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In Table 3, uniaxial tensile strength, diameter and length for each sample are shown.

4.1.3 Ultrasonic tests

Ultrasonic tests provide a measurement for the "time of flights" of ultrasonic waves in the material. Hypothesizing the wave paths, the velocities may be obtained. They were used to verify the structural element homogeneity, localize possible reduction of material properties (e.g. cracks or cavity) and to estimate the value of Young's modulus.

During experimental campaign, two different type of ultrasonic test were performed: direct test (i.e. receiver and emitter are placed on two opposite side of the step) and indirect test (i.e. emitter and receiver are placed on the same side of the step).

4.1.3.1 Direct ultrasonic tests Direct tests were carried out near the landing at turn of stairs, where the sensor can be placed on the two opposite side of the steps. The resulting velocity was processed to obtain the p.d.f. (probability density function), as in Figure 9, and to estimate the

Figure 9. Probability density function of direct ultrasonic velocity of Metellino palace.

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