investigated or recorded, probably some are not even identified yet....

Strengthening Techniques

In the following, a few anti-seismic strengthening techniques are illustrated. The presented techniques were adopted for the seismic upgrading of some churches after the 2004 earthquake. The adoption of perimeter tie system is a traditional technique, which was effectively adopted to secure the Figure 8. S.Pietro Church in Roe Vociano, Brescia, Italy a) total and partial collapse of barrel vaults of the first and second bay of the main nave, and b) crack pattern induced by the differential...

The Outer Dome Of The French Pantheon

The French Panth on, designed by Soufflot and completed by Rondelet at the end of the XVIII century, has three superimposed domes (Fig. 3) an inner one, hemispherical and with a central hole, has only a scenographic purpose, an intermediate one, with a catenary section, sustains the lantern, and an outer one for protection. They are all made of stone masonry reinforced with the widespread use of iron clamps. The outer dome, probably designed looking at the shape of the wooden dome of Saint Paul...

ST Sperbeck H Budelmann

Institute of Building Materials, Concrete Construction and Fire Protection, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany ABSTRACT Local vertical prestressing is considered as strengthening measure to reduce the vulnerability of masonry structures in case of earthquake action. The shear strength and the ductility of masonry is improved. This is shown in static cyclic tests. Static and dynamic behaviour is investigate for different masonry walls. To avoid an excessive amount of experimental tests, this...

Engineered Systems In The Tower And Spire

3.1 The historic importance of the tower and spire structural systems at salisbury It is the systems employed in the tower and spire of Salisbury that demonstrate concerted efforts to address identifiable structural behavior and that have a history of upgrade and improvement over the centuries. This is in part due to the fact that from the beginning the structure of the tower and spire was more than just a structural system of stone masonry acting in compression bearing to transfer loads to the...

Options And Design Of Permanent Works

The full Gifford project team met to consider the data and final options. Any option appraisal for conservation works should start with the option and implications of doing nothing of leaving the building as found. Although the brief had indicated that works were anticipated, this was the assumed starting point for the scheme to develop the correct conservation approach. We also needed to assess the necessary extent of the repair works. We considered that it was not necessary to carry out major...

Sandeep Sikka

Superstructures (Architects + Engineers), New York, USA ABSTRACT The areas of Spiti and Kinnaur district in the Western Himalayan region have experienced some significantly strong earthquakes in the last few decades. Recent seismic tremors have caused some serious structural damage to the buildings in the region especially to the un-reinforced historic adobe structures. The deformation and bulges resulted in the adobe structures, as a resistance to the seismic vibrations, are the vulnerable...

Implementation

The reinforcing strategy for new adobe masonry bases majorly on the results of the pull-out tests with the fibreglass rods and the collapse analysis (Bakeer & J ger, 2007). The information obtained from the tests and the model enabled us to calculate necessary reinforcement measures that help the building to withstand an earthquake of similar force as the one of 2003 (Fig. 5). In this way it was not only possible to describe the necessary reinforcement but also to quantify the required...

Methodologies For Seismic Vulnerability And Seismic Resistance Assessment

Masonry Structures

When assessing the seismic risk of a certain area the expected intensity of earthquake has to be defined on one hand and the seismic resistance of built-up area on the other hand. Entire territory of Slovenia is earthquake-prone, but the earthquakes of the highest intensity are unfortunately expected just in the central region around Ljubljana where the population density is the highest as well (Fig. 1). The buildings that were constructed before the application of first seismic code are...

Ch Maierhofer Ch Kpp S Kruschwitz

Bundesanstalt f r Materialforschung und -pr fung BAM , Berlin, Germany M. Drdacky Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ASCR v.v.i, Prague, Czech Republic Ch. Hennen Institut f r Diagnostik und Konservierung an Denkmalen in Sachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt e.V., Dresden, Germany S. Lanza University of Genova, Italy M. Tomazevic Slovenia National Building amp Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia D. Kolymbas University of Innsbruck, Austria I. Herle Technische Universit t Dresden,...

N Augenti A Romano

Department of Structural Engineering, University of Naples Federlco II, Naples, Italy ABSTRACT In masonry building, while the behaviour of regular walls vertically and horizontally aligned opens was exhaustively assessed in the past, irregular walls not aligned openings and geometry varying both along the horizontal and vertical direction , although representing the greatest part of existing constructions, are still object of study by many researchers. In this paper, some well-known design...

The Corde Blande

The corde blande, the curved laying of brick courses, progressively increasing from the base to the top of the dome, are well documented by the survey of the dome extrados. This special laying system was caused by works needs, as it was necessary to give continuity to the differently inclined brick beds in the two corner ribs and in the central part of a single face. The consequent curved laying of the bricks was got and made progressive not only with varied thickness of the mortar joints, but...

Materials Testing At

As in Britain and Europe the American universities also set up their own materials testing laboratories. One in particular was that at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. This particular university is of interest in the present context because of the meticulous records of tests on wrought-iron that were made there in the 1880's and 90's. The mechanical engineering laboratory at M.I.T was established in 1883 by Gaetano Lanza. Lanzawas born in Boston in 1848. His father was an Italian...

Kalagri M Savvidou D Chryssopoulos L Anamaterou F Georganis Hellenic Ministry of Culture Athens Greece

ABSTRACT The Katholikon of Dafni Monastery, one of the most important monuments of the middle-byzantine period situated near Athens, has suffered severe damages due to the 1999 earthquake. Several studies have been engaged, in order to collect all relevant data of the internal masonry structure and that of the mosaics substrata by applying non-destructive techniques, such as Ground Penetrating Radar GPR and Seismic techniques including tomographies. In some areas these techniques have been used...

The Recovery Project

Following this warning, the Instituto do Patrimonio Hist rico Art stico Nacional-IPHAN National Institute for Historical and Artistic Heritage established work groups historical research, property issues, Housing, physical planning, and community relations , necessary for the preparation of a pilot project for an archeological park in the area. This project sought to create a substantial and positive impact on the City of Ouro Preto by means of the following - expansion of historical research...

Concept And Brief Presentation Of Emergency Interventions

The emergency interventions were designed taking into account specific demands deriving from the importance of the monument and the necessity for implementation of final restoration works without removing the supports and scaffoldings. Thus, they had to be reversible, easily assembled and allowing for gradual disassembling in the interior, as well as adjustable to the deformed geometry of damaged elements. Moreover, any contact with the vulnerable mural mosaics was to be avoided. To this end...