Conclusion On Masonry Structure

In 2005, an exhaustive high frequency ground-penetrating radar survey has been realized on the fifty main mosaics of the Katholikon of Dafni Monastery, with the aim to investigate the possibility of GPR application to locate doubtful zones (delaminations, changes of substrata mortar or other buried heterogeneities, etc), related to the mosaics very near bearing-structure. As presented in C te et al. 2004 & 2008, a methodology has been developed for the execution of specific parallel radar...

Conclusion

Certain current practice in the conservation of Sydney's historic sandstone buildings, much of which stems from the need to address public safety, appears to be at odds with accepted conservation policy. The key criterion in determining how to conserve significant sandstone buildings seems not to be one of maintaining structural integrity whilst otherwise intervening as much as necessary and as little as possible, as the Burra Charter would require. My own considered opinion is that this should...

Geographical Context

Cambodia is a large depressed basin lying between 102 E and 103 E and 10 N and 15 N covering an area of 181,040 square kilometers. The entire region comprises of three zones, the northern zone, central zone and the southern zone. The northern zone is occupied by the Kulen Mountains. Central zone is an alluvial plain that is occupied by the Angkor World Heritage Site having temple - complexes, moats, reservoirs and canals. The southern zone is the Tonle Sap Lake, which serves as a discharge area...

Description

The temple is concentric in plan and has five rectangular enclosures and entrances on all the four directions. A moat is provided around the fourth enclosure, with a causeway along the east-west axis. There is another moat between the third and the fourth enclosure. The temple is built of dry sand stone masonry with laterite core in the foundation and has corbelled vaulted roof over the galleries and entrances. The temple is decorated with Apsara figures, Naga canopies besides mythological...

Partners And User Group

The consortium includes members from 7 different 1. Bundesanstalt f r Materialforschung und - pr fung, Berlin, Germany (BAM) 2. Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics ITAM ASCR v.v.i., Prague, Czech Republic (ITAM) 3. Institut f r Diagnostik und Konservierung an Denkmalen in Sachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt e.V., Dresden, Germany (IDK) 4. University of Genova, Italy (CRUIE) 5. Slovenia National Building & Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia (ZAG) 6. University of Innsbruck,...

Info

Note * Brick pagoda in Shanxi province ** Stone pagoda in Fujian province *** Brick pagoda in Jiangsu province. Note * Brick pagoda in Shanxi province ** Stone pagoda in Fujian province *** Brick pagoda in Jiangsu province. of the material strength test and refer to the specification of code for design of masonry structures (GB 50003-2001, 2002). 3.2 The fundamental period of ancient masonry pagodas The fundamental period is a basic index of the dynamic behavior of pagodas. It is useful for...

Results For Square Pavilion Vaults

The limit state analysis with finite friction constitutes a new tool to define the 3D structural behaviour of masonry vaults. By means of an easy and rigorous procedure, developed with commercial programs (for example Excel), it is possible to obtain an optimum solution considering the load redistribution after cracking. Identifying the optimal thrust surface, the proposed analytical method, based on lower bound approach, allows determining, for any vaults, some important elements with regard...

References

1 An EU policy on flood risk management, http flood_risk index.htm 2 Becker, A. and Gr newald, U. (2003) Flood risk in Central Europe. Science Vol. 300, 16.5.2003, p. 1099. 3 Dombrowsky, W.R. and Ohlendiek, L. (1998) Flood Management in Germany. In Rosenthal, U., 't Hart, P. (publisher) Flood Response and Crisis Management in Western Europe. A Comparative Analysis, Berlin, New York a.o. Springer, pp. 153-187. 4 Drd cky, M. and Sl zkov , Z. Damages and Failures of Historic Materials and...

Process Of The Integrated Modeling Method

The process of integrated modeling method for dynamic behavior of ancient pagodas is as follows (Figure 1) (1) Survey the structure, define structural parameters and their variation degree, (2) Construct Figure 1. Flow chart of the integrated modeling method. Figure 1. Flow chart of the integrated modeling method. the preliminary analysis model by ANSYS, (3) Estimate the dynamic eigenvalues of the structure for the selection of proper instrument parameters, (4) Acquire the modal parameters by...

Meetings

The success of the project will definitely be based on the distribution of the project results to relevant interested parties, like owners of Cultural Heritage buildings, stakeholders or other institutions responsible for the preservation ofmonuments. The mitigation strategies developed in the project are only valuable, if they can be implemented in those networks, which have the possibility to establish contingency plans. Therefore it is very important to run the project with participation of...

Structural Assessment

With budget limitations, inaccessibility to testing laboratory, investigation equipments and limited time frame, the investigation methods selected for the structural assessment of two temples were primarily Study of previous data on documentation of wall sections, strength and properties of masonry components from published and unpublished reports 2, 3, 5, 6, 8 Load calculation through study models. 4.2 Semi-subterranean structure The temple of Gya-Pag-Pai, which is, mentioned as...

Structural Interventions

The interventions applied were briefly 1) Provide temporary supports, prop up dangerous parts, remove all debris, and remove all plaster to expose walls for inspection. This were mandatory procedures and works, in order to establish safety and health on site and to be able to provide further specific instructions according to the type of damages that was revealed on walls. 2) Photographing of all wall panels from both sides and in detail was then carried out. These were used to indicate...

