Group

Figure 2. Plan of the group E: survey by the Vietnamese team, 2001.

Figure 3. Evolution of the plan and northern prospect from 1909 to 2001.

Figure 4. Tree growing into E7 wall.

Figure 2. Plan of the group E: survey by the Vietnamese team, 2001.

temple; its location inside the sacred area is responsible for its designation as "south building". The function of E7 was probably to preserve the sacred texts and objects used during the religious rituals (kosa grha).

When the building was discovered by Henri Par-mentier, around 1900, its conditions were fairly good. Nevertheless, Parmentier never carried out any archaeological excavations around and inside the building.

At that time, the only damaged part was the top of the roof, which had lost its original shape. The most relevant damage occurred during the Viet Nam war (1969), when several parts of the main northern entrance and of the roof were lost; moreover, the bombings severely jeopardized the stability of the structure (Fig. 3). During an emergency intervention carried

Figure 4. Tree growing into E7 wall.

out by the Polish architect Kazimier Kwiatkowski, but never completed, the platform was reinforced. The state of damage increased during the years because of the lack of a regular maintenance, which is the main cause of the vegetation growth: several roots penetrated the masonry, thus worsening the crack pattern (Fig. 4).

During the archeological excavation inside and outside the building, it became necessary to carry out a direct geometrical survey on E7. All the surfaces ofthe building were thoroughly surveyed and many pictures were taken, to serve both as document of the state of work, and as investigation mean.

As most of the buildings of the My So n area, E7 was built following the typical procedures of Cham architecture. All the monuments are characterized by the presence of four fundamental elements: the foundations, the base, the central body and the roof (Fig. 5). The internal floor level is always located at the end of the base (cymatium). In the case of E7, the only remainder of the original floor is a sandish filling. The access was guaranteed by stairs, generally made

Figure 5. View of temple E7.
Figure 6. Three-dimensional model of the structure: longitudinal cross-section.

of stone. Because of its function inside the complex, and similarly to others in My Son, E7 is composed by two rooms connected by a door with a threshold, stone jambs and a plain lintel. The cover of the two rooms consists of two false pyramidal vaults, which are connected at the top by a single false vault. Externally it appears as a double-curvature vault. The visual double curvature effect was obtained by simply smoothing the external faces of the bricks: therefore, this curvature has no static function. On the east and west sides are located two small windows, with small stone columns.

All the information gathered were instrumental in creating a three-dimensional model of the structure, which was drawn by means of CAD (Figs 6-7).

The structure of the foundations was investigated by means of a pit, located on the south-east side of E7. The pit followed the external profile of the building wall. The trench brought to light three rows of foundation bricks, 18 cm thick, put on a preparation layer of about 15 cm, made of small pebbles and soil (Fig. 8). It is sreasonable to assume that, like in the

Figure 7. Three-dimensional model of the structure: transversal cross-sections.
Figure 8. Foundation brick rows and preparation layer.

case of other Cham monuments, the foundations of E7 were built inside continuous cavities, without any foundation plate.

The masonries in elevation are composed by three leaves. The two external leaves are characterized by a thickness which is equal to the length of the bricks, and are constituted by whole bricks with very thin (micrometric) joints of organic material, whereas the dimension of the internal leaf, as well as the type of internal filling, varies with the maximum dimension of the masonry. The external leaves consist of horizontal and continuous layers of headers. Only in few cases stretchers are found, to guarantee the toothing between the external leaves and the central leaf. The limited offset observed between the layers of headers,

Figure 10. Elevation of the north side of temple E7.

reduced to few centimeters, implies a weak toothing between the external leaves and the central leaf, and does not guarantee an adequate monolithicity to the masonry, whose behavior tends to be similar to that of three independents leaves (Condoleo, 2007).

Differently from the external leaf, which is homogeneous from the base to the roof, the internal leaf has different characteristics from the base to the principal body. The main difference between the two parts is represented by the dimensions. The thickness of the base is approximately the same as that of the foundations, with a value of approximately 110 cm. The principal body, which rests on the base, has a smaller thickness, with a value close to 75 cm. The internal leaf of the base of the annexes is constituted by layers of entire and half bricks, with irregular arrangement, and a filling of variable thickness made of clay, chamotte and quartzitic temper (Fig. 9).

Before surveying the external and internal surfaces of the walls it became necessary to remove the vegetation layers. This cleaning process made the survey of all surface damages possible, together with a clear identification of the missing parts. The results of the survey process were reported on drawings, in order to facilitate the damage interpretation and the detection of its causes.

The overall structural stability is mainly endangered by several cracks, passing through the entire wall thickness. Moreover, the loss of the lintel and part of the vault of the main entrance jeopardized its stability (Figs 10-11).

Figure 10. Elevation of the north side of temple E7.

Figure 11. Crossing cracks pattern of the northern side.

For this reason, it was decided to put a timber provisional structure. In order to avoid any modification of the structural behavior, the scaffolding was designed to be passive, which means that its bearing capacity is activated only in case of collapse or movements of the building itself (Fig. 12).

Figure 12. General view of the supporting structure.

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