The Monument And Its Structure

The term Great Hall is applied to a building laid out on four levels starting from Via Biberatica. The principal level is therefore the second floor, which is on the same level as Via Quattro Novembre. The Great Hall, intended for public functions, forms an independent block clearly defined and circumscribed. The main level consists of a very large rectangular room 36 meters long and 8.50 meters wide. The pavement, made by bricks and travertine slabs, dates from the 1930s. On the ground floor...

Information Management Tool

Anyone involved in the conservation of cultural heritage buildings is aware of the enormous amount of information generated by the different specialists, which is generally not handled adequately by owners and or authorities involved in the process. The consequence is that valuable information is lost in a complex process of reaching a decision that involves many different experts and information tends to get forgotten or misplaced in the course of time. Upon the recognition of this evidence,...

Introduction

The Spiti and Kinnaur region in the Northern Indian State of Himachal Pradesh has some remarkable ancient Buddhist temples made of Adobe. Constructed between the 10th and 15th century AD 1 , these temples preserve some of the earliest artistic heritage of the Tibetan Buddhism in the form of mural paintings, polychromed clay sculptures and decorative wooden ceiling members. This arid region in the Western Himalayas have witnessed a gradual development of Buddhist temples architecture from simple...

Grand Isle Lake House Project

The Grand Isle Lake House is located on Lake Cham-plain in northwestern Vermont, and has been used as a project site for the Geotechnical Design course and as a senior capstone project. The building is currently owned by the Preservation Trust of Vermont, a statewide nonprofit committed to assisting Vermont communities in the preservation of their historic buildings, sites, and town and village centers. The Preservation Trust uses the Lake House as a special events facility in support of their...

Repairs Made To The Monument

The Column of Marcian, which ranks as one of Istanbul's oldest monuments, has passed through many earthquakes and fires and has withstood many rebellions and wars. In spite of all these disasters the fact that it has managed to survive to our day was secured through repairs carried out at various times. Some sources provide us with definite information and clues related to these repairs. In the photographs of the Marcian Monument taken at the beginning of the 20th century, it is seen that the...

The Basic Issues

Within the technical field of seismic rehabilitation, two aspects are receiving an increasing attention by engineers and researchers, namely - Preservation of Structural Integrity of existing buildings under severe exceptional seismic actions - Improvement of building seismic performance by Both these aspects are closely interrelated each other, in the sense that the application of RMTs is, in some cases, the only tool to achieve a satisfying level of Structural Integrity under severe...

The Effects Of Cold Work

It is important that the metal is kept hot particularly during the final stages of working into a finished shape so as to avoid strain hardening the metal by cold rolling. This can sometimes be difficult, particularly with the rolling of long bars of small diameter, because the smaller or thinner the section the faster it looses heat. Annealing removes the effects of cold work. In a number ofthe testing programs discussed in this paper the samples were annealed before tensile testing. This was...

Static and dynamic properties of a flexible joint working in cracked historical masonries

Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland R. Jankowski Gdansk University ofTechnology, Gdansk, Poland ABSTRACT In the paper, the static and dynamic properties of proposed flexible polymer joints are discussed. The discussion is based on investigations on special polymer, describing its properties obtained during laboratory and field tests. The research has allowed us to point potential advantages of the polymer application in cracked historical masonries. In addition, the rules of the...

Structural Challenges

Due to water damage and severe winter climate of New England, the building's unoccupied years and lack of any maintenance caused areas of major deterioration. In particular, one area was in extremely bad condition and collapse in 2004 was imminent. The Wauregan's rear, reentrant corner five store rear walls were in danger of collapsing. The roof's valley terminated at the corner and water cascaded down these corner walls causing excessive damage. In order to save the floor framing in these...

M Tomazevic I Klemenc P Weiss

Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia ABSTRACT The efficiency of improving the seismic resistance of heritage masonry buildings by means of seismic isolation and strengthening of structure with CFRP laminate strips has been investigated. Five models of a simple two-storey brick masonry building with wooden floors without wall ties have been tested on the shaking table. Besides control model, two models, isolated by either damp proof course or seismic...

On The Theory Of The Ellipse Of Elasticity

The theory of the ellipse of elasticity can be considered as a main icon of the so-called Graphical Statics, the discipline which often characterised the resolving approach of practical design problems during the 2nd half of the 19th century. It represents a very elegant and practical method for the analysis of the flexural response of an elastic structure. It is based on an intrinsic discretisation of a continuous elastic problem. This theory is basically associated to the two outstanding...

The 2nd Intervention Phase

4.1 Generally adopted methodology and criteria The second consolidation phase of the bell tower, to be implemented during the year 2008, has been Figure 4. Projected braces for the bell tower at levels 1, 2 and 3. Figure 5. Constructive detail for the brace at level 2 (lower cornice). Figure 5. Constructive detail for the brace at level 2 (lower cornice). a good state of conservation. This selective repoint-ing to be made with hydraulic lime mortar in a similar proportion as the historic walls,...

Structural Analysis And Assessment For The Building

The load-bearing masonry walls were replaced by wall elements and the roof trusses were replaced by bar element in the calculation model. The elemental stiffness matrix were formed by the input geometry and material properties determined by the structural inspection (Table 5). The floors supported by timber grilles were analyzed separately using the model of simply supported beam. Structural responses of the building to static loads and earthquake action were calculated. The static loads and...

Expected Results

The PROHITECH project is an important opportunity to develop knowledge and technology in the field of the seismic protection of the Euro-Mediterranean cultural heritage (Mazzolani 2007a, b). The innovative character of the technical solutions proposed for seismic retrofitting is mainly based on the concept of RMTs. The main expected results of the research activity are the following. The basis for the assessment of an up-to-dated state-of-the-art concerning advanced systems of seismic...

Discussion

The continuum-equivalent Young's modulus for sandstone-dry-masonry structures in Bayon temple ranges from 1 27 to 1 9 of the laboratory value regardless of sizes and types of structures, based on micro-tremor measurements. Since the extremely low modulus is not yet clearly explained, we cannot rely on a continuum model to evaluate bearing capacity of dry-masonry structures. DDA was selected to replace FEM and tested for fundamental features by simple problems. Finally DDA was applied to the...

Model Of The Optimal Cutting Process

In this section, an essential model to describe the a regime cutting process into the ancient concrete is proposed. This model will introduce an important parameter, the cutting strength, and at the end of this section it will be clear that this parameter itself must be the target of the optimisation of cutting processes. Consider the cutting operation performed by the workman with the chainsaw in Figure 8 where a schematization of the process is contextually presented. According to this...

Loss Of Redundancy And Increase In Complexity

In a general sense, redundancy in design can prevent failures of a building system. Structural redundancy, allows for loads to follow an alternate path if the primary supports fail. Redundancy of design for curtain walls can apply not only to structural but to performance issues such as weathertightness. The mass of the masonry curtain wall provided a redundant system with empirically developed strength capacities that extend far beyond that required. While lack of maintenance could lead to...

Conclusions

This view of the present state of timber conservation suggests that in many cases there is too little engineering involvement in determining the overall strategy of repair. This might be true for other materials as well but its effects are possibly more serious when dealing with structures often requiring extensive and highly visible repairs. This is in part compounded by a failure by some engineers to come to terms with the characteristics of this material in their analysis of its behaviour....

Jo

The two plane grids have a reciprocal relationship as defined by Maxwell. The equilibrium of a node in one of them is guaranteed by a closed polygon in the other and vice versa. The labeling uses Bow's notation (Bow 1873). Figure 2. The two plane grids have a reciprocal relationship as defined by Maxwell. The equilibrium of a node in one of them is guaranteed by a closed polygon in the other and vice versa. The labeling uses Bow's notation (Bow 1873). is represented by the geometry of...

Repair Strategy

This brings us to the methods of repair, and here we should recognize that different approaches might be appropriate for different kinds and periods of structure. A simple contrast can be drawn, for example, between the decorative roofs of the middle-ages and the purely utilitarian structures of nineteenth century industrial buildings. In spite of both being equally visible, the former are clearly more valuable architecturally. As for all historic structures, we should begin by considering the...

Structural Analysis Of The Winter Garden

The three-dimensional structure of the Winter Garden is quite refined. Every single member of the metal load-bearing structure consists of richly ornamented compound profiles (Figures 6 & 7). In order to understand the basic structural behaviour of the Winter Garden under symmetric load combinations, a two-dimensional model was investigated. The historical reference to the Palm House in Kew and the Great Conservatory in Chatsworth implies that the structure works as a dome with a pressure...

Typology Of Constructions At The 18th Century

According to various historical sources (Haedo 1578 1580, Shaw 1808 & De Grammaye 1670) in Algiers, all houses look alike, most of them have a central patio or square courtyard surrounded by rooms. This type of house is called Dar. A gallery supported by columns with horseshoe pointed arches surrounds this courtyard called wastaldar'. A great number of the palaces and houses have three levels. Houses with courtyard develop another type of dwelling, which is called Dar shebak, house with...

RTM Ribeiro M Hoirisch

PROARQ FAU UFRJ - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ABSTRACT In 1995, a routine inspection carried out by the Restoration Department of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro disclosed instability of wood floors in a room located in a Brazilian 19th century building. This paper presents a concise report of this structural degradation. It focuses mostly on the project of structural restoration of areas that brought about the practice works to be implemented in a...

State Of The Project Perspectives

The first measures of planning, consolidation and reconstruction were limited to two rooms. This pilot project was intended to clarify possible problems implementing the rehabilitation strategy that has so far been tested only under laboratory settings. All working steps up to the construction of the vaults have been carried out successfully. The vaults are momentarily being completed. The technical realization of the project showed only few problems, and can, without any doubt, be applied for...

The Edification Subject Of Intervention

The University Palace (Fig. 1), heritage building located in the University Campus of Praia Vermelha houses some faculties of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It is a neoclassical style building, situated in the city of Rio de Janeiro, listed in Brazilian Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute. The building exhibits restored rooms, ceilings and walls smartly decorated, frequently used for concerts, congresses, academic, technical and administrative activities and solemnities. The rectory...

Possible Approaches

In view of the above, it would seem reasonable to determine that alternative approaches need to be explored in order to i) identify more accurately the actual risk of injury from falling masonry ii) establish an acceptable approach to 'making-safe' that better complies with modern conservation philosophy (of doing as much as necessary and as little as possible) iii) establish, if possible, an active supply of an appropriate oxidizing 'Yellowblock' sandstone or alternatively iv) utilize proven...

Historical Background

The History ofAngkor region can be divided into three distinct periods Pre Angkor era, Angkor era and post Angkor era. This temple was built by Jayavarman VII,1 one of the greatest rulers of the Angkor era who reigned from AD 1181 to 1219. 3.1 Pre Angkor Era - From the 1st century to the 8th century During Neolithic age, there were large settlements of people living in this region whose origins were unknown but their existence is known from the finding of ceramics and stone tools. From the...

First Results

Since the official project started in February 2007, some results are already available. 5.1 Report on experiences from floods As an overview about the whole complex topic, it was necessary to perform a state of the art survey and to find out, which measures have been taken in the past to prevent or reduce the impact of natural flooding disasters and to survey possible repair interventions that have proven to be suitable for the restoration of valuable buildings after the flood. Several factors...

Conclusions And Outlook

The risk of flooding or other natural hazards has increased significantly in recent decades due to climatic change and building activities in risk-prone areas. The European Community is aware of this situation and has raised programmes to support research initiatives, which aim at prevention of natural disasters and minimizing the impact on Cultural Heritage. For the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission a Tentative Roadmap has been set up for the area Environment including...

Nako Temple Complex

The great translator Lotsawa Rinchen-Zangpo (9581055 A.D.) reportedly founded the historic Buddhist complex at Nako in the Northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The Buddhist temple complex at Nako is an arrangement of four dedicated unicellular temples along a common courtyard. The site of the temple complex gradually slopes from the east to the north clockwise in the four directions with the northern edge lying at a difference of about 3 meters from the common courtyard of the complex....

History And Seismicity Of Anatolia

Anatolia involves significant transition roads or passages, such as Silk Road. The lands have hosted many civilizations, some of which date back to the very early ages. The most evident traces of these civilizations could be seen as the historical buildings that stand still. These buildings are diverse in terms of construction type, function, structural materials and architectural aspects due to the requirements and possibilities of their ages. This does not mean that each building has been...

An Example Of Safety Evaluation Of The Library

Most of studies dealing with the bearing capacity of masonry structures are based on stresses computed by continuum mechanics. This scheme may be taken granted for a bonded masonry, since it implies that generation of a crack in a block or at an interface limits the bearing capacity. On the other hand, dry-masonry has its initial cracked state, so that the application of this scheme is questionable. We have been studying the applicability of the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) (Shi...

Continuous and discontinuous modeling of the structures in Bayon temple Angkor

Department of Architecture, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan T. Hirai ABSTRACT Bayon temple, Angkor, consists of dry-masonry structures made of sandstone. Strong wind in the rainy season is suspected as one of the causes for its progressive deterioration. Since 2003, micro-tremor has been measured at most of the tower-type structures and the continuum-equivalent elastic modulus was found to be 1 9 to 1 27 of that of the sandstone specimen in laboratory tests. In 2006, micro-tremor was measured...

L Lauriks I Wouters S Adriaenssens M de Bouw B Verbeeck Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels Belgium

ABSTRACT The Winter Garden, the largest of the Royal Glasshouses, is situated at the Royal Domain in Laeken in the northeast of Brussels, Belgium. This glasshouse was built between 1874 and 1876 in order of king Leopold II, according to the design of architect Alphonse Balat. A two-dimensional analysis demonstrated the basis structural behaviour under a series of symmetrical load combinations the structure works as a cupola with a tension and a pressure ring. The stress levels and deflections...

Repair Details

When we turn to the tactics of repair, timber has always seemed to be a fairly contentious material the methods of repair have attracted rather strongly held positions. There has also been a developing of skills and the two together seem to have resulted in some swings in approach. (This might be true of conservation in general, it just being my own perspective that makes me think that it is more problematic for timber.) Repair methods in timber can be loosely divided into three kinds - Those...

The Winter Garden Today

When king Leopold II passed away in 1909, the ownership of the Royal Glasshouses passed on to various institutions. The land, purchased by Leopold II, and the glasshouses constructed on that land, became property of the Royal Donation, a semi-private institute. The other glasshouses, situated on the piece of land that he received to fulfil his duties as a king, are owned by the Regie der Gebouwen, a governmental institution. The borderline between these two adjacent properties can be diagonally...

Modelling Of Damage Accumulation

There are different methods in describing the unstable damage accumulation during the tertiary creep phase. Boukharov uses the Weibull cumulative distribution and experimentally defined strain values and failure times to describe the growth of 'hot' crack arrays up to a critical density. In the model presented here, a continuum damage mechanism will be followed, describing the overall damage throughout the material as a continuous phenomenon. The theory of Kachanov (Kachanov 1985, Kra-jcinovic...

Pierre Smars

National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan ABSTRACT The application of limit analysis to the safety assessment of block masonry structures usually presupposes absence of sliding between the blocks and joints without tensile resistance (Heyman 1966). The standard plasticity theorems can then be used to qualify situations either as stable or as unstable. Experience shows nonetheless that in some circumstances, in vaults in particular, sliding does occur. Moreover, the resistance...

Experiences of consolidation on archaeological Unesco sites in Sultanate of Oman The Fortress of Al Balid and the

Marco Andreini, Chiara Cei, Giorgio Mariani & Mauro Sassu Department of Structural Engineering, University of Pisa, Italy ABSTRACT Taking the opportunity to collaborate with the archaeological groups a staff of structural engineers has been organized to attend the consolidation works on the UNESCO sites of Khor Rori and Al Balid (Sultanate of Oman). Starting from early 2005 a series of missions have been managed to restore the ancient city walls of Sumhuram in the site of Khor Rori and other...

Truss Assessment

The queen-post timber truss evaluated belongs to the roof structure of an old warehouse of Adico industry, located at Avanca (55 km South from Oporto). The exact date of the construction is not known but the industry exists since 1920 and some plans of the village from 1942 already show the warehouse. Trusses are the main elements of the roof structure, covered with ceramic tiles, 27 slopes and rafters spaced 50 cm over the purlins and the ridge. The free span of the trusses is 11.8 m and the...

Reuse And Analysis

Since the original use of these floors depended only on empirical testing, analysis came after the fact. For the arch floors, there was rarely analysis at all until the floors fell out of use, while justifications for the beam and catenary floors have changed over time. During the course of the twentieth century, numerical analysis replaced the empirical tests remaining in the structural design. Steel beam design had been rationalized in the nineteenth century, and concrete beam design after...

Structural Assumptions For Masonry Vaults

Tangential Stress Arches

The structural behaviour of masonry vaults and their collapse mechanisms depends on the material property, so the present theory is founded on the assumption of infinite compressive strength for the blocks, no tension transmitted across the joints and finite friction. The last hypothesis, often neglected by previous studies, reflects a more realistic masonry mechanical behaviour because, especially for historical structures, after the deterioration of the contact surfaces or of the binding...

TO Odeyale TO Adekunle

Department of Architecture, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria ABSTRACT Local materials are the resources that can be found readily in large quantity at a particular location or area at a certain time. It could also be referred to as materials that can be used to fabricate a finished element. These materials however could be abundant in some area but not available in another. The availability may largely be dependant on geographical location of the area as well as the chemical and...

Beaufort Castle Lebanon conservation versus restoration project

ABSTRACT Beaufort is a medieval castle that witnessed a succession of construction and destruction till today. After the year 2000, local authorities commissioned a team of experts to make an assessment of the current status of the Castle. At the end of this assessment, an exhaustive tender document package became available and ready to be executed by contractors. Local inhabitants expressed the request to rebuild the castle the way it was before the recent wars in Lebanon (1975-2000). This...

Critical Review And Analysis Of The Architecture

We have already come across the inadequacy of the archeological, historical, epigraphical and toponymic (study of names and places Sher Mandal as an example would bring to mind association with Sher Shah but most of the scholars agree with Humayun being the actual founder) proofs in the case of Purana Qila as demonstrated above. This paper focuses on the documentation, architc-tural and structural analysis and subsequent interpretation of one structure in Purana Qila, Qila-I-Kunha Masjid to...

The Herringbone Apparatus

Most of the recorded herring-bone bonds is located between the second and third corridor, where a very irregular laying of the bricks and relevant variation of their inclination are visible. After the dome intrados survey, the zenith angle of the herring-bone traces has been measured. It has been verified a very wide range of the inclination (from circa 31 to 55 ) among the eight faces of the dome and among the herring-bone bonds of the same face, with the prevalent inclination from 36 to 40 ....

Project To Stabilize The Village Of Combe Down

A Government fund, the Land Stabilisation Programme, was established in 1999 to fund local authorities to carry out stabilisation of unstable and abandoned non-coal mining workings. This is administered by English Partnerships and Bath & North East Somerset applied for funding under this programme. Applications for large scale funding from central Government go through an appraisal process following the 'Green Book' process (Appraisal and Evaluation in Central Government). (2) This requires...

Earthquakeinduced Liquefaction

Sand boil description (http wapi.isu.edu). Figure 11. Documented sand boil in Mentasta Lodge, Alaska (courtesy of Shannon and Wilson). Figure 11. Documented sand boil in Mentasta Lodge, Alaska (courtesy of Shannon and Wilson). field blasting. Recent examples of where explosives were intentionally used to induce liquefaction include Boulanger and Idriss 2004, Al-Qasimi et al. 2005, and Ashford et al. 2004. Blasting can induce ground vibrations, which can compact and densify soil...

Description Of Temple E7

Group E is located north of groups A and G (Fig. 1). Among its buildings it is worth mentioning E1, one of the most ancient temples (kalan) sited in the My So,n archaeological area, whose construction can be dated back to the 7th century. On the contrary, E7 was probably built later on, in the 10th century (Fig. 2). This building is a typical example of annex to the main Figure 1. The archaeological area of My Son. Figure 1. The archaeological area of My Son.

Salient Properties Of Sydney Yellowblock Sandstone

Blocking Course Building

3.1 Geological and chemical properties Sydney Yellowblock is an oxidizing sandstone. When freshly quarried, it has a pale grey-white colour, but as moisture ('quarry-sap') within the stone moves to the surface, trace elements such as iron, silica and calcium are deposited at the surface (1-3 mm depth) in the form of iron hydroxide oxide, silica and calcite, and their oxidization on reaction with the atmosphere leads to a yellowing of the surface through staining of the intergranular clays...

Structural Analysis Of Prasat Suor Prat

Prasat Suor Prat is located at Royal Plaza of Angkor Thom. It is an architectural compound composed of Figure 5. Damage situation of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 (before restoration). Figure 3. Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 (after restoration) JSA. Restoration view of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 Restoration view of Prasat Suor Prat Tower N1 long terraces extending in the north-south direction and twelve towers. It is believed that it was constructed at the end of 12th century or beginning of 13th...

Structural Assessment Of Scissor Trusses

Stress analysis of historical roof trusses poses specific problems which are otherwise not common in structural engineering. As opposed to the analysis of modern constructions, the idealization ofthe structure is not straightforward, in particular because the stiffnesses of the joints and the support conditions are not well defined. On the other hand, these modeling decisions have a decisive influence on the results, as we shall demonstrate by a little example. In the following, we present some...

Application Of Rvi Methodology On Selected Historical Churches

According to methodology, rapid evaluation inspection methodology procedure part, the churches are evaluated for earth-quake resistance and structural properties (ATC-21, 2001). This form sheet is applied on the churches with visual inspection. The rapid visual inspection methodology is applied on the selected churches, which are Trabzon Hagia Sophia, Trabzon Girls Monastery, Gumushane Mother Maria, Gumushane Sariun, Gumushane Harmancik, Gumushane Ugurlutas, Artvin Yusufeli, and Artvin Ishan....

Preservation Process

The preservation process is outlined within both the ISCARSAH Recommendations and schematically in Annex B of ISO13822. A similar layout, focusing on the different phases within the process (a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis), is given in Figure 1. In all three flow charts, it is in the detailed analysis phase that the reliability question is put forward. Is there a need for intervention, Figure 2. Reliability framework - requirements. to various...

Works Execution

The first phase of work, as described above, consisted of realization of the RC strip on the top of the masonries to connect the walls themselves and to give effective support to the upper trusses. Successively, the masonry was strengthened in the belt along which new steel structures would have been applied. In order to assess the analysis results, a prototype of prosthesis was assembled in the Big Hall and was loaded, according to the project documents. The Big Hall, whose coverings had to be...

Structural Values In The Building

3.1 Components of the structure Before proceeding to the formal aspects of the structure and their analyses, it is necessary to briefly look at the types of constituent structural components or structural elements in this building, along with their basic materials. These components and their behaviour in the whole structural system allow us to divide them into three logical groups. The first of these, vertical elements, have either resultant or primary load lines or both which are vertical....

Strengthening Intervention

Below, the strengthening interventions chosen in order to increase the seismic safety of the church are described. These interventions were projected as uniform interventions and using compatible materials. In fact, in case of particular structures, such as churches or at-sight wooden roofs, only roof diaphragms were arranged. The in-plane shear resistant floor and roof DLS damage limit state CLS collapse limit state. diaphragms, transforming the building into a box structure, has been a viable...

Definition

Plan Bracing Longitudinal

Historic roof structures are structures constructed by carpenters following empirical-intuitive conceptions based on knowledge accumulated empirically, and passed on from generation to generation in carpenter's guilds. Researching, understanding, scientifically describing these types of structures present a special interest, as they incorporate historic and technological values worth preserving for future generations. Historic roof structures with Baroque character include roof structures of...

Diagnostic Phase

An initial study and research phase aimed at examining the Temple's stability was carried out by the Turin Polytechnic in the context of the agreement entered into with the Umbrian Monuments and Fine Arts Office No 1072 of 1985, rep. 2961. It lasted over two years and included the carrying out of topographic and geo-mechanical measurements, drilling, laboratory tests, numerical analysis and the setting up of instruments to measure the gradient of the slope to check the static behaviour of the...

Investigation Workability And The Role Of Workmanship

In a very different project experiments were carried out to connect measurements of workability according to scientific laboratory procedures with a subjective judgement of workability by professionals. Some of the experimental results are presented in another contribution to this conference (Hendrickx 2008). Workability of fresh mortar is the sum of the application properties which provide its suitability, whether for masonry purposes, plastering or jointing. Several authors and normalising...

Typical Installation Foundation Repair Bracket

Heavy duty foundation bracket attached to Screw-Pile and existing foundation. to support loads ranging from 50 kips to 86 kips. Both double and triple helix Screw-Piles with 44.4 mm square shafts were installed around the perimeter of the structure to develop the required loads. While most piles were installed along the footings from the outside, a few piles were required inside the structure using a hand held portable torque head. Piles were attached to the existing foundations which...

Seismic And Historical Structure Of North East Region In Turkey

The North east Region covers approximately 18 percent of the land in Turkey, with a surface area of 141,000 km2. It is also called as Black Sea Region, which gets its name and characteristics from the adjacent sea, extending from the border of Georgia in the east to the eastern edge of the Adapazari Plain in the west. All the provinces of Artvin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane, Bayburt, Giresun, Ordu, Sinop, Sam-sun, Amasya, Kastamonu, Zonguldak, Bartin, Bolu, and almost all of Tokat, are in the...

Architectural Characteristics

The Zeytinburnu Military Factory is located over a large area of 128.121m2 in the west of the city between the Sea of Marmara and the railroad line. The Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives has various documents related to the construction, repairs and use of the factory buildings for the period between 12611334 1849-1916. The German Union Map (Alman Sendika Haritasi) dated 5 October 1918 shows that the factory consisted of a number of detached and adjacent buildings (Fig. 2). The captions on this...

Conflicting Aims Of Stake Holders

Forest Department has under its purview a large area of the site, mainly the Pavagadh Hill and the buried Sultanate city. The forest act is very powerful and has successfully controlled development in the forest land thereby protecting the authenticity of the site. But, at the same time, its obligation of planting fresh saplings every year has proved to be a big threat to the archaeological heritage. The roots of the plantations are slowly harming the vulnerable heritage buried below the earth....

Balkema Book

CRC Press Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK Typeset by Charon Tec Ltd (A Macmillan Company), Chennai, India Printed and bound in Great Britain by Cromwell Press Ltd, Towbridge, Wiltshire All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying,...

Timber Floor Typology And Refurbishment Techniques

Diagonal Planking Building Technique

In this paper a simple supported timber floor is considered, where timber beams have a section of 18 x 18 cm, spaced 50 cm, which is a recurrent configuration for the floor structure in Italian historical buildings. The deck system is composed with a simple layer of wood planks (3 cm thick), crossly arranged and nailed to the timber beams (Figure 3a). Starting with this configuration, five different reinforcement techniques were Figure 2. Role of the diaphragm preventing the overturning modes...

Effect Of Slag Inclusions On Ductility And Strength

Unlike steel, which from the 1860's onward could be produced in large quantities, wrought-iron was always made in small separate batches in the puddling furnace. In the puddling process, pig iron was converted into wrought-iron by removing carbon. The manufacture of wrought-iron was described by Skelton (1924) and in various works by Gale (1963, 1964, 1969, 1977). The most obvious difference between wrought-iron and Figure 1. Fibrous texture of wrought-iron revealed by tearing open a bar in a...

Structural interpretation of postearthquake 19th century retrofitting on the Santa Maria degli Angeli Basilica Assisi

Structural and Geotechnical Engineering Department, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy D. Bruccoleri Architect, Guidonia, Italy ABSTRACT A sequence of ground shakings occurred from October, 1831 to March, 1832 in Central Italy. Due to the high intensity and the repetition of the events, the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli, Assisi was damaged severely, suffering the collapse of the vaults of central and left naves. After the first emergency interventions, engineer- architect Luigi Poletti...

Giuseppe Gariup

Departamento de Ingenier a de la Construcci n, U.P.C., Barcelona, Spain Igino Pitacco Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universit degli Studi di Udine, Udine, Italy Pere Roca Fabregat Departamento de Ingenier a de la Construcci n, U.P.C., Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT A multi-body approach to solid dynamics is presented. The numerical method implemented is a discrete element method (d.e.m.) specifically intended for the analysis of masonry structures. Contacts between different blocks are treated...

The Metal And Glass Curtain Wall And Its Deterioration Mechanisms

New technologies resulting from World War II had a great influence on the acceptance of the machine-made metal and glass curtain wall. Given the abundant postwar supply, aluminum was reasonably priced. There was experimentation with mild steel, stainless steel, and bronze as well. Extruded components were suitable for standardization and could be prefabricated for delivery to the site. This was important because labor had become a significant part of construction costs. The new curtain wall...

Groin And Quadripartite Vaults

Variables influencing the range of vault thrust include the influence of the web geometry, the boundary conditions, the role and effect of cross-ribs, the assumptions for the internal force patterns, the presence of cracks and other pathologies, and the impact of fill above the haunches. The groin vault shown in Figure 6 is found to have a range of possible horizontal thrust values at the corners which vary from 21 to 32 of the total weight of the vault. This results from the choice of a...

Intervention In Cracked Masonry

2.1 Discussion on applying of only original materials The requirements of safety and use are almost permanently in conflict with the respect of the iconic, historical and material integrity of the monuments and treatment where only using of traditional methodologies is acceptable. In most countries the conservation is controlled by officials having an influence on any action to be undertaken imposing constraints and limitations that sometimes appear unreasonable to the engineer. On the...

Challenges Of The Baroque Roof

Timber Vaults

The roof of Tuntenhausen is just one of the starting points of the development of the baroque roof in Bavaria. Obviously, it did not work quite as well as it should have. The reasons for the failure of the structural concept at Tuntenhausen and the challenge of similar situations elsewhere are quite obvious Baroque roofs in southern Germany typically exhibit a pitch of around 45 . Contemporary carpenter's treatises call this pitch the German pitch. It is a pitch that is considerably lower than...

M3

Workplan of the PROHITECH project. Figure 2. Workplan of the PROHITECH project. Figure 3. Interconnection among WPs, project deliverables and main deliverables. Figure 3. Interconnection among WPs, project deliverables and main deliverables. with sixteen deliverables, which are aimed at the production of four main deliverables, representing the f inal output of the four parts which the research plan has been subdivided into. The final workplan is shown in Figure 2, whereas the...

In Situ Testing And Laboratory Investigation

Stone Biological Colonization

In order to better characterize the materials, to justify the observed damage and to define corrective measures, an experimental in-situ and laboratory testing program was carried out. This survey consisted of seven boring holes and three pits to define the mechanical and physical Figure 10. Aspects of the wall movements (a) separation between wall and vault (intrados of 1st level) (b) detail of previous separation (c) separation between wall and vault (extrados of 2nd level) and (d) horizontal...

Skyscraper Typology In America

The curtain wall dichotomy can be traced back to numerous 19th and early 20th Century antecedents. In the United States curtain wall development became intertwined with that of the skeleton frame. Skyscrapers would not have been technically feasible without the lightweight curtain wall. And it was through the skyscraper that the curtain wall achieved its greatest realization. In the nineteenth century, engineers first utilized metal frame construction in bridges, factories, and warehouses, and...

Hdj

Plan and longitudinal vertical section of the Basilica before the 1832 earthquake (di Boveglio & d'Isola Maggiore 1834, pl. 4). Figure 1. Plan and longitudinal vertical section of the Basilica before the 1832 earthquake (di Boveglio & d'Isola Maggiore 1834, pl. 4). phases of its construction history are reported here and neglecting the information about the convent. After the death of Saint Francis (1226) only small buildings, a refectory, some dormitories, a chapel, a choir, an...

Structural Behaviour And Crack Pattern

From the even short description of the previous section, it appears that, as the architectural and constructive body of the theatre, the dome which covers the horseshoe shaped hall is an uncommonly complex machine. Different materials and elements, assembled by means of various and proper connections, create a device whose functioning is due to the precise Figure 10. Typical connections observed in the reticular structure of the dome. Figure 10. Typical connections observed in the reticular...

Monitoring Of A Grout Injection

The cross-borehole technique seemed suitable for online follow up of hydraulic grout injections. This means that it can be used during injections in a way that an image can be constructed showing the grout flow in the masonry. This would be a useful appliance to evaluate the effectiveness of the injection. Also the detection of grout leaching in unwanted directions and the incomplete filling of voids could be detected in real time. To accomplish this, a customized sophisticated data logger had...

Background On African Indigenous Building Materials

The morpho-genesis of human habitat started inside the cave. Like the Art, the Bee and the Beaver. Man is not contempt with God's earth and he feels oblique to build a better one, more suitable to his exalted majesty. The Art build hills, the Bee makes Hives the Beaver constructs dams man creates architecture. Architecture proposes an effect on the human mind, not merely a service to the human fame. Thus architecture is the art which so disposes and adores the edifice raised by man, for...

Ely Cathedral

In the early 1970's inspections showed that the stonework in the West Tower at Ely Cathedral was loose and decayed with many cracks through the tower. The tower in common with many others is effectively two almost separate shells, so that over time they move independently, resulting in cracking and loss of stiffness. More detailed research showed that in the 1860's Gilbert Scott had carried out major repairs which included the installation of massive wrought iron bars, Figure 8. Ely Cathedral -...

Experimental Investigations

The reconstruction of the Sistani-House is engulfed by two fundamental factors of which all involved parties have to be aware On the one hand we do have the declared intention that some key buildings of the citadel, including the Sistani-House, ought to be reconstructed because of their historic significance. On the other hand we have to consider the constant threat of future earthquakes. As a result of that a sensitive compromise had to be found that combines modern reinforcement strategies...

Main Symptoms Of Structural Decay Of Earthen Walls

2.1 Rheological decay and water mismanagement Before the collapse of the Soviet Union excavations were on the whole carried out with low budget and without providing proper drainage to the areas near the structures. Earthen sites can occasionally respond well to basal water collection if this is uniform, but dramatic collapsing of parts can occur in presence of localized ponding. The city wall of Otrar Tobe (Fig. 8), an earthen structure of average five metres of thickness, shows how structural...

New Analysis

The structural analysis model is based on the sizes and dimensions given in Suchov's original construction drawings. For the calculations, the FEM program RStab was used. The structure was modelled in the following way - In order to minimize the number of nodes, the slight offset between the two sets of inversely running verticals is only included in the first hyperboloid section. This is due to the fact that the first section is more susceptible to buckling (Compare fig. 6). In the higher...

Ncw

Figure 2. Aspects of the destructive test set-up. verticality of the brace. The support plate includes a toe so that the rafter does not suffer a displacement along its axis. The brace is hold in the original alignment with a horizontal bar, connected to a load cell. Additionally a feed, acquisition and amplification data system was used, to obtain and to register all the data, see Figure 2. Displacements were measured using linear variable differential...

Short Description Of The Pantheon

The first Pantheon was built by Agrippa in 25-27 BD. It suffered severe damage in 80 AD during the great fire of Rome. Although it was rebuilt by Emperor Domitian, it was struck by lighting in 110 AD, during the reign of Trajan. The present Pantheon was built for the third time under Emperor Hadrian between 118-125 AD. That date is known by stamps on the bricks. 2.2 Geometry and structure of the Rotunda The Rotunda is a circular space covered by a concrete hemisphere. The internal height of the...

Arch Geometry And Materials

The arch models were made from brickwork formed from scaled bricks. The bricks were 1 12 full size scale in width and 1 6 full scale size in length and depth. The model bricks were cut from full scale bricks using precision indexed saws. The arch barrel was made of three rings of bricks with a UK mortar joint type v with a mix content of 1 3 12 (Cement Lime Sand) by Table 1. Detail of models under test. Span to rise ratio (Shallow arch) 4 Span to rise ratio (Deep arch) 2 3-D width (mm) 405...

Use of reliability methods for evaluating safety of historic structures

Civil Engineering Department, KULeuven, Heverlee, Belgium ABSTRACT The architectural preservation process is generally based on a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis. In the analysis phase, an objective way to assess the safety of the structure is essential. The outline of the assessment process is described both in the ISCARSAH Recommendations and ISO13822, referring to determining the actual safety or reliability of existing (historical) structures